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HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. 



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HALLUCINATIONS 
AND ILLUSIONS 



A STUDY OF THE 



FALLACIES OF PERCEPTION 



BY 

EDMUND PARISH 



LONDON: 

WALTER SCOTT, LTD., PATERNOSTER SQUARE. 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 

153-157 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 

1897. 



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/r7?? 



PREFACE. 



This book originated in an examination, upon which 
I was recently engaged, of the " International Census 
of Waking Hallucinations in the Sane." 

While comparing for this purpose all the works 
accessible to me on hallucination and fallacious per- 
ception in general, I was struck by the fact that the 
writers, and especially the more modern writers, treat 
for the most part only of single aspects of the subject, 
such as fallacies of perception occurring under morbid 
conditions, or in dreams, throwing at most but a casual 
glance at related phenomena. The waking hallucina- 
tions of healthy persons are more or less completely 
ignored by them; and this neglect is natural enough, 
if we consider how meagre are all the accounts of such 
phenomena hitherto published. 

But now that the inquiry originated by the Inter- 
national Congress of Psychology at its meeting in Paris 
in 1889 has furnished ample and trustworthy data, it 
seems possible to bring these particular phenomena 
of fallacious perception into line with the rest. More- 
over, as this subject has already been dealt with at 
the Congress held in London in 1892, and will 



VI PREFACE. 

doubtless form part of the proceedings of sub- 
sequent congresses, it seems to me that it may not 
be superfluous as a preliminary inquiry to review 
the whole field of sensory delusion, to indicate its 
relations to normal or "objective" perception, and 
to elucidate the common organic principle which, 
under whatever diversity of conditions, underlies alike 
normal and fallacious perception. 

In the course of such an undertaking it is impossible 
to avoid supplementing by hypotheses our scanty 
knowledge of physiology and the localisation of 
cerebral functions. I have endeavoured, however, 
where practicable, to make good this deficiency, and 
have sought by an exhaustive study of the German, 
English, French, and American literature of the 
subject to establish my conclusions on a thoroughly 
broad basis. In doing this I have not depended 
on the more recent cases only, but have carried 
my researches as far back as the early part of the 
century, and thus rescued from oblivion many for- 
gotten observations. 

On the other hand, the collected results of the 
" International Census of Waking Hallucinations in 
the Sane" furnish fresh material not yet critically 
handled or presented in literary form; at all events, 
a short note on the subject in F. C. IMiiller's Hand- 
buch der NeiirastJienie is all I have been able to find. 
The statistics in question, with the exception of those 
of the Munich Collection, have, it is true, been sub- 
mitted to the London Congress, but the}^ have not 



PREFACE. Vll 

hitherto been published. I take this opportunity to 
thank the Society for Psychical Research and the 
Munich Psychologische Gesellschaft for the permis- 
sion which they have kindly granted me to publish 
them here. Indeed, the completion of my work, 
which grew out of a series of lectures delivered before 
the Munich section of the Gesellschaft fiir Psycho- 
logische Forschung, has been rendered possible only 
by the sympathy and interest which the members of 
that society accorded to me. I feel myself indebted to 
them all, but more especially to Baron von Schrenck- 
Notzing (Munich), Dr. F. C. Mliller (Alexandersbad), 
Dr. Max Dessoir (Berlin), and Dr. Burckhardt-Pre- 
fargier, for the constant stimulus of their sympathetic 
interest, and the help they have kindly given me in 
collecting material and in reading the proof-sheets. 

EDMUND PARISH. 

Munich, April 1894. 



PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION. 



The English edition is not a mere translation of the 
German original. In the first place, I have been at 
some pains to render it generally more complete and 
bring it up to date; and, moreover, as fuller particulars 
of the " International Census of Waking Hallucina- 
tions " have been published since the appearance of 
the original edition, it has been necessary to recast 
the chapters dealing with that subject, and in the 
process of recasting them I have not neglected to profit 
by the hints and objections of my critics. Finally, a 
new chapter has been added, in which an attempt is 
made to enlarge the scope of the work and to indicate 
the relation of the views set forth to psychology in 
general. I trust that the book in its new form may 
meet with as kindly a reception as on its first 

appearance. 

E. P. 

Munich, April 1897. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

Introduction ... ... ... .-• ••• ••• i 

Definilion — Universal Fallacies of Perception— Due to Ambi- 
guity of the Stimuli — Arising out of Defects or Pathological 
States of the Organism— The "Feeling of Unity " conditioned 
by "Eccentric Projection" — Psychological Conception of 
False Perception — Criticism of the Definition that Hallucina- 
tion is Ideation equalling Sensation in Vividness — Plallucina- 
tion is Sensory Perception. 

CHAPTER n. 

Fallacious Perception in various Pathological 

AND Physiological States ... .., ... i8 

Esquirol's distinction between Hallucination and Illusion — 
Fallacies of Perception in the Insane : In Amentia, Dementia, 
Melancholia, Mania, Folic Cirailaire, Delusional Insanity 
and Paranoia, General Paralysis — The share of the several 
Senses in these Delusions, and their effect on the Patient — In 
Psychoneuroses : Epilepsy, Hysteria — In Ecstasy — In States 
of ^ Intoxication : Alcohol, Chloroform, Ether, Haschisch, 
Santonin, Cinchona, Opium, Nitrous Oxide Gas — Specific 
Action of Narcotics and Personal Reaction — In acute Somatic 
Diseases — In Dreams — In Hypnosis — Crystal Visions — Dis- 
sociation of Consciousness the Common Characteristic of all 
these States. 



Xll CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER III. 

PAGE 

Waking Hallucinations and the Result of the 

International Census ... ... ... 77 

Early Accounts — The International Census — General Results 
—Sex, Age, Nationality, and State of Health of the Per- 
cipients—Their so-called "Waking" State really one of 
Dissociation — Indications of this in the Narratives— Why such 
Indications are sometimes wanting— Hallucinations classified 
according to the Sense affected— The less startling Hallucina- 
tions are soon forgotten. 

CHAPTER IV. 

The Physiological Process in Fallacious Per- 
ception ... ... ... ... ... no 

Early Attempts at Explanation — The Centrifugal Psychic 
Theories — Objections — The Centrifugal Sensorial Theories — 
The Conception underlying all Centrifugal Theories — Argu- 
ments against this Conception — Centripetal Theories — Identity 
of the Sensory and Ideational Centres — Theories of Pelman 
and Kandinsky — False Perception a Phenomenon conditioned 
by disturbed Association — Meynert — James — Explanation 
suggested by the Author — Its Advantages — Schematic Presen- 
tation of the Physiological Process in False Perception- 
Various Objections met. 

CHAPTER V. 

The Factors of Fallacious Perception ... 152 

The dissociated State — Definition — Pathological and Physio- 
logical Causes — Varieties of Dissociation — Action of Dissocia- 
tion — The Stimuli — Posl-inorieiii Reports — Excitation of the 
various Senses — Cramer's Theory. 



CONTENTS. XUl 

CHAPTER VI. 

PAGB 

The Content of Fallacious Perception ... 185 

The Content dependent (i) on Memory and Experience — 

(2) On the Conditions which induce the Hallucinated State — 

(3) On the Temperament and Mental Environment of the 
Individual — (4) On the Brain-state which obtains at the ^ 
Moment (Exhaustion, Concentration, Emotions, Subconscious 
Processes) — (5) On the Sensory Stimuli. — Explanation of some 
Facts generally misinterpreted — (i) Certain phenomena 
usually cited in support of retinal participation — (2) Negative 
Hallucinations — The Phenomena and Nature of Rapport — 
Negative Hallucinations not explained by diversion of atten- 
tion — Their true Nature. 



CHAPTER Vn. 

The Initiation of Fallacious Perception ... 221 

The Problem: How are Reflex Hallucinations to be accounted 
for? — (i) Synsesthesia, (2) Hallucinations of Memory, as 
possible explanations — Author's attempt to explain them by 
distinguishing between the preparatory and the starting 
Factor — A New Conception of the Point de Repere. 

CHAPTER Vni. 
The MANiFEStATiONS OF Fallacious Perception 236 

Various Degrees of Distinctness in Sensory Phantasms — 
Percipient's Attitude — Sensory Character of the Phenomena 
not disproved by a certain feeling of Subjectivity — Attempts 
to explain "Audible Thinking" — Automatic Articulation- 
Spontaneous- Cases — Experimental Evidence. 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

PAGB 

Telepathic Hallucinations ... ... ... 272 

Results of the International Census — Various sources of error: 
(i) Hallucinations of Memory, (2) Reading back of details 
after the event, (3) Exaggeration of the Coincidence — 
Comparison between Coincidental and Non-Coincidental 
"Waking" Hallucinations misleading — Indications of Dis- 
sociation in the Death-Coincidences of the Report — Associa- 
tion of Ideas not to be ignored — Other proofs of Telepathy 
Criticised — Alleged special characteristics of ' ' Telepathic " 
Hallucinations. 

CHAPTER X. 

Summary and Conclusion ... ... ... ... 321 

Recapitulation of Argument — iVU Hallucinations conditioned 
by Dissociation — Objection to Physiological Explanations from 
standpoint of Psychology — Criticism of Psychological Position 
— The Physiological Scheme provisional — Bearings of this 
Study on Theories of Perception generally. 

Appendix ... ... ... ... ... ... 343 



HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. 



Hallucinations and Illusions. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Definition — Universal Fallacies of Perception— Due to Ambi- 
guity of the Stiumli — Arising out of Defects or Patho- 
logical States of the Organism — The ^^Feeli?tg of Unity ''^ 
conditioned by ''^Eccentric Projection'^'' — Psychological 
Conceptio7i of False Perceptioji — Criticism of the Defini- 
tion that Hallucination is Ideatioji equalliitg Se?tsation 
in Vividness — Hallucination is Sensory Percepiio7t. 

Whilst in general our sensory perceptions may be 
shared by all persons with normal senses, there are 
some cases which form an exception to this rule.^ 
Perceptions of the first class are described as "ob- 
jective," those of the second class as "subjective," 
that is to say, as lacking an external objective basis. 
Subjective perceptions are variously known as hallu- 
cinations, illusions, dream images, fallacious per- 
ceptions, and so on. 

^ It is important at the outset of such an inquiry to 
grasp the difference between sensory and mental 
delusions. In sensory deceptions the subject not 
only imagines something, but believes that he sees or 

^ Gurney, "Hallucinations," Proceedings of the Society for Psychical 
Peseajch, 18S5. 

I 



2 HALLUCINATIONS 

hears that something — in fact, that he perceives it with 
his senses. Of course the observer is h'able to be 
misled by the expressions of the patient, whose loose 
use of words may lend his delire^ or mental delusion, 
the guise of a sensory impression. But a somewhat 
closer analysis will serve to make the distinction clear. 
When, for instance, a patient with peritonitis^ declares 
that a church congress is being held inside her, and 
says that she can "feel it" and so on, that is a mental 
delusion, originating in certain localised sensations in 
the abdomen, and not a fallacy of perception, for no one 
knows what a congress in such a locality would feel 
like. But should a further development take place, 
and the patient imagine that she hears the speeches 
and arguments of the contending parties in the con- 
gress, we then of course have an auditory hallucination. 
A similar case is that of the paralytic who imagined 
in persistent constipation that he carried the child 
of the Grand Duke of Baden within his body, and 
insisted that he would have to be delivered. Many 
such cases, as for instance those which result from 
tabes, as well as similar phenomena observed in 
hypochondriasis, are to be reckoned not as sensor}^ 
hallucinations, but as false inferences (Hoppe-) or 
as mental delusions^ (Westphal"^). 

^ Leuret, quoting Dagonet, Ti-aiti des maladies meiiiales. 

^ Hoppe, Ei'kUirting der Sinnestdtischtuigen hei Gesunden ztnd 
Kranhen. 

^ The term " Sinnestauschung" (sensory fallacy) has been regarded 
as misleaduig by L. INIeyer, " Ueber den Charakter der Hallucinationen 
von Geisteskranken," in the Centralbl. f. d. nied. Wissensch. (1865), 
No. 43, and before him by Hecker, Ueber Visionen (1848), by the latter 
from an objection, based on a confusion of physiological and psycho- 
logical grounds, that the senses do not err, but that what is faithfully 
transmitted by them is falsely interpreted (compare Goethe, " Die 
Sinne triigen nicht, aber das Urtheil triigt ; " Michea, Du dJh're des 



AND ILLUSIONS. 3 

Universal Fallacies of Perception.^— ^y the foregoing 
preliminary definition of fallacious perception we have 
excluded from the outset those sensory delusions 
which, by reason of their objective foundation and 
the nature of our sense organs, are experienced 
normally and necessarily by all persons.^ To this 
class belong phenomena like the fata morgana, the 
spectre of the Brocken, the illusion of "a straight 
stick bent in a pool," the doubling of an object seen 
through a prism, or by pressure on the eyeball 
causing divergence of the axes of vision. Anomalous 
functioning of the accommodation muscles of the eye 
can produce the same result as that artificially in- 
duced by the means just described, as we see in 
diplopia.^ Or again in diplopia monocularis, functional 

sensations (1846): "c'est I'esprit qui se trompe, non pas I'organe 
sensorial ; " and the same is to be found in Aristotle). But this is not 
so simple as it seems. A patient who imagines he is pursued, and who 
on hearing the sound of water dropping (compare Sander's article, 
" Sinnestauschungen," in the Real-Encyklopddie, XVIIL), says, 
" Hark ! they are outside, they are trying to bribe the keeper with 
gold," is suffering from a mental delusion; but in the case of a patient 
who declares he hears, not the sound of water dropping but the clink 
of gold being counted out, a fallacy of sense-perception may be pre- 
sumed. On the whole, it seems to me that the term " false perception " 
( Trugwahrneh??iung) is the best general term. * Westphal in Arch, 
f. Psych., i. p. 48. 

^ Blumroder in Schniidfs Jahrh.^ xlviii. p. 368. 

^ For examples see Weitenweber^s Beitr., iv. i; Lochus, "Einige 
prakt. Bem." in Schweiz. Zeltschr., iii. 2; A. Huck, " Ueber die 
Tauschungen," etc., in Mailer's Arch. f. Anatomie, 1840, No. i ; 
Meyer, "Ueber einige Tauschungen " in Arch. f. d.physiol. Heilk., 
1842, Heft i; Guepin in A7in. d'Oc, xliii., Febr. -March, i860; M. 
Benedict in Arch. f. Ophthalm., x. I, pp. 97 et seq., 1864. In active 
squinting the second image is wanting, in passive (paralytic) squinting 
it is present. Its absence in the first case is explained by the fact that 
the active squinter has gradually learned to suppress the second image — 
or rather that use has altered the mutual relation between the two 
retinse. Compare A. Graefe in vol. vi. of his Collected Works, where he 



4 HALLUCINATIONS 

nerve disturbances of a hysterical nature may result 
in failure of accommodation, causing the double image, 
which is normally formed by the lens, to be distinctly 
developed on the retina as two separate images, and 
so penetrate to the percipient's consciousness.^ 

For the rest it will suffice here to note briefly the 
most familiar of the normal sensory delusions, such 
as the apparent movement of the sun round the 
earth, the apparent sinking down of the earth 
observed by balloonists, the flying past of trees, 
telegraph-posts, etc., and the rhythmic rising and 
sinking of the telegraph wires during a railway 
journey, the alteration in the size of the moon 
according to its position in the sky, the apparent 
smallness of houses near the line, seen out of a 

shows how the seemingly lost second image may be raised again into con- 
sciousness. Compare also A. Dehennesin Gaz. des H$p., 1878, No. 57, 
and Carl Stellwag von Carion, Abha7idhingen atts dem Gebiet der prakt. 
Augenheilkunde, 1882, with the illustrations, pp. 138 ei seq. For double 
vision caused by paralysis of the muscles of the eye in diabetes mellitus, 
Leber in ^^<:^/. Ophth., xxi. 3, 1875; the same in sausage-poisoning, in 
At'ch. f. Ophth., 1880, vol. 2 ; on discontinuance of the morphia habit, 
Levinstein in Berl. klin. Wochenschr., xiii. 14, 1876; in tabes dorsalis, 
Bernhardt in Virch. Arch., Ixxxiv., 1881 ; Th. v. Schroeder, Aj-c/i. f. 
Augenheilk., xxxi., 1885, in lead-poisoning; and so on. Karl Hirsch- 
berger ("Binoculares Gesichtsfeld Schielender," Mmich. Medic. 
WochenschrifL , 1890, No. 10), who has carefully investigated the 
subject, has given a short account of the condition in which the 
double images of squinting arise and drop out of the visual field. 

1 K. Lissauer, Ueber Diplopia monoctilaris hysterica, Diss. Berlin, 
1893. Besides the references he gives, compare Cohen in Casp. 
Wochenschr., 1836, No. 10 ; Behr in Blasius klin. Zeiischr., 1837, 
Heft 4; Pupke in Med. Zeiischr. v. Ver. f. H. in Pr., 1838, No. 
4; N. Friedreich, Beitrdge ziir Lehre von den Geschzviilsten inner- 
halb der S chad elho hie, ii. (Wllrzburg, 1853) ; Engel, Beitr. zur 
Fhysiologie des Aiiges, 1850; Galezowski in A?in. d^OctiL, liv, p. 
199, 1865; Unterharnscheid 'nx Klin. Monatsbl. f. Aiigheilk, xx., Febr. 
1882; L. Bouveret and E. Chapotot in ihe Eeznte d. meJecine, 1892, 
p. 728. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 5 

passing train, the pigmy size of the people we look 
down on from the top of a high tower, and so on.^ 
Another class of visual errors is associated with the 
perception of certain mathematical figures and out- 
lines. The simplest illustration of these "optical 
paradoxes " is the following : take two straight lines 
of equal length ; from each end of one draw a short 
line at an acute angle, and from each end of the 
other a similar line at an obtuse angle ; the second 
straight line will then appear longer than the first.^ 

Sensory Delusions resulti7tg from Ambiguity of the 
Stimuli. — Other fallacies of perception are caused by- 
confused or ambiguous stimuli. This ambiguity may 
be due to the nature of the external stimulus, as, for 
instance, when confused noises are heard, or objects 
seen at a distance, or in darkness or fog, so that 
the distinctive features cannot be clearly recognised. 
The celebrated picture of Christ on St. Veronica's 
handkerchief shows from a distance an apparently 
dead face with closed eyes, but on a nearer view the 
eyes appear open and the expression life-like. In 
another well-known picture, two girls are seen playing 
at a window, but, on being placed a little way off, the 
scene changes to a grinning death's-head. 

Secondly, the ambiguity of the stimulus may depend 
on the percipient himself, either because the image seen 
does not fall on the point of clearest vision, or because 

1 For a large collection of such cases see Sully, Ilhisions (1881) ; 
also the various text-books of psychology. 

^ See G. Heymans' "Quantitative Untersuchungen iiber das optische 
Paradox on," Zeitschr, f. PsychoL iind Physiol, der ShinesoTgane, ix. 
pp. 221 et seq., where references to the literature of the subject 
will be found, and compare also Lipps' ^stheiische Betrachtiing ic. 
optische Tdiischung ; Untersuchungen ziir Psychologie ti. ^sthetik 
rdumliches Formen^ which treats of these phenomena. 



6 HALLUCINATIONS 

the sense affected has only a feeble power of discrimi- 
nation. Thus two similar perfumes may be confused 
when the percipient is not skilled in making subtle 
olfactory distinctions. If such a sense encounters a 
new or almost new stimulus, which, as we shall pre- 
sently see, must, just because of its novelty, be far 
more intensely felt, the chances of deception are pro- 
portionately increased. This explains why common 
organic sensation, which is generally only vaguely 
localised, so easily becomes the starting-point of 
delusions when subjected to unwonted conditions. 
Changes of sensation in the muscles and skin become 
subjectively changes of the substance and dimensions 
of the whole physical organism. Anaesthesia can 
induce in the patient the hallucination that he is 
made of wood or of glass ; and paraesthesia induce 
sensations of shrinking, or of swelling till the room 
is too small to hold him and he is being crushed 
between its walls. I have also encountered this last 
sensation as a recurring dream in the sane. 

Sensory Delusions caused by Defects and Pathological 
States of our Organism. — The imperfection of our 
organism opens another door to sensory delusions. 
We feel only one prick when both points of a pair of 
compasses are touching us at a certain distance apart. 
Again, if the fore and middle fingers of the same 
hand be crossed and a pea rolled between them, the 
effect produced is as if there were two peas. Very 
feeble stimuli do not reach our consciousness at all, 
and our perceptions are thus falsified. This is 
specially noticeable in a state of fatigue, when the 
exhausted nerve elements require exceptionally ener- 
getic stimuli to rouse them into renewed activity. 
The working of the motor centres is also affected by 



AND ILLUSIONS. ^ 

this cause. " For example, when the normal accom- 
modation fails to take place in the eye, the images 
not falling on the point of clearest vision become dim 
and confused ; or, again, though the normal adjust- 
ments occur, it may happen that the corresponding 
muscular sensation fails in intensity and we locate 
all objects in a false direction. The same result may 
be artificially induced by paralysing the accommoda- 
tion muscles of the eye by the aid of a small dose of 
atropine ; but indeed it may frequently be observed 
as a result of exhaustion or inebriation, as when a 
drunken man passes his hand to the right or left of 
his glass in misdirected efforts to seize it, or fumbles 
vainly for the key-hole with his latch-key. Again, 
slight movements of the eye may produce so little 
effect on the mental processes that w^e refer the 
shifting of the image on the retina, not to movement 
of the eye, but to an imaginary movement of our 
surroundings — hence giddiness after waltzing, in ex- 
treme fatigue, after smoking unusually strong tobacco, 
and so on.^ 

To this category belong also the sensory delusions 
resulting from the after-effects of a stimulus on the 
organism, from the reverberation of the impression, 
and from the difficulty of distinguishing between 
two successive stimuli. The impression of the coin 
firmly pressed into our hand by a skilful conjurer 
and then abstracted by him, lasts long enough for us 
to shut our hands with the conviction that we feel 
the piece of money still there. The colours on the 
colour-top become blended ; and in the zoetrope we 
think we see an acrobat jumping over successive 
horizontal bars, whilst In reality a series of pictures 

' J. Iloppe, Die Schehtbezvegiinqen (1879). 



8 HALLUCINATIONS 

of acrobats in different attitudes spins past our eyes. 
Complementary images, resulting from stimuli acting 
either simultaneously or successively, come under the 
same head, but an inquiry into these would lead us 
too far. 

Many of the examples already cited depend on a 
pathological disturbance of the organism, and are 
regularly associated with it. Another noteworthy 
phenomenon of this kind, according to Himly, is the 
setting back of the stimuli in the scale of the spectrum 
in hypera^sthesia of the retina ; thus, for instance, 
violet becomes red. The opposite occurs when the 
organ is in a condition of low excitability. In certain 
disturbances of the ear the pitch of a note is heard 
higher or lower than it is in reality.^ In santonin- 
poisoning xanthopsia (yellow vision) occurs,^ as also 
in icterus and in typhoid without jaundice. 

^ Oscar Wolf, " Unterbindung der Art. car. commun. wegen 
Schussverlelzung " in the AjxIi. f. Aug.- ti. Ohrenheilk.^ ii. 2, p. 52. 
Wolf, who had already pointed out that when the tension of the mem- 
brane is increased a tone becomes higher in penetrating it, communi- 
cates two cases in which rarefied air, the result of obstruction of the tube 
in the drum-cavity, caused extreme inwards tension of the tympanum 
and so raised the pitch of several tones to the diseased ear. Thus in 
one case the middle c and a were heard a fifth, and in another case the 
key of A was heard a third higher than they sounded to the normal 
ear. After equalising the difference of pressure by inflation the sound 
w as again heard purely and correctly. Knapp, in the Arch./. Aug.- 
Ii. OhrenJieilk. , i. p. 93, explains diplacusis binocularis otherwise. Com- 
pare Burnett's case in the same Arch. vi. p. 241 ; further, Blau in the 
Arch.f. Ohrheilk., xv. p. 233, who postulates a greater tension of the 
membrana basilaris for deeper hearingof a tone. See alsoWittich, Kdw'gs- 
herg. vied. Jahrb..^ iii. 40; Mach^ Sitzungsber. d. Wieii. Akad., 1864. 

^ Lewin, Lehrb. d. Toxicol. (1883), p. 239. "After santonin- 
poisoning, besides scintillations, xanthopsia (yellow vision) was observed 
persisting for more than twelve hours. White or very light spots 
appear yellowish green, dark spots and especially the shadows of 
surrounding objects take a more or less deep shade of violet. In 



AND ILLUSIONS. 9 

Further, the dekisions, commonly described as hallu- 
cinations, which are produced by so-called "eccentric 
projection " of sensation, may be reckoned as belong- 
ing to this class. Thus we often locate a tactual 
sensation outside our body and even refer it to the 
extremity of the object which we touch. In writing, 
for instance, we feel the paper with the pen, in fencing 
we feel the opponent's foil with our own. For it is the 
peculiarity of the tactile sense that we usually locate 
the sensation in the peripheral expansion of the nerves. 
Accordingly, if the nerve is stimulated in another 

coloured stuffs red seems purplish, yellow very pale and greenish, 
violet darker, orange pale red, crimson dark, and green yellow-gray" 
(Mari). This xanthopsia, noted by Hufeland as occurring in icterus 
and also in typhoid without jaundice, is by some authors supposed to be 
dioptric in character. Since both in santonin-poisoning and in fatal cases 
of icterus (compare Moxon in the Lancet, i. 4, January 1873) the re- 
fracting media of the eye prove colourless, and further, since in old age, 
when the sight is good, yellow lenses are found (van Swieten), de Martini 
(Naples) in Cotnptes rend., Ixvii. p. 259, has assumed a molecular 
effect on the retina, and a change in its tension through which the 
vibratory reaction of the nerve particles is altered under light stimulus. 
E. Rose, in Virch. Arch. xvi. (1859) pp. 233 et seq., xviii. (i860), i, 2, 
and others suppose rather a narcosis or partial blindness associated 
with shortening of the colour spectrum. Compare further L. v. 
Mauthner, "Ueber Santonin" in Oestr. Zeitschr. f. ICinderheilk., 1S56, 
Febr. -March; the experiments of Dr. Alois Martin in Biichn. n. Rep., 
ii. 5; Prof. Talk in Deutsch. Kiin. (i860), 27, 28; Giov. Franceschi 
injonrn.d. Chim. vied. 5, Ser IV. p. 373(1868); R. Farquharson 
in Brit. Med. Jotan., 21st Oct. 1871; Th. Krauss, Ueber die Wirhing 
des Santonin tijid des Sant. -Natron, Diss. Tubingen (1869); J. Heim- 
beck in Norsk. Mag. f. Ldgevinds, 3 R. xiv. i (1884). Compare on 
other chromatopsies, for example on blue vision, Hilbert, "ZurKennt- 
niss der Kyanopsie," Arch. f. Angenheilk., xxiv. 3 (1890), p. 240. 
The case of xanthopsia after a gunshot wound in the nasal region, 
quoted by Hilbert, Arch. f. Aiigenheilk., xv. p. 419 (1S85), also points 
to the central origin of such colour hallucinations. Compare on the 
subject of red vision, Wiener med. Presse, xxiii. 42; Centralbl. f. pract. 
Augenheilk.f February 1884, November 1881, June 1883, February- 
INIarch 1885. 



10 HALLUCINATIONS 

place, we refer the sensation to the accustomed spot 
in the periphery just the same. When the elbow is 
sharply struck, causing thereby stimulation of the 
ulnar nerve, the pain is felt in two places, in the 
elbow, because of the stimulation of the sensitive 
filaments spread out there, and also in the peripheral 
network of the ulnar nerve in the hand. So after 
amputation all stimuli applied to the nerve stumps 
are felt in the lost limb, which still seems to be there, 
so much so that the patient imagines he can move 
it about, even years after he has lost it. 

Professor William James sent a circular containing questions 
on this point to 800 persons who had suffered amputation, and 
received 185 answers. He reports^ that three-fourths of these 
persons stated that they experienced sensations in the lost 
limbs, while in a still greater percentage of cases sensation 
had been experienced, but had gradually faded out after the 
operation — in a few hours, weeks, months, or years, as the case 
might be. Sensation in the lost limb, sometimes felt as burning 
or twitching, cramp in the heel or toes, or numbness— and 
sometimes consisting in a mere impression that the missing 
member is there — is so vivid in the first few weeks after the 
operation that one patient, for instance, found himself getting 
out a pair of scissors to cut the toe-nails, so distinctly did he 
feel them ; and others tell how they have involuntarily reached 
down their hands to scratch the missing foot. Sometimes this 
illusion persists much longer without diminishing in distinct- 
ness, as in the case of the man who felt as if he had, with the 
artificial limb, three legs in all, and who found the missing 
member very much in the way in coming downstairs. Out of 
superstition, imagining that the pain he felt in the amputated 

1 For a detailed account see William James, "The Consciousness of 
Lost Limbs," in Proceedings of the Avieiican S.P.R., i. p. 249; 
compare Principles of Psychology, by the same, ii, pp. 38 et seq.; Weir 
Mitchell, Injuries to Nerves; Valentin, Lehj'hich d. Physiol.; A. 
Cramer, Die Halhicinationen im Aluskelsinne bei Geisteskranken, etc. , 
pp. 85 et seq.; Pare, Oeuvres cowpl., ii. pp. 221, 231 ; Gueniot injouni. 
d. r/iysiol. (xv.) iv. p. 416; Rizet in Gaz. de Paris, 1S61, No. 44. 



AND ILLUSIONS. II 

parts depended on some maltreatment or uncomfortable resting- 
place of his buried leg, one of Professor James's correspondents 
wrote that he had already disinterred and chang-ed its position 
eight times, and he asked the Professor to advise him whether 
to dig it up again, saying he "dreaded to." The case of longest 
duration reported is that of a man who had had a thigh amputa- 
tion performed at the age of thirteen years, and who, after he 
was seventy, still felt the lost foot distinctly. The imaginary 
position of the amputated part varies : either it maintains an 
independent position of its own, or it follows the movements of 
the sound limb, or it may even appear fixed in the attitude it 
occupied immediately before the operation. A shoulder -joint 
case said his arm seemed to He on his breast with closed fingers, 
just as it did eight or ten hours before amputation. 

As an explanation of this phenomenon, described by Du 
Prel as a "feeling of spiritual unity" (Integritatsgefuhl), and 
by him adduced as a proof of the existence of an astral 
body,^ Professor James goes on to assume that just as cer- 
tain brain-centres respond to any and every stimulus by 
sensations of light and of sound, so do certain other centres 
respond by the sensation of a foot, with its toes, heel, etc. In 
the normal state the foot thus felt is located where the eye can 
see and the hand touch it. This immediate inner sensation still 
persists, even when the foot is cut off, and would naturally, one 
may suppose, be located about where it used to be, in the 
absence of any counter- motive. There would be such a 
counter-motive if nerves normally excited by foot -sensations 
were to find themselves excited every time the stump was 
touched ; and foot-sensations and stump-sensations being thus 
associated, would end by merging in each other. This merging 
does take place in many cases of what Gueriot calls " subjective 
heterotopy," that is to say, that the extremity, immediately after 
the operation, seems to be in its old place, but by degrees 
approaches the stump. This feeling of gradual shrinkage 
generally depends on the feeling of the contact of the extremity 
with the stump. The hand may seem to spring directly from 
the shoulder, or the foot from the knee. A sensation may also 
be experienced as though the extremity were diminishing in 

•^ Du Prel, Die Moiiistische Seelenkhre, pp. 157-166; English trans- 
lation, The Philosophy of ]\Iysticisin^ 1889. 



12 HALLUCINATIONS 

size, the foot becoming like a child's foot, for instance. Thus in 
many cases the consciousness of amputated limbs is gradually 
lost through merging. Of course where degeneration and 
atrophy of the nerve-paths ascending to the cortical centres 
has been proved, we have an all-sufficient reason why the lost 
member can no longer be felt.^ There are other cases, how- 
ever, where assimilation is hindered by the nerve -stumps 
being deeply buried in the tissues. When this is the case, 
foot-feelings and stump-feelings remain distinct, and the former 
will occur on every stimulus applied to the nerve-stumps. A 
patient of Weir Mitchell's had long lost the sensation of his 
amputated hand, but when faradisation was applied to the 
shoulder, this feeling was so suddenly and vividly restored 
that he cried out, "Oh, the hand ! — the hand !" and attempted 
to seize the missing member. 

It would seem that even in cases of congenital defect of the 
extremities, the same phenomena — i.e.^ the feeling as of move- 
ment in the missing finger, or as though the congenitally 
shrunken arm were of the usual length — have been observed. 

The PsycJiological Conception of Fallacious Perception. 
— On returning to the consideration of individual 
fallacies of perception we are met at once by the 
question whether these things are really seen, heard, in 
a word, perceived, or whether the hallucinated person 
only believes that he hears, sees, etc. The latter ex- 
planation is the most obvious, and many writers have 
accordingly been led to consider sensory delusions as 
something quite different from sensory perceptions, 
and have described them as images or memories of 
exceptional vividness. Thus Crichton^ (1798) defines 

^ Francois Franck, Lecons siir les maladies de Cerveau (1877), P- 291. 
Compare also the note by Gudden on atrophy of the optic nerve in 
enucleation of the eyeball extending into the occipital-lobes of the 
brain, and histologically distinguished from descending degeneration, 
•' Ueber die Kreuzung, etc.," Ges. AhhandL, p. 140; Monakow in 
Arch. f. Psych. ^ xiv., xvi., and xx. ; Stauffer, Ueher eitien Fall von 
Heniianopsie (Marb. Diss. 1890). 

- Crichton, An Inquiry inlo the Nature of Mental Derangement^ ii. 
p. 342. 



AND ILLUSIONS. I3 

hallucinations and illusions as errors of the mind 
by which in the one case ideas are taken for matters 
of fact, and in the other case real objects are falsely- 
represented, but without any general disturbance of 
the intellectual faculties. Hibbert^ (1S25) holds that 
they are ideas and memories which surpass in vivid- 
ness the actual impressions of the moment. Calmeil 
calls them ideas transformed into material impres- 
sions and referred to the activity of the peripheral 
organs, although these latter remain passive. Au- 
banel^ (1S39) regards hallucinations as a form or 
variety of mental alienation, in which delirious ideas 
are transformed into sensations, or real sensations 
perverted by assimilation to those delirious ideas. 
Michea^ (1846) considers hallucinations as the trans- 
formation — generally involuntary — of memory and 
imagination into the semblance of sense-perception, 
and Dendy^ (1841) calls hallucination a past and 
illusion a present recollection. Moreau^ follows 
(1845) with the hypothesis that there are really 
no hallucinations but only a hallucinated state which, 
from a psychological standpoint, is identical with 
the dream state. In this state the mind is supposed 
to transfer the products or creations of its fantasy to 
real life, and to persuade itself that it has heard, 
seen, or felt as in the normal condition, when it has 
really only imagined it heard, saw, or felt. Esquirol^ 

^ S. Hibbert, SkeUhes of the Philosophy of Apparitions, p. i. 

^ Aubanel, Essai sur les hallucinations. 

^ Michea, Dtt deli^e des sensations, p. 82. 

^ Dendy, The Philosophy of Mystery. 

^ Moreau (de Tours), Du hachisch et de falihiation inentale. 

^ Compare various articles by Esquirol reprinted from the Diction- 
naire des sciences medicales. Further, Des maladies mentales (English 
translation, 1845), and in the Arch, gener. (1832), "Sur les illusions 
des sens chez les alienes." 



14 HALLUCINATIONS 

speaks of hallucinations as cerebral or psychical 
phenomena which occur independently of the senses, 
and consist of external impressions which the patient 
thinks he experiences, though no outward material 
cause acts upon his senses. Elsewhere he propounds 
the often controverted explanation that the illusory 
impressions of the hallucinated subject are mental 
images or ideas, reproduced by the memory, ela- 
borated by the imagination, and personified through 
habit. Szafkowskii (1849) agrees practically with 
Esquirol, and so does Falret^ (1S50), with some 
slight modifications. With these authors may be 
reckoned Ldut^ and Leuret,^ since they hold sensory 
delusion to be a hybrid phenomenon intermediate 
between ideation and sensory perception ; and also 
A. Bottex,^ Brierre de Boismont,^ and others. 

In face of all these opinions we must not forget, 
however, that all sense-perception is ultimately a psy- 
chical phenomenon, and that, to use Gurney's words,'' 
''^ Every psychological phenomenon that takes the char- 
acter of a sense-impression is a sense-impression. When 
the hallucinated person says, I hear so-and-so, or, I 
see so-and-so, the words are literally true ; for to 
him a hallucination is not merely like, or related to, 
a sense-impression, it is identical with it." Of course, 
a man who has been staring at the sun will as a rule 

^ P. Rufin Szafkowski, Recherches sur les hallucinations au point de 
viie de la psychologie, de thistoire et de la mid, legale, ■^. 8. 

- Falret, " Lecons cliniques des maladies mentales," Gazette des 
hdpitaiix (1S50). 

^ Lelut, " De la folic sensoriale," in Gaz. vied. (1833). 

^ Leuret, Fragments psychol. snr lafolie, p. 33. 

^ A. Bottex, Essai szir les hallucinations (1836). 

^ Brierre de Boismont, Des hallucinations (2nd ed. , 1852; trans- 
lated by R. T. Hulme, 1859). 

^ Gurney, loc. cit., p. 155. 



AND ILLUSIONS. I 5 

think it less accurate to say that he sees a shining 
disc wherever he looks, than to say that hQ fancies it. 
In the same way, we follow the beaten track of 
thought when we say of a dream or some such 
sensory delusion, " I thought I saw," " I imagined I 
heard," and so on.^ Others, again, repudiate these 
modes of expression, and maintain that the seer of 
visions or the dreamer of dreams not only believes he 
sees, but sees and hears in very fact.^ Thus both 
parties commit the same error, in that they take the 
belief in sense-perception for something different from 
sense-perception itself As a matter of fact, to 
" believe one sees " and " to see " are two expres- 
sions meaning the same thing. The former merely 
reiterates the fact that seeing, etc., is a purely sub- 
jective act. A hallucination is then a sense-percep- 
tion like any other, "only there happens to be no 
object there, that is the whole difference."^ 

Accordingly we find it taken for granted in nearly 
all modern psychological inquiries, that hallucination 
is a sense-perception, and that the only question of 
practical importance — viz., whether the object is or 
is not really there — is psychologically irrelevant. 
Griesinger's paraphrase^ of hallucinations as " sub- 
jective sense-images which are projected outwards 
and take apparent objectivity and reality," and 

^ The usual expression employed by the Greeks was doKetv, by the 
Romans -videri^ in speaking of dreams and visions. In middle-high- 
German dwiken is generally used. (P. Radestock, Schlafutid Traiim, 
Note 222.) 

^ For instance, Griesinger, Die Pathol, it. Therapie d. psych. 
Krankheiten (2 Ed. 1 867), p. 86 ; English translation, Mental 
Pathology and Therapeutics (London, 1867) : " The patient sees, hears, 
smells really, he does not merely imagine that he sees and hears." 

^ W. James, The Principles of Psychology^ ii. p. 115. 

^ Griesinger, loc. cit., p. 85. 



l6 HALLUCINATIONS 

Esqulrol's contention that we must regard as hallu- 
cinated the person " qui ait la conviction intime d'une 
sensation actuellement pergue lorsque nul objet exte- 
rieur propre a exciter cette sensation n'est a portee 
des sens/'^ are now combined in the short definition, 
" Hallucination is perception without an object."^ 
Indeed Taine availed himself of this conception to 
invert the proposition ; for since, he says, what we 
objectify in normal perceptions is present sensation, 
while in hallucination what we objectify is remem- 
bered or represented sensation,*"^ " au lieu de dire que 
I'hallucination est une perception exterieure fausse, 
il faut dire que la perception exterieure est une hal- 
lucinaiion vraie. ' ' ^ 

From the standpoint now arrived at it seems un- 
justifiable in a discussion on fallacies of perception to 
place the hallucinations and illusions of insanity in 
opposition to those of other states ; or, like Hagen, 
Schiile, and Kandinsky, to exclude dreams and 
reckon as hallucinations only those fallacies of per- 
ception which appear among true sensory impressions 
received from the external world and with a vividness 
equalling theirs.^ Whether I "hallucinate" with 
eyes closed or open, whether I see distinct and vivid 
images, or dim floating shapes, is a matter of no 

' Esquirol, Des maladies vientales [\Z'^%). 

- Ball, Legon sur les maladies mentales (i88i), p. 62. 

2 H. Taine, De V intelligence^ 4th edition, ii. p. 13. 

^ The merit of having first assigned to hallucinations this sensory 
character, in opposition to the view of the authors just quoted above, who 
regard them merely as vivid ideas with the appearance of sense-percep- 
tions, belongs in Germany to J. Mllller and Burdach, and in France to 
Baillarger ("Des Hallucinations, etc.," in the Mem. de V Acad. roy. d. 
Med., xii.). 

^ Hagen, "Die Sinnestauschungen in Bez. auf Physiol., Heilk. u. 
Rechtspflege" (1837). 



AND ILLUSIONS. I7 

importance. The dimmest, most formless mist which 
I " see," or " think I see," is really seen, and even 
though this visual impression may have arisen sub- 
jectively, it should nevertheless bs called a fallacious 
perception, hallucination, or illusion, quite irrespec- 
tively of how it originated, or what circumstances 
favoured the appearance of the phenomenon,^ and 
quite irrespectively also of its influence upon the 
percipient, or his attitude with regard to it. Thus 
all hallucinations and illusions may be reckoned as 
fallacious perceptions, whether observed in the sane 
or the insane, whether occurring in sleep or in the 
waking state, whether arising spontaneously or ex- 
perimentally induced.^ Of course we must not on that 
account assztine that the physiological process accompany- 
ing hallucinatory perception depends in all these cases 
on similar conditions of the brain, although it is highly 
probable that it rests on analogous functional principles. 
Before we pass on to this question we must first 
consider the various conditions under which fallacious 
perceptions occur, and thus familiarise ourselves with 
one group of the facts concerned. 

^ Michea, who seeks to separate the false hallucinations — those of 
dreams, for instance — from the true ones of the waking state {op. cit.^ 
p. 102), and says that the existence of hallucinations implies the 
waking state, as dreams imply that of sleep, has yet to add that the 
state between waking and sleeping is peculiarly favourable to hallu- 
cinations. 

2 Among those who hold as analogous phenomena dreams, the 
delirious images of fever, hallucinations, etc., are : Maury, Morel op. 
cit., A. Krauss, *'Der Sinnim Wahnsinn,"^/^. Zeitschr.f. Psych, xv. 6, 
xvi. I, 2 ; A. Mayer (Mayence), Die Sinnestduschiingen (Vienna, 1869) ; 
compare also Hoppe, Erkldrungder Sinnestdiischiingen., etc., and Kohl- 
schiitter in the Zeitschr. f. ration. Medic, R. iii., B. 34, p. 46. 



CHAPTER 11. 

- FALLACIOUS LERCEPTION IN VARIOUS PATHOLO- 
GICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STATES. 

Esquiy'oV s distinction between Hallucinatio7i and Illusion — 
Fallacies of Perception in ths Insane: In Amentia^ 
De?fientia, Melancholia^ Mania^ '"'' Folie Ci7'culaire^^ De- 
lusional Insanity and Paranoia^ General Paralysis — The 
sliare .of the several Senses in these Dehisions^ a?id their 
effect on the Patient — In Psycho7iei{i'oses: Epilepsy ^ 
Hysteria — In Ecstasy — In States of Intoxication: Alcohol^ 
Chloroform^ Ether, Haschisch^ Saiitonin, Cinchona, 
Opinni, Nitrous Oxide Gas — Specific Actioji of Narcotics 
a7td Perso7ial Reactio7i — 171 acute So77iatic Diseases — 171 
Drea77is — In Hyp7iosis — C7ystal Visio7is —Dissociatio7i of 

: Conscious77ess the Co)7nno7i Characte7'istic of all these 

States. 

In accordance with Esquirol's definition,^ two sorts 
of sensory deception are generally distinguished: — (i) 
Illusions, or "the false interpretation of external 
objects;" (2) Hallucinations, or "subjective sensory 
images" which arise without the aid of external stimuli, 
but are projected outwards and thus assume apparent 
objective reality.^ 

^ Esquirol, " Sur les illusions des sens chez les alienes," Arch, gin., 
1832. 

- Griesinger, loc. cif., § 52; still earlier Arnold, Observations on 
the A^atiire, Kinds, Causes, and Po-evention of Insanity (1782), speaks 
of the mental state of the individual who thinks he sees and hears what 
others neither see nor hear, and who imagines he holds converse with 
beings or perceives objects which are not of the senses, or which do not 
so exist in the outward world as they appear to him. Writers before 



HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. I9 

As briefly indicated above, mere misinterpretations 
of sense- perceptions should not be regarded as 
sensory fallacies. In the long run, therefore, no 
satisfactory theory can be based on Esquirol's dis- 
tinction, as is sufficiently indicated by the many 
unsuccessful attempts to reach one. But, generally 
speaking, nearly all observers are agreed to consider 
illusion as a mixture of subjective and objective 
elements of perception, or as an incomplete sensory 
delusion, and to restrict the word hallucination en- 
tirely to new sensory creations. If a man sees some- 
thing where there really is something to be seen, then 
he is said to be the subject of an illusion; if he 
perceives something where there is nothing, then he 
is said to be hallucinated. Apart from other objec- 
tions, such a definition is open to the reproach of 
employing a physical differentia in a matter purely 
psychical;^ but as usage has to a certain extent fixed 

Esquirol do not agree in their terminology. Sauvages and Felix Plater 
describe as hallucinations those errors which are caused by failure in 
the functions of the outer sense organs, and include with them singing in 
the ears, diplopia, vertigo, hypochondriasis, and somnambulism. Under 
the name of "deliria," the phenomena which have their rise in the 
brain are somewhat vaguely distinguished. Darwin agrees with these 
writers in his Zoononiy. Ferrier, An Essay towards a Theory of 
Apparitions, p. 95, comprehends under hallucination all deceptive 
impressions from fnusccz uolitantes to the most terrifying phantoms. 
Even in the middle of the present century the question of distinguishing 
between illusions, hallucinations, and delusions played an important 
part in a murder trial in England ; see Bound in the Asylum Jotirnaly 
July 1856. 

^ Moll {Hypnotism, fourth English edition, p. 112) allows himself 
to be led into a similar error when he says illusion may be regarded as 
the sum of a positive and a negative hallucination, as in each illusion 
something present is not perceived, and something not present is per- 
ceived. What difference would there be then between an illusion 
and a fully-developed hallucination which blots out that part of the field 
of vision which it occupies? 



20 HALLUCINATIONS 

the meaning of the two words, we shall adopt, at least 
for the present, the usual distinction, employing illusion 
to denote a sensory deception which may be referred 
to some external nerve stimulus, and hallucination to 
denote one which cannot so be referred. 

One other distinction must be briefly considered, 
the division, namely, of hallucinations into "positive" 
and " negative." While by the former is meant the 
subjective perception of an object where there is none, 
by the latter is understood the hallucinatory non- 
perception of an object which is present. As there is 
considerable confusion about the exact nature of 
"negative hallucinations," 1 shall refer to the question 
in more detail later, and content myself here with this 
brief reference. 

Fallacious Perception in Insanity. — The most fre- 
quently quoted of all sense-deceptions are those of 
insanity. Some authors have sought to divide them 
according to their origin into " idiopathic," those 
which are primary but which may also occur in 
secondary consensual morbid states, and "sympto- 
matic," those which occur only as a secondary 
symptom of insanity.^ In any case a distinction 
ought to be drawn between sporadic hallucinations 
not associated with particular emotional states and 
hallucinations which reflect the ruling mental tone. 
This distinction has prognostic importance, since 

•^ Kieser, Elemente der PsycJiiatrie, p. 298 ; Michea, op. cii. 
Moreau, Alemoire stir le iraitement des ]ialhicinations par le datura 
stravioniiitn^ divides hallucinations as follows: — I, those which are 
isolated and occur without any widespread mental disturbance, and 
of the subjective origin of which the patient is aware ; 2, those which, 
though indeed primary phenomena, are associated with more or less 
profound psychical disturbance ; 3, those which are not the causes 
but the results of mental alienation. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 21 

observation seems to prove that hallucinations 
depending on certain morbid emotional states are 
capable of disappearing with them, whilst inde- 
pendent hallucinations seldom admit of cure, and 
pass over into the state of secondary psychical 
weakness.^ 

The particular forms of insanity in which hallucina- 
tions most frequently occur are such as are associated 
with dreamlike beclouding of the intellect. Thus they 
are a frequent phenomenon of amentia, but are seldom 
seen in acute dementia with its deep-reaching paralysis 
of the higher psychical functions.^ Opinion as to the 
frequency of sensory hallucinations in melancholia has 
altered very much of late years, chiefly because of the 
altered meaning of the term, and because cases 
previously classed under melancholia are now referred 
to other groups.^ Thus, while hallucinations were at 
one time regarded as frequent phenomena of this state, 

^ Griesinger, op. cit., p. 98. On the other hand, we shall see that 
such "independent" hallucinations, since they are frequently condi- 
tioned by local affections of the sensory apparatus, may disappear on 
local treatment. 

^ E. Mendel, "Der gegenw. Stand der Lehre von den Hallucina- 
tionen," Berl. klin. Wochenschr., 26, 27 (1890). 

^ Griesinger, Hagen. V. Krafft-Ebing, Die Sinnesdelirien^ ii., 1864, 
considers the state of melancholia specially favourable to sensory 
delusions, because it is characterised by extreme monotony of thought, 
and by vivid mental images which fill the consciousness. The hallu- 
cinations of this state are described as numerous and varied; there are 
those associated with hypochondriacal delusions of sin and of perse- 
cution, for instance, and the peculiarly vivid and terrifying apparitions 
of melancholia attonita. Compare Baillarger, " De I'etat designe 
chez les alienees sous le nom de stupidite," Ann. Med, Psych. (1843); 
Griesinger, op. cit., p. 252. Weiss, Compend. der Psych., p. 221, denies 
their occurrence. Seglas and Londe, in Arch, de Ne2iroL (1892), 
68, 69, hold that auditory hallucinations of voices seldom occur in 
melancholia, and that they are only found associated with hysteria. 



22 HALLUCINATIONS 

they are now held to be rare, or altogether absent 
from it. In mania hallucinations^ only appear 
when there is clouding of consciousness, and are 
generally vague and indistinct^ On the other hand, 
illusions are. frequent, and mistakes of identity are 
specially characteristic of this state, though not absent 
from other forms of insanity, Snell,^ who devotes an 
article to them, is of opinion that the confusions are 
not so much caused by mere resemblance, but that 
a general psychological law lies at their root ; that 
the patient is powerless to escape from the familiar 
thought-channels, and therefore grafts his new im- 
pressions on to his old opinions and ideas. In folic 
circulairc hallucinations occur in the maniacal period 
in association with profound mental disturbance, but 

Kraepelin, Psychiatrie, 4th ed., says in his definition of melancholia, 
that from the depression characteristic of the state, no distinct, 
developed sensory delusions spring up ; and he attributes to the occur- 
rence of hallucinations associated with fixed delusions of persecution, 
a diagnostic value, distinguishing the fear-stupefaction form of halluci- 
nated insanity from melancholia. 

1 Krafft-Ebing, op, cit. , maintains, on the other hand, that in mania 
many deceptions of sight and hearing occur which exert a powerful 
though transitory effect on the sufferer, driving him to violent out- 
breaks, and tending generally to bring on acute attacks. But 
in the tumultuous rush of ideas, none of which can remain fixed, 
hallucinations are generally of minor importance ; besides which the 
sufferer cannot give them more than a passing attention, they disappear 
in the whirl of the psychical processes, and do not usually remain to 
burden the mind with a fixed idea. 

^ Kraepelin, op. cii.^ p. 276. A death's-head appears on the wall; 
the devil had been looking in at the window. 

^ Snell, "Die Personenverwechselung als Sympt. d. Geistesstorung," 
Alg. Zeitschr. Psych., xvii. pp. 545 eiseq.', compare Kraepelin, " Ueber 
Erinnerungtauschungen," Arch. f. Psych., xviii. pp. 230-239 ; Alt, 
*'Das Symptom der Personenverwechselung bei Geisteskrankheiten," 
Allgem, Zeitschr, i xliv. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 2^ 

as regards their occurrence in the melanchoHc phase 
opinion is again divided.-^ 

Delusional Insanity and Paranoia, on the other 
hand, abound in hallucinations, so much so that some 
forms classed under this head are designated "hal- 
lucinated insanity" {Jialhtcinatorischer Wahnsi7tn) and 
"paranoia hallucinatoria." The sense-deceptions of 
delusional insanity are vivid in their externalisation 
and resemble in their content the fixed ideas which 
they embody. In cases which end in mental decay 
the hallucinations frequently persist long. In de- 
pressive monomania they are more fragmentary and 
vague, but are often kept alive by distressing dreams. 

Paranoia Hallucinatoria generally begins with an 
auditory hallucination. The sufferer hears taunting 
or insulting voices calling after him in the street, 
and making injurious insinuations about him, or 
sometimes unseen speakers incidentally let fall words 
which confirm his forebodings. In the later stages 
of the disease also auditory hallucinations pre- 
dominate,2 and may be extremely vivid and distinct, 

^ Hagen, Allg. Ztsckr. f. Psych. ^ xxv. pp. 89-92. " No psychosis 
persisting for any length of lime, in which melancholia and mania 
frequently or constantly alternate, is associated with hallucinations." 
Other writers agree with him, for instance Sander, " Sinnestaus- 
chung" in the Real-Eiicyklopddie, Bd. xviii. ; while Mendel opposes 
this view. Weiss concedes the occurrence of hallucinations in the 
melancholic phase of circular insanity. Baillarger, J. P. Falret, and 
Kirn have observed none, while J. Falret concedes them in a few 
severe cases. Kraepelin, Psych. ^ encountered them incases of profound 
mental disturbance. Meynert holds that in melancholia the exhausted 
hemispheres admit of them more easily than in acute mania. 

2 Marandon de Montyel (in the Ami. Med. Psych., 7 ser. xi. 2) 
endeavours to refute Christian's assertion that cases of paranoia have 
been met with where the insane ideas, arising out of sexual paraesthesia, 
do not take the form of " delusions of pride," by maintaining that these 
were not true cases of paranoia, since no auditory hallucinations were 
present. 



24 MALLUCiNATlONS 

although they also occur as soundless inner voices. 
A kind of auditory hallucination worthy of special 
note is " audible thinking," wherein the patient hears 
his own thoughts spoken aloud, and imagines that 
they can be heard by everybody, or else hears them 
repeated or dictated to him by an imaginary being.^ 
Fallacious perceptions of the other senses are also not 
uncommon. Many sufferers see the persecutors who 
torment them from a distance by means of magnetic 
and electrical apparatus.^ They entertain kings and 
princesses, and receive angels' visits ; all these hallu- 
cinations occur in a state of full consciousness. In 
some cases they are highly varied, and in others they 
are characterised by extreme monotony, and are 
closely bound up with the dominant fixed idea which 
they illustrate. They are frequently stationary, but 
may gradually change with a change of the delusion ;^ 
also in cases where the hallucinations do not really 
belong to the dominant ideas of paranoia, they may 
still occur when the disease is associated with periodic 
acute attacks. 

The most varied and opposite views obtain on the 
occurrence of hallucinations in general paralysis,^ prob- 

^ Comp. Grashey's description, " Ueber Hallucinationen," Miitich. 
med. Wochenschr., 1893. 

- Haslam, llhcstraiioiis of Madness (1810). 

3 Kolle, " Ueber Variabilitat d. Wahnvorst. und Sinnestauschungen," 
Alig. Ztschr.f. Psych. ^ ii. pp. 186 et seq. 

^ They are absolutely denied by the elder Falret {Des maladies 
inent. et des asiles d'alienes, 1864) and Huppert [Arch, fur Psych. ^ 
iii. p. 330); Colovisch {Ehides sttr L paraL gen.) questions the 
occurrence of hallucinations in general paralysis among women ; 
V. Krafift-Ebing {L'ehrb. d. Psych. ^ p. 665): "In general paralysis 
hallucinations are very rare phenomena, so rare indeed that on their 
occurrence one is forced to suspect a false diagnosis, and to refer them 
rather to alcoholic paralysis." Even so early as 1S59 Thomeuf noted 



AND ILLUSIONS. 25 

ably because of the ambiguity ol the line drawn 
between hallucinations on the one hand, and delusive 
ideas, illusions and paraesthesise ^ on the other ; and 
also because of the difficulty of proving that halluci- 
nations are really present in the advanced stage.^ 

^ Generally only those of a disagreeable nature are taken into 
account, and are regarded as causes of the hypochondriacal delusions of 
the patient. Klein has on the other hand, in [he Ann. vied, psych. ^ 
vii. (1888), p. 437, sought to refer the euphoristic states of paralytics 
to parsesthesia of an agreeable nature. 

^ Baruk, op, cit. 

{Gaz. d, hop., 1859) the infrequency of hallucinations in paralysis as 
opposed to " Lypemania alcoholica" with paralytic crises. See also 
Fournier {Dictionnaire de medecine et da chiriirgie prat., i. p. 657). 
Hagen is of opinion that hallucinations occur but seldom in paralysis 
and chiefly in the phase of depression ; while Dagonet ( Traite des 
malad. ment.., 1 894), though he indeed notes their infrequency, 
observed them chiefly in the " maniacal excitement." Regis {Majmel 
d. mid„ mejitale, 1885), Ball {Legoits sur les maladies jnenfales), Jules 
Falret [Etudes cliniques sur les tnaladies mentales et nerveuses), Sander, 
loc. cit.y also Simon and others, describe their appearance as rare. 
Hitzig, in Ziemssen's Cyclopcedia of Medicine, takes this view with 
regard to visual and auditory hallucinations, but describes illusions of 
the organic sense as frequently occurring. These latter are, on the 
other hand, classed by Westphal in his work on General Paralysis, 
with mental delusions (Wahnideen). Linstow also observed frequent 
organic hallucinations in general paralysis. Besides the older writers 
who have maintained the frequency of hallucinations in general paralysis, 
Morel maybe named [Traite des maladies mentales ^ i860) as having 
noted that the periods of exaltation were favourable to their occurrence, 
Foville (see article, " Paralysie Generale," in the Dictionnaire de mid. 
et d. chirurg. prat., 1878), Voisin [Traite de la faral. gen. des alienes), 
Girma [Les halhicinations dans la paral. getter., 1881), Glaus (*' Ueber 
das Vorkommen von Hallucin. bei der dem. paralyt,," Allg. Zeitschr. 
f. Psych., 1878, pp. 35, 551), Schiile, yiendiQl [Die progressive Paralyse 
der Irren., 1880). Mickle considers that hallucinations and illusions 
occur with greater frequency than was formerly supposed ; so also 
Christian, Ritti, Baruk (from whose work, Les hallucinations dans la 
paral. generale, 1 894, I have taken part of this summary). Acker also 
found hallucinations in over a third of his cases, and Gelhorn [Die 



26 



HALLUCINATIONS 



Their content depends on the stage of the disease, 
and is often childishly inconsistent and erratic.^ One 
patient thinks himself visited by a golden-haired angel, 
or bidden to a splendid feast ; another tries to climb the 
wall of his cell, because the king and the chief of police 
are up there waiting for him ; and a third engages in 
furious combats with phantasmal monsters, or shrieks 
aloud for help because imaginary murderers attack 
him.2 It is often possible to induce hallucinations in 
paralytic subjects by powerful suggestion. 



Halluc. bei der dem. paralyt., 1890) in 32 per cent, of his. An analysis 
of the most important figures yields the following results : — 





No. of Cases 


No. of Cases 

in which 

HaHucinations 

occurred. 




Communicated by 


of Paralysis 
■ observed. 


Percentage. 


Aubauel and Thore 


120 


8 


6.6 


Brierre de Boismoiit 






147 


37 


25.1 


Saury 






109 


59 


54.1 


Mickle . 










100 


55 


55.0 


Obersteiner 










194 


20 


10.3 


Jung 










127 


69 


54.3 


Mendel . 










181 


65 


35.9 


Acker 










14 


5 


35.7 


Diez 










88 


6 


6.9 


Gelliorn . 










100 


32 


32.0 


L. Meyer 










19 


2 


10.5 


Obermeyer 










12 


1 


8.33 


1 
Total .... 1211 


359 


27.4 



These 'cases are distributed over all stages of the disease, even 
including the stage of advanced dementia. 

^ Such cases as that communicated by Baruk, op. cit., p. 46, in 
which the same hallucination shaped the delusions for monthsy are very 
exceptional. Baruk's patient, a paralytic, was continually prophesying 
that the end of the world would take place on a certain day. As the 
final catastrophe seemed to hang fire, however, he announced that he 
had heard a voice in the night saying that it was postponed till the 
5th of September. 

■^ Brierre de Boismont, op-, clL, pp. 193-195. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 27 

Generally speaking, hallucinations may be found 
in progressive dementia and mental weakness during 
the earlier stages, but they become less frequent as 
the disease advances, and as the patient, becoming 
gradually accustomed to them, no longer feels the keen 
interest he displayed at first, nor allows himself to be 
provoked by them into outbreaks of frenzy. " As 
the mental images become less complex and vivid, as 
memory fades and the patient gradually sinks into 
profound psychical weakness, hallucinations and illu- 
sions become ever rarer ; the former, indeed, are 
almost unknown in advanced general paralysis, and 
the latter occur but seldom."^ 

Various writers furnish data concerning the occur- 
rence of hallucinations amongst the insane in general. 
Esquirol states, for instance, that in about 80 per 
cent, of insane persons hallucinations may be ob- 
served. Michea gives 106 out of 206, Falret about 
33 per cent, Luys 128 out of 402 ; but these figures 
are too vague to be of much value. Probably their 
vagueness is due partly to the difficulty of making 
accurate comparisons, and partly to the ambiguity of 
the line drawn between sensory delusions and fixed 
ideas, paraesthesiae, etc. 

The Share of the Various Senses in the False Per- 
ceptions of the Insane, and their Significance for the 
Patient. — If we now consider shortly the part which 
the various senses play in the hallucinations of 
insanity, and their importance for the patient, we 
shall find that hallucinations of taste and smell 
(which are indeed difficult to distinguish from illu- 
sions,^ and also from hypersesthesia of those senses) 

^ Krafft-Ebing, Die Smnesdeiirien, p. 48. 

2 For instance, resulting from disease of the mouth or tongue, ete* 



28 HALLUCINATIONS 

are on the whole infrequent. Where hallucinations 
of taste have been noted they are mostly nauseous 
or poisonous (arsenic, copper, filth), and frequently 
give rise to refusal of nourishment, or it may be to 
continued spitting.^ In the early stages of paralysis, 
on the other hand, gustatory hallucinations of an 
agreeable nature are sometimes reported,^ the patient 
perhaps describing the enjoyment of all the various 
dishes of an imaginary menu. Olfactory hallucina- 
tions are, on the whole, infrequent, and are seldom of 
an agreeable character. The experiences of the 
patient who declared he smelt all the perfumes of 
Arabia and the East are exceptional, for hallucina- 
tions of this sense are, generally speaking, associated 
with delusions about bodily foulness, and odours of 
corruption and corpses, due to visceral disturbances. 
Lelut reports the case of an insane woman who 
declared that the pestilential odours she perceived 
arose from corpses buried in certain vaults under the 
Salpetriere. Sometimes, haunted by the fear of 
being murdered, the sufferer perceives everywhere 
the fumes of charcoal, noxious gases, and particles 
of poisonous dust.^ Olfactory hallucinations seldom 

^ Michel in Gaz. des hdp. (1864), 112. Or rather, may not the 
increased salivation lead to spitting, and spitting, associated with 
' ' automatic " movements of the tongue, give rise to a delusive ex- 
planation on the patient's part? 

2 Probably these ought to be regarded rather as fables of the 
diseased mind [Phatitastereien). An example of an agreeable subjective 
taste-impression of specially long duration is communicated by Marc, 
De lafolie dans ses rapports avec les questions viedico-judiciaires (1840), 
i. p. 191. In this case the patient licked the walls of his cell and the 
threshold of the door almost daily for hours together, so that numerous 
spots and hollows caused by this practice were visible in the plaster of 
the walls. He imagined he was tasting Japanese oranges. 

^ Auzouy in Gaz. des hop. (i860), 43. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 29 

appear alone, but are generally associated with other 
sensory fallacies. Some authors consider that they 
belong more to the early stages of insanity.^ They 
are frequently found in association with local disease of 
the ovaries, and of the reproductive organs in general."^ 
There is not much to note concerning hallucina- 
tions of the tactile sense. We shall consider those 
of the muscular sense later. Hallucinations of the 
cutaneous sensibility, of the organic sense, and the 
like, are not easily distinguished from parsesthesia, and 
however important they may be in building up mental 
delusions, they are, as a rule, too vague to influence 
the content of consciousness directly. It is only 
when a darkened intelligence "seizes upon them as 

1 Brierre de Boismont, op. cit.^ p. 106; Griesinger, op. cit., p. 102 ; 
V. KrafFt-Ebing, SinjtesdeHrien, p. 39. 

^ Cloquet, OspJvesiologie, p. 13S ; Weisse, "2 Falle von Delirium 
der Nase," Hamb. Zeitschr. f. d. ges. Med., v. (1837). Brierre de 
Boismont, op. cit.^ p. 212: (hysterical women) "complain ... of 
the fetid air they breathe, or the detestable taste they have in the 
mouth." Savage, Insanity and Allied Neuroses (Clinical Manual) : 
"The climacteric is associated with changes in the reproductive organs, 
and as a consequence there are frequently hallucinations of smell. I 
am impressed with the fact that where we have ovarian troubles we 
may expect to find hallucinations of the sense of smell and taste." 
Krafift-Ebing, " Ueber Irresein im Klimakterium," Allg. Zeitschr. 
f. Psych. ^ xxxiv. 4 (1877), has found olfactory hallucinations in disturb- 
ance of the sexual functions only in association with masturbation and 
uterine disease, and considers them as depending on sexual excitement 
in general, but not on the climacteric as such. Schrenck-Notzing, 
Die Snggestionstherapie bei krankhaften Erschein. des Geschlechtssinns, 
p. 22, holds that all the hallucinations associated with sexual psychosis, 
olfactory hallucinations of course included, are of a repulsive character. 
Schlager, on the other hand ("Ueber Illus. im Bereich des Geruchs- 
sinnes bei Geistesgestorten," Wiener Zeitschr.., N.F., i. 19, 20 (1858), 
denies the causal nexus between these and states of sexual excitement 
occurring at the same time, and considers their coincidence as merely 
fortuitous, or rather as depending on the excitement of the nervous 
system generally. 



30 HALLUCINATIONS ' 

a basis for a new conception of the ego and the 
environment," that they become of primary signifi- 
cance.'^ But such significance may always be 
attributed to a hallucination of either of the higher 
senses, though opinion is divided as to which of these 
two senses plays the greater part.^ 

Visual delusions may take the form of dreams or of 
visions by day or night. In mental disease occurring 
in childhood (10-15 years) — when hallucinations would 
appear to be specially frequent, even in forms of 
disease less often associated with them in adult life — 
the visual type predominates.^ When there is no 
widespread intellectual disturbance, visual delusions 
are, generally speaking, more easily recognised as 
such (by means of the correcting sense of touch) than 
those of hearing. Their danger for the patient con- 
sists chiefly in the importance they gain for him by 
confirming his mental delusions ; to have seen some- 
thing with one's " own eyes " is held to furnish 
irrefragable proof of the actuality of the experience. 

Perhaps auditory hallucinations are fraught with 
even graver danger for the sufferer, since they lead him 
to seek for explanations,* and thus bring delusive ideas 

^ Kraepelin, Psychiatric. Erlenmeyer, in his paper read at the 
twenty-ninth Congress of the Deiiisch. Natnrf. und Aerzie (1852), 
expresses the opinion that delusions of the organic sense are of the 
gravest moment, especially when they spring, not from the periphery, 
but from the centres of the nervous system. 

^ Blumroder and Griesinger, among others, hold that visual, and 
Aubanel, Thore, Michea, and v. Krafft-Ebing that auditory hallucina- 
tions are the more frequent. 

^ Schoenthal, "Beitrage z. Kentniss d. im frlihen Lebensalter 
au'"tretenden Psychosen," Arch. f. Psych. ^ xviii. p. 836. 

^ All insane persons who are subject to hallucinations seek to 
explain them . . . then, . . . delusive ideas are developed, which 
naturally are closely associated with the hallucinations. (Kandinsky, 
"Zur Lehre von den Hallucinationen," A7'ch. filr Psych., xi.) 



AND ILLUSIONS. 3 1 

in their train, and since, as we have already noted, 
they are but rarely capable of control.^ Indeed it is 
but natural that hallucinations associated with this 
sense, which plays so great a part in producing 
mental images, and exerts so far-reaching an influence 
upon the mind, should tend to be specially persistent 
and convincing.- 

Nor is it an}- marvel that hallucinations in general 
should lead irresistibly to delusive ideas for which 
they themselves furnish the material, if on their first 
appearance they are not too foreign to the content 
of consciousness gained through normal perception 
to admit of being easily interwoven with the patient's 
ordinary thought,^ and if they are distinct and plastic; 
or again, if they assail several senses at once and 
thus deprive the sufferer of every means of testing 
them, or come upon him in such numbers that he 
has not time for tedious comparisons, or if they 

^ E. Kraepelin, " Ueber Trugwahrnehmungen, ' Vierteljahrsschr, 
f. wissensch. Philosophies v. p. 364. According to Griesinger, oj^. cif., 
p. 100, auditory hallucinations indicate a severe affection of the 
brain seldom capable of cure, and are often latent for a considerable 
time, 

- A. Cramer, " Die Hallucinationen im Muskelsinn bei Geistes- 
kranken," attributes specially grave results to so-called thought-audition. 
The cases communicated by Klinke, "Ueber d. symptom des Gedanken- 
lautwerdens," do not quite bear this out. In the majority of his cases, 
though the affection had lasted for years, dementia did not supervene. 
Be it added, however, that the symptoms of thought-audition were not 
so clearly marked in his cases as in Cramer's. (Klinke, op. cit., Arch, 
f. Psych.., xxvi. i.) 

^ Kraepelin, Psychiatric, 4th ed., p. 79, holds that the over- 
whelming power which the hallucinations exert over the mind of the 
patient is not chiefly due to their sensory vividness, but to their intimate 
connection — a connection often unsuspected by the sufferer — with his 
usual train of thought, and their close correspondence with his secret 
fears and longings. Compare Ziehen, Psychiatric, pp. 28 et seq. 



32 HALLUCINATIONS 

arouse violent emotions which render calm con- 
sideration impossible.^ 

While, on the one hand, hallucinations may impli- 
cate several senses simultaneously, on the other 
partial or "unilateral" fallacies may occur.^ It is 
true that Rose has denied the existence of unilateral 
hallucinations, and has endeavoured to explain them 
away, as probably a mixture of delusion and true 
sensation ; for instance, in one case where an insane 
patient was suffering from ear-ache caused by inflam- 
mation of the middle ear. But their existence ought 
by this time to be pretty well established. Gall relates 
the case of a minister of state who constantly heard 
insulting w^ords whispered into his left ear ; and in the 
more recent literature of the subject such examples 
are no longer rare. According to Krafft-Ebing, the uni- 
lateral voices are heard better when the other ear is 
closed — when, for instance, the patient is lying on it. 

Fallacious Perception iji Psychoneuroses, — Concern- 
ing the occurrence of hallucinations in neuras- 
thenia^ opinion is still divided, but there can be no 

^ G. Acker mann, Ueber die Eniivickehing von Wahnideen ans 
Hallucinalorischen Vorgdngen (Diss, Jena, 1892). 

^ Called "hallucinations dedoublees " byMichea; compare, among 
others, Souchon, Ueber einseitige Hallncinationen (Diss. Berlin, 1890); 
Alex. Robertson, in the Glasgow Med. Jotirn., vii. 4, pp. 196 et seq., 
1875. Higier, "Ueber unilaterale Hallucinationen," Wiener Klinik. 
(1894), quotes 52 cases from various sources, including Fiirer's self-obser- 
vations [Cejiiralbl. f. Nervenhlknd. ^^.Y . v.). Toulouse analyses 39 of 
these cases, which are distributed among the various senses as follows : — 
Unilateral auditory hallucinations, 26 ; visual, 7 ; tactile, I ; auditory 
and visual together, 4 ; visual, auditory, and tactile, I. 

^ Thus Falret, for instance, in the Congres Intern, d. Med. Ment. 
(Paris, 1889), maintains that imperative ideas do not occur in associa- 
tion with hallucinations. On the other side, compare II. Kaan, Der 
Nturastheji. Angstaffect, etc.; Seglas, De Pobsession, Anti. ]\fel. 
Psych. ^ vii. p. 119 (1892). Their occurrence seems to be becoming 
more and more recognised. 



AND ILLUSIONS. ■ 33 

question as to their frequency in psychoneuroscs. In 
epilepsy they are specially characteristic of the aura 
which precedes the attack, and though often little 
more than vague sense-impressions (red light in a 
case of Gowers', the noise of machinery in one of 
Bennet's), they not infrequently occur as fully 
developed hallucinations.^ Generally they are of a 
disagreeable nature. Thus Gregory mentions the 
case of a patient in whom the seizure was always 
preceded by the apparition of a hideous old woman 
in a red cloak, who advanced and struck him on the 
head with her cane, whereupon he fell to the ground 
in convulsions. In another case the devil appeared 
in a shadowy form. Sometimes the apparitions are 
less frightful. ConoUy tells of a patient who saw, in 
the last few moments before loss of consciousness, 
pleasant landscapes spread out before him. In other 
cases voices are heard. Olfactory hallucinations are 
also reported as occurring before the attack, or rather 
in the intervals between and alternating with them.^ 

^ Compare Hagen, Die Sinnestcitisclmngen^ p. 179; Bottex, op. cit. 
(feeling, smell, taste); Szafkowski, op. cit., p. 149; Michea, op. cit., 
chap. XV., among 28 epileptics found 13 hallucinations, chiefly of 
hearing and sight; Blumroder, in his review of Michea's work in 
Schmidt's Jahrhilchern, Iviii. p. 1 18; L. Meyer, "Visionen einer 
Epileptischen," Allg. Zeitschr. f. Psych., xiv.; Brierre de Boismont, 
op. cit., pp. 20S et seq.; Billot^ "Considerations sur la Symptomatologie 
de I'Epilepsie," Ann. MeJ. Psych. (1843), p. 384; Griesinger, op. cit.^ 
p. 411; Esquirol, Des Maladies Mentales (see Hunt's translation, 
1845); V. Y.x?Si\.-YX)\x\g, LeJirlmchder Psychiatrie, ^^^et seq.; Emming- 
haus, Allgemeine Psychopathologie (1878), pp. 346-348; M. Schunk, 
Casiiistische Beitrdgez. epil. Psychose (1890), pp. 6-8 ; Ernst Hjertstrom, 
in the No7'd. Med. Aj'k., xv. 2, No. 10 (1883), on Epileptic Insanity. 

2 Paget, in Catal. of the Royal Coll. of Surg., 2128, 2129; further, 
JMed. Times and Gaz., 13th Aug. 1864, p. 168 ; Lancet, i6th June 1866 ; 
Ophthalin. Hosp. Rep., v., part iv. , pp. 295, 304; Griesinger, op. cit., 
p. 100; Hughlings Jackson, ]\fed. Times and Gaz. (1868), p. 231; 
Sander, Arch, f Psych. (1873), p. 234. 

3 



34 HALLUCINATIONS 

In post-epileptic states (as well as in the epileptic- 
equivalent, which indeed many alienists regard as a 
post-epileptic condition), sensory delusions occur, most 
frequently, of course, in epileptic delirium ; but they 
are not absent from the state of stupor, in which the 
wild, distraught stare and the occasional outbreaks of 
frenzy may be the reaction from terrif}'ing fancies and 
apparitions. 

Hallucinations are indeed — it may be as well to 
note this before proceeding further — a frequent cause 
of violent and criminal acts ; for instance, in hal- 
lucinatory insanity, epilepsy, hysteria, and somnam- 
bulism, and especially in delirious states (alcohol, 
morphia, cocaine, and typhus-delirium). Thrown 
into a paroxysm of terror by the phantoms which 
threaten him, or obsessed by his "voices," the 
sufferer snatches up a weapon and perhaps commits 
a murder or sets fire to the house. Or again, despair- 
ing of escape from the enemies who pursue and mock 
him, he puts an end to his sufferings and his life at 
the same time, and often in a skilful and cunningly 
planned manner.^ 

Hysteria. — H}'steria, especially the '^grande Jiysterie'' 
is assailed by numerous hallucinations. Even in 
insane cases, where hysteria is present, these should 
be regarded as hysterical phenomena if they come 
and go with the attacks.^ They may appear among 
the earliest indications of the approaching " grand 

^ Besides the various text-books, compare among older writers, for 
example, Asmus, " Hallucinationen," in the Pr. Ver. Zt. (1845), No. 
50; V. Feuchtersleben, " Mord u. Irrsinn," Dameroiv's Allg. Zeitschr.^ 
ii 2 (1845); Cohen van Baren, " Ueber den trunkfalligen Sinnen- 
wahn," ibid., iii. 4 (1846); Michea, op. cit.; Brierre de Boismont in 
\h& Ann. cVHyg., 1849. 

^ Brierre de Boismont, Des halhtcinalions, p. 213. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 35 

attaque/' sometimes days before it; occasionally, too, 
they are mingled with illusions as a part of the true 
aura. As regards these premonitory sense-delusions, 
the curious law, formulated by Charcot,^ of the rela- 
tion of the hallucinated sense to the hemianaesthetic 
side, holds good. For example, the commonest visual 
hallucinations (in which black and red play a leading 
part) are black rats, cats, snakes, and spiders, shining 
stars, fiery spheres, and so on. But these do not re- 
main motionless. Either they go diagonally across 
the patient's field of vision, in which case they pro- 
ceed from the hemianaesthetic side ; or else (generally) 
they come from behind the patient, hasten past, 
and disappear in the distance. In this case also the 
apparitions occur on the hemianaesthetic side. Audi- 
tory hallucinations also show a decided preference 
for this side, and the same law is said to hold true 
of those of the tactile sense.^ These premonitory 
hallucinations haunt the sufferer even by day, but in 
the night they become much more persistent and vivid, 
and what was only a passing vision before, develops 
into a long scene, in which the patient is called upon 
to take a part. Often these scenes are of an erotic 
nature, and are followed by extreme exhaustion.^ 

1 Charcot, Le Progres Medical {\%^'i), No. 3, p. 38. 

- Paul Richer, Etzides din. stir la graude hysterie on hyslero-epilepsie 

(1885), pp. 8 el seq.'. "Gl (right-side anaesthetic) sees loathsome 

black rats, which glide past her on the right side. Once a great black cat 
sprang into her lap. While walking alone she hears a voice calling her, 
she turns round, there is no one. While she is at her work familiar 
voices speak in her ear. She hears them on both sides, but chiefly on 
the right. Suddenly she feels herself embraced. ... It is noteworthy 
that she feels the kiss only on the right cheek." 

2 In the same way, the onanistic act in hysteria may be accompanied 
by vivid hallucinations. Compare Schrenck-Notzing, Die Sugges- 
tion s-The7'apie, etc, p. 70. 



S6 HALLUCINATIONS 

In Charcot's four typical phases of the ''great 
hysteria," haUucinations are unknown in the epi- 
leptic phase, but they are indicated in the others, and 
the last two especially are filled with them. In the 
third phase the sensory images are peculiarly vivid. 
Often past events which exerted an influence on the 
outbreak of the disease are represented, more seldom 
purely imaginary scenes. Pleasing and melancholy 
pictures emerge, now as two separate phases, and 
asfain mino-led with each other. The sufferers often 
complain bitterly that the agreeable side of an attack 
is constantly shattered by horrible visions. On the 
whole, distress preponderates over pleasure. These 
hallucinations are distinguished from the hallucina- 
tions of the fourth phase, hysterical delirium, by their 
regular stereotyped recurrence, and also by the fact 
that in the delirious phase the scenes of the past are 
treated as memories, and it is generally the trivial 
events and experiences of the day which furnish forth 
the hallucinations,^ though here again random rats, 
serpents, etc., are apt to obtrude themselves. Even 
after the attack has passed, many patients believe 
in the objective reality of the hallucinatory scenes. 
This throws a light on the curious circumstance that 
many unhappy wretches, in the times of witchcraft, 
confessed to all manner of strange sins, and endured 
with stubborn firmness all the pangs of martyrdom 
rather than renounce belief in their intercourse with 
the devil, and their participation in orgies w^hich had 
taken place only in the drama of their hysterical 
hallucinations. 

If not reckoned as true chorea, the epidemic of dancing 
which raged in Germany and the Netherlands in the Middle 

^ Richer, oJ>. cit., p. 120. 



AND ILLUSIOxNS. 37 

Ages comes under this head. Appearing in Aix in 1374, it 
spread in a few months to Liege, Utrecht, and the neigh- 
bouring towns, visited Metz, Cologne, and Strasburg (141 8), 
and after hngering into the sixteenth century gradually died 
out. This malady consisted in convulsions, hallucinations, 
dancing with contortions, and so on. The attack could be 
checked by bandaging the abdomen, as well as by kicks and 
blows on that part of the body. Music had a great influence 
on the dancers, and for this reason music was played in the 
streets in order that the attacks might by this means reach a 
crisis and disappear the sooner. Quite trifling circumstances 
could bring on these seizures, the sight of pointed shoes for 
instance, and of the colour red, which the dancers held in 
horror. In order to prevent such outbreaks the wearing of 
pointed shoes was forbidden by the authorities. During their 
dance many of the afflicted thought they waded in blood, or 
saw heavenly visions. Of a similar nature was the mad taran- 
tula dance of Italy which appeared about the same time. 

To this category also belongs the history of demoniacal pos- 
session. The belief of being possessed by spirits, frequenty met 
with in isolated cases, appeared at certain periods in epidemic 
form. Such an epidemic broke out in Brandenburg, and in 
Holland and Italy, in the sixteenth century, especially in the 
convents. In 1350-60 it attacked the convent of St. Brigitta, 
in Xanthen, a convent near Cologne, and others. The nuns 
declared that they were visited by the devil, and had carnal 
conversation with him. These and other "possessed" wretches 
v/ere sometimes thrown into dungeons, sometimes burnt. The 
convent of the Ursulines at Aix was the scene of such a drama 
(1609- 11), where two possessed nuns, tormented by all kinds of 
apparitions, accused a priest of witchcraft, on which charge he 
was burnt to death.^ The famous case of the nuns of Loudun 
(1632-39)^ led to a like tragic conclusion, as well as the Louvier 
case (1642), in which the two chief victims found their end in 
lifelong imprisonment and the stake. (See on this point. Richer, 
loc. cif., pp. 797 et seg.) 

^ Cahiieil, De la folic (1845). 

^ Pilet de la Menardiere, La Deinonomanie de Loiidun (1634), also 
\h^ Histoire dcs Diables de Louditn (Amsterdam, 1740); Gabr. Legue, 
Urbaiii Grandier et les PossSdees de Lottdtui (1880). 



38 HALLUCINATIONS 

Ecstasy. — It is but a step from hallucinations of 
this description to those of ecstasy. Brierre de Boi.s- 
mont, Piesse, and others, distinguish between morbid 
and physiological ecstasy, the latter occurring only in 
rare instances — in the cases of prophets, saints, and 
philosophers, for instance. Michea, Baillarger, and 
Moreau describe it as always a pathological pheno- 
menon, and Charcot, Richer, and others relate it 
with hysteria, especially with the third phase of the 
hystero-epileptic attack. Hallucinations are a con- 
stant phenomenon of ecstasy, where they arise 
out of one-sided mental activity and intense con- 
centration on single groups of ideas, conjoined 
with lowered sensibility.-^ The best known cases are 
those of religious ecstasy, but religious ideas do not 
invariably furnish the material for " ecstatic vision." 
Philosophers, artists, and others whose habit of mind 
tends to deepen certain channels of thought, are also 
liable to such visitations. Any and every object of 
longing or desire, no matter how trivial, grotesque, or 
perverse, may become the object of ecstasy.^ Owing 
to the persistent euphoria associated with this state, 
and the ease with which the psychical processes act, 
ecstatic visions and hallucinations are almost in- 
variably of an agreeable nature. The subjects of 
these experiences mourn the short duration of their 
happiness, and tell with rapture of the heavenly bliss 
and unspeakable delight which they enjoy, of the 

1 Michea, "Extase," in the N. D. de Med. et de Chir. Prat. 

" Spitta, Der Schlaf. u. die Trawnzustdnde d. Menschl. Seele, p. 123. 
Considering how deeply religion is rooted in the mind of the child, 
and also that hypermnesia is usually attributed to somnambulic states, 
and that in the third phase of the hystero-epileptic attack visions from 
the past play a leading part, the frequent occurrence of religious ecstasy 
in persons otherwise indifferent to religion is not to be wondered at. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 39 

wondrous visions vouchsafed to them, and the con- 
verse they have held with angeHc visitors. Some- 
times, indeed, they speak of awful phantoms. The 
famous Emanuel Swedenborg was privileged to be- 
hold God himself. Engelbrecht relates how he was 
carried by the Holy Spirit through space to the gates 
of hell, and then borne in a golden chariot up into 
heaven, where he saw choirs of saints and angels 
singing round the throne, and received a message 
from God, delivered to him by an angel. The many 
familiar examples of ecstatic visions in the, Old and 
New Testaments may be cited, as well as those found 
in the legends of the saints and martyrs, where they 
either appear as revelations from heaven or tempta- 
tions of the devil. In the latter case the close con- 
nection of religious ecstasy with sexual disturbance is 
indicated.-^ Legendary lore and the sacred books of 
all nations teem with revelations and visions, and pro- 
fane history furnishes us with a series of such examples 
(the Crusades, Joan of Arc, etc.). Even in our own 
time — besides the cases to be found in asylums — an 
"ecstatic maid" sometimes makes her appearance here 
and there, exercising a powerful effect upon the minds 
of small, and sometimes even of large communities. 

Among the great number of cases reported those of Marie 
de Moerl and Louise Lateau are the most celebrated. The 
former passed her Hfe in continual contemplation of the life and 
sufferings of Christ. Her visions were indicated by her attitude 
and the expression of her countenance. Thus at Christmas 
time she seemed to hold the new-born babe in her arms, at 
Epiphany she worshipped it on her knees, enacting the adora- 
tion of the Magi, and on Holy Thursday she attended the 
marriage of Cana, etc. She also represented the Passion and 
death on the cross. Louise Lateau related that at the beginning 

^ Krafft-Ebing, Psychop. sexual, p. 91. 



40 HALLUCINATIONS 

of the ecstasy there appeared to her a great and blinding Hght, 
and soon after certain forms became visible to her eyes, and the 
various scenes of the Passion passed in order before her. She 
would describe them briefly, but with singular clearness. She 
beheld the Saviour, whose person, garments, wound prints, 
cross, and crown of thorns she described. He took no notice 
of her, she said, neither looked at her nor spoke. She described 
Avith the same terse clearness the folk about him, apostles, 
holy women, and Jews.^ 

Among Eastern and primitive peoples, such as 
Hindoos, American Indians, natives of Greenland, 
Kamtschatka and Yucatan, fetish-worshipping Ne- 
groes, and Polynesians, the ecstatic state, accompanied 
with hallucinations, is frequently observed, sometimes 
arising spontaneously, but more often artificially in- 
duced. It was also known among the nations of 
antiquity. The means most often employed to 
induce this state are beating of magic drums and 
blowing on trumpets, bowlings and hour-long 
prayers, dancing, flagellation, convulsive movements 
and contortions, asceticism, fasting, and sexual ab- 
stinence. Recourse is also had to narcotics to bring 
about the desired result. Thus the fly agaric^ is used 
by the inhabitants of Tunguska (Western Siberia), in 
San Domingo the herb coca, tobacco by some tribes 
of American Indians, and in the East opium, and 
haschisch, a preparation of Indian hemp. Even the 
ancient Egyptians had the'r intoxicating drinks, and 

^ Dr. F. Lefebvre, Louise Lateaii ; compare also Dr. Bourneville, 
Science et miracle : Louise Laieau oil la stigmatisee beige ; Warlomont, 
Rapport mid. stcr la stigmatisee de Bois a' Haine ; Charbonnier- 
Debatty, Maladies et faciilth diverses des mystiques ; H. Boens, 
Notivelles de Louise Laieau; Gluge in Ihe Gaz. hbdtn., 1875, 23 ; 
Crocq in the Gaz. Iibdm., 1875, 27, 29, 37; Semal, Atude sur les 
stigmatisees, etc.; Dtnneux in the Fresse vied., xxvii. 34. 

^ A musliroom common in Kamtschatka and Siberia. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 4 1 

receipts for witches' salves and philtres have come 
down to us from mediaeval times.^ 

Hallucinations in States of Intoxication. — The cases 
we have just noted lead us on to those hallucina- 
tions which occur without any initiatory phase of 
psychical exaltation, in states of simple intoxication. 
To discuss all the various intoxicants and compare 
their effects would lead us too far and involve need- 
less repetitions, 1 shall therefore confine myself here 
to the more important. 

The form of inebriation best known to us is that 
which follow^s on the inordinate consumption of 
alcoholic liquor. The illusions characteristic of this 
state are to be explained for the most part in the 
manner indicated in Chapter I. The hallucinations 
associated with them are generally of a depressing 
nature, and terrifying impressions predominate. True, 
sweet voices are sometimes heard, melodies delight 
the ear, and fair landscapes appear before the eyes, 
but this seldom lasts long, monsters and serpents take 
the place of flowers, and the visions shift about and 
are mingled together. Vermin, reptiles, etc., appear 
in great numbers, such for instance as the rats,^ cats, 
snakes, mice, and monkeys which fill the visions 

^ Schrenck-Notzing, Ueher Sii^^gestion und suggestive Zzcs/dnde, 
a lecture delivered before the Anthropol. Gesellsch., Munich, 1893; 
Prosper Alpin, De medicina Aegyptiorum ; P. Radestock, Schlaf tind 
Traiifu (1879), pp. 29 et seq.; Julius Thomsen, "Die Berauschungsmittel 
der Menschen," Oppenh. Zeilschr., xliv. 2 and 4 (1850) ; B, Seeman in 
the Pha m Jotirn. and Trans. ^ Oct. 185 1 ; M. Perty, Die niystischen 
Erscheinnngen d. menschl. Nattir. (2nd edit.), vol. i. pp. 90, 91. 

^ It has been plausibly suggested that the legend of Bishop Hatto, 
•who vainly sought refuge in the "Mouse-tower" on the Rhine from 
the rats and mice which swarmed about him, might be referred to such 
an origin. Certainly from rats of this phantom breed neither stream 
nor tower can defend. 



42 HALLUCINATIONS 

of delirium tremens} Thus Brierre de Boismont^ 
found among twenty-one cases — three of them severe 
— twenty in which hallucinations of vermin and such 
creatures were seen swarming over the bed and up 
the walls.^ Other sensory delusions of a purely 
fantastic nature are not lacking. Sometimes black 
men appear who grimace and threaten, then climb 
the walls, or vanish up the chimney. In other cases 
the visions arise out of the daily occupations of the 
patient, or out of his past experience. 

The patient "peers into all the corners and behind the doors, 
lifts imaginary objects from the ground, shakes them and throws 
them down again, stamps and scrapes with his foot on the 

^ Similar results are reported from the abuse of cocain, salicylic acid, 
etc. Compare Krafft-Ebing, Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie, pp. 218 ^/ seq. 

^ Des hallucinations, p. 174. 

^ GUnsburg opposes this view, " Ueber Delirium potatorum," 
Giinsb. Zeilschr., ii. 4 (1851), and maintains that in at least 30 per 
cent, of such cases only "subjective phenomena" occur which are to 
be compared with "creeping of the skin." The visual hallucinations 
(which according to Wolff, Annalen d. Charit6 zu Berlin, 1850, also 
occur as forerunners of delirium tremens) are explained as an illusory 
perception of various entoptic phenomena by C. G. Chaddock in the 
Alienist and Neurologist, Jan. 1892. He holds that the visual delusions 
caused by perverse perception, which are constant and almost pathogno- 
monic phenomena of alcoholic delirium, take the form of animals because 
the entoptic processes generally imply movements [e.g., the pulsations of 
the blood-vessels in the retina), and for us the idea of moving objects 
is almost inseparably associated with living creatures. Hoppe, indeed, 
has denied any appearance of independent movement in entoptic 
phenomena, except their darting into the field of vision. But if the 
sudden darting of entoptical phenomena into the field of vision and their 
swift disappearance be admitted, Chaddock's view and Hoppe's 
observations are really in accord. Be it noted that Truchsess had 
already inferred ("Ueber Delirium tremens," Wiirt. Corresp.-Blait, 
1844, No. 39) from the uniformity of the delirium in such cases, and 
from the fact that the sufferer's attention might be diverted from his 
delirious visions, that one of the lower centres was affected in the first 
case, causing a secondary implication of the higher centres. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 43 

ground as though crushing an insect, brushes his hand over his 
face and attempts to blow away cobwebs and hairs which he 
feels about him. Suddenly he claps his hand to his thigh and 
pinches his trousers hard, in order, as he says, to crush a huge 
black spider which is crawling up him. ... He hears his 
friends and calls to them — hears their voices raised in alterca- 
tion . . . and endeavours to hasten to them. . . . Now his 
right hand approaches his knees, which are drav/n together and 
slightly raised. He imagines he is holding a pigeon on his 
knee and feeding it with grain. Then he thinks he is in the 
market-place, and shouts to the crowd of folk. He sees men 
dressed like savages defile past him on a rope." ^ In another 
case the victim " seeks to escape his enemies by flying to the 
woods. He hears the noise of waterfalls round him, then sees 
the town hall all lighted up, hears music and singing and sees 
panoramas. Red lanterns swing from the trees, he runs, he 
flees, and all these phantasmagoria follow him. Crosses appear 
to him and sparks of light. . . ." He tells how he heard voices 
urging him to suicide. "The waterfalls called to me and said, 
' You are too cowardly to throw yourself in,' " ^ etc. 

Dreams of flames and conflagrations are a frequent 
result of the abuse of alcohol. They are generally of 
a visual nature, but sometimes the other senses share 
in them. Thus Weber relates in his Demokritos that 
after a punch-party such a fire-dream visited him in 
the form of an auditory hallucination: "I thought I 
heard the fire-alarm and ran to the window, annoyed 
at not hearing the sound of the fire-hose," and so on. 

The effect of absinth in producing sensory delirium 
is very similar, but its unmixed action can seldom be 
observed, as the absinth drinker of course imbibes the 
alcohol which is mixed with the liqueur, and generally 
indulges in other spirituous drinks as well. But here 
also fiery visions, rats, serpents, etc., are reported, as 

^ Magnan, De Valcoolisnie, des diverses fo; mes du delire alcooliqiie et 
de leur traiteinent (Paris, 1S74), p. 49. 
2 Ibid,, p. 75. 



44 HALLUCINATIONS 

well as auditory hallucinations of a startling and 
terrifying nature.^ The same is true of atropin-intoxi- 
cation (red-vision after many eye -operations^), and of 
belladonna. Datura stramonium produces distressing 
visions and dreams, associated with feelings of op- 
pression^ and vertigo;* crowds dance round the 
sufferer, and seek to whirl him aw^ay in their aimless 
movements. Robbers and murderers try to kill him ; 
a thousand hideous faces and gigantic forms encircle 
him. Boerhaave, on the other hand, states that 
small doses of belladonna and datura stramonium 
induce erotic visions and hallucinations. The sensory 
delusions following on the use of the fly agaric^ are of 
a depressing nature, and this is also true of those 
appearing in mercury^ and lead-poisoning.'^ 

In the intoxication produced by chloroform, which is 
specially rapid in its effects (Kraepelin), the halluci- 
nations are of an unpleasant nature.^ Those accom- 
panying ether-intoxication, on the other hand, are 

^ Ibid., pp. %i and ii6. 

^ Hilbert, Klin. Monatsbliifter f.. Augenheilk, xxiv. p. 483 ; see 
above, p. 8, Note 2. 

^ Spitta, op. cit., p. 282. 

■* Erierre de Boismont, Des hall., p. 446. Compare Delasiauve in 
the Rev. vied. (Dec. 1850), 

^ Brierre de Boismont, op. cit,, p. 448, Note. 

^ Kussmaul, Untersiuhiingen iiber den constanteji Merctirialisimn 
(1861), p. 266; Emminghaus, Allg. Psychopathol. (1878), p. 369. 

^ Boureau in Ann. vied. -psych. (1854); Popp in Bayer, m'ztl. 
Int.-Bl., xxi. 38, p. 357 ; Bottentuit in V Union (1873), 151 ; Wiirt. 
Corresp.-Bl., xliii. 38 (1873) » Bartens, " Geisteskrankh. nach Bleiver- 
gift. ," Allg. Z.eitschr. f. Psych., xxxii. i ; Em. Regis in Ann. rued.- 
psych. (Sept. 1880). 

^ Spitta, op. cit., p. 282: " The power of feeling pain is destroyed by 
chloroform, but the remnant of the purely ideational element is sufficient 
to produce analogous mental images." Compare the case described in 
detail by Spencer in his Principles of Psychology, appendix to vol. i. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 45 

said to be highly pleasurable.^ The action of has- 
chisch, smoked by the Persians, or drunk in the form of 
"majoun," consumed by the Turks in the form of a 
sweetmeat mixed with almonds {damawesk)^ or mixed 
with brandy (iraki)^ in Algiers made into a paste with 
honey (inadjund), and to which many other peoples 
are passionately addicted, has been exhaustively 
investigated by Moreau, besides other observ^ers.^ 
Among the eight phenomena of haschisch intoxication 
(called by the Arabs "kief") reported by him, we find 
delirious visions and intensely pleasurable sensa- 
tions. But these blissful feelings are by no means 
undisturbed. Terror and dismay break in upon the 
dreamer,^ and the inevitable rats, etc., make their ap- 
pearance.* Generally speaking, however, the sensory 
delusions of this narcotic are of a pleasurable nature, 
glimpses of paradise, heavenly bliss, etc.^ Colours 
often appear preternaturally bright and vivid. A 
peculiarity of haschisch-delirium is the perpetually re- 
curring conviction of the unreality of the hallucinatory 
drama.^ 

1 Dieffenbach, Der ALtJier gegen den Schmerz {1847). According to 
Richer, op. ciL, hystero-epileptics are thrown into the third phase of the 
"grande hysteric" by the inhalation of gether ; Bones (of Nimes), on 
the other hand, observed {Gaz. des Hop., 1861) the calming effect 
produced by it in hysterical convulsions ; C. A. Ewald, " Ein ^ther- 
zih.mex,''^ Berl. Klin. Wochenschr., 1875, 11. 

^ Moreau, Dti Haschisch et de V Alienatioyi menfale, 1 845. 

^ Brierre de Boismont, op. ciL, pp. 444 ei seq. 

^ Moreau, op. cit. , pp. 84 et seq. 

^ A celebrated instance is the influence of haschisch on the Islamite 
order of Abdallah Megalis el Hiemit, the members of which enjoyed 
the pleasures of paradise in their ecstasies, and urged thereby to a 
fanatical courage, became a terror to Christendom. 

^Moreau, op. cif.; Schrenck-Notzing, "Die Bedeutung narco- 
tischer Mittel f. d. Hypnose," Schriften d. Ges. f. psych. Forsch , i. 
PP- 575 58. Polli in Si. Andrews Med. Grad, Assoc. Trans., iii. p. 90, 



46 HALLUCINATIONS 

Santonin is found to produce chiefly delusions of 
taste and smell/ and with cinchona (Peruvian bark) 
auditory hallucinations predominate, though other 
sensory fallacies also occur.^ Hallucinations of an 
erotic nature are attributed to opium, but when 
habitual indulgence has rendered it a necessity, and 
the dose must be continually increased, a frightful 
period of torment commences.^ Similarly, nitrous 
oxide ("laughing-gas") tends to produce hallucinations 
of an erotic nature — a fact which perhaps may help 
to explain the many charges brought against dentists, 
afterwards proved to be unfounded. 

These details, which accord with the usual view 
of the subject, must nevertheless be supplemented 
by pointing out that the specific action of the 
poison, which indeed frequently produces quite 

reports that subjects who had taken haschisch felt as though one half of 
their ego were sensible while the other half raved like a fool, and they 
were conscious of a like condition in their neighbours. Gauthier, Etude 
cliniqtie siir Vabsyjithisnie chronique (1882), says the intoxication is not 
continuous, " it seizes you and lets you go again, lifts you up to heaven 
and carries you back to earth, and that without any gradual transition." 
For further information on the subject see Rech in Journ. de Montp. 
(Dec. 1847); Dorvault in Bull, de therap. (Oct. 1848); Moreau in 
Gaz. de Bop. (1856); Ch. Judee, ibid. (1855), 70; Schrofif, Wiener 
Wochenbl. (1857), 40, 41 ; W. Watts Campbell in Med. Times and 
Gaz. (1863); Kuijkendael in Philad. Med. and Surg. Rep., xxxii. 
(1875), P- 421 ; Freusberg, Ueber die Sinnestdtischungen im Han- 
frausch; N. Lange, "Ueber die Wirkung des Haschisch, psych. 
Bem.," Fi-agen d. Psych, u. Phil., i. (1889). 

1 A. Mayer, Die Sinnestdusclmngen, HaUiicinationen und Illusionen 
(1869), p. 108 ; W. Preyer, Die fiinf Sinne des Menschen (1879), P- 66. 

2 Briquet, comp. Dietl in Wien. Wochenschr. (1852), 47-50' 

^ Thomas de Quincey, Confessions of an English Opitim-Eafer, 
describes his sensations as follows : — "And now came a tremendous 
change. . . . Hitherto the human face had often mixed in my dreams, 
but not despotically nor with any special power of tormenting. But 
now that affection which I have called the tyranny of the human face 



AND ILLUSIONS. 47 

opposite effects upon the mind, is only one of the 
factors in the building up of sensory delusions. 
Another consists, as we shall point out, in the sensory 
impressions to which the intoxicated subject is ex- 
posed. He assimilates these in the same way that 
a sleeper assimilates them, as we shall see when we 
come to discuss dreams. That is to say, he either 
apprehends them to start with through a veil of 
illusion, or he perceives them correctly, but builds 
upon them a hallucinatory superstructure. 
. But the most important factor must, after all, be 
the personal reaction. This is broadly indicated by 
the fact that, while one individual may appear in 
nowise affected, another under the influence of the 
same narcotic may become delirious and experience 

began to unfold itself . . . now it was that upon the rocking waters 
of the ocean the human face began to reveal itself; the sea appeared 
paved with innumerable faces upturned to the heavens, faces im- 
ploring, wrathful, despairing, faces that surged upwards by thousands, 
by myriads, by generations : infinite was my agitation ; my mind tossed, 
as it seemed, upon the billowy ocean, and weltered upon the weltering 
waves. 

" , . . It appeared to me that I was in bed and had awakened. In 
leaning on my hand in order to adjust my pillow, something soft 
seemed to give way beneath it. It was a corpse stretched by my side. 
I was, however, neither alarmed nor astonished. I took it in my arms 
and carried it into an adjoining room, saying to myself: * I will lay it 
there on the floor ; it is impossible that it can come in again, if I take 
the key out of the door.' Upon that I slept again, and was again 
aroused. It was by the noise of an opening door ; and this idea filled 
me with a horrible sensation. Then I saw the same dead body come 
in which I had carried away. Its action was singular ; it was that of a 
man whose bones had been taken out, and who, in his endeavours 
to support himself by his pliant, flexible muscles, was ready to fall at 
each step. However, it succeeded in reaching me, and stretched itself 
upon me. It then became a horrible nightmare, inexpressibly disgust- 
ing ; for, besides the weight of the formless mass, a pestilential odour 
arose from the kisses with which it covered me," and so on. 



48 HALLUCINATIONS 

hallucinations; and is shown further in the develop- 
ment of the sensory delusions, which may assume 
different forms, with similar narcotics and like sensory 
influences, according to the idiosyncrasy of the per- 
cipient and the feeling of the moment. "When we 
expose two individuals at the same moment to the 
same influence," says Schleiermacher, " the result will 
be different in each case, and the cause of the differ- 
ence will be not merely that each perceives something 
different, but that each has his individual way of 
assimilating to his mental organism the raw material 
supplied from without, and that this mental organism 
is different in every case." For instance, a pessimist 
being easily depressed inclines towards melancholy 
delusions, or a person of erotic tendencies will be 
haunted by voluptuous visions. It is not improbable 
that opium and haschisch owe their reputation to the 
fact that they are the narcotics of the Orientals. In 
the course of our inquiry we shall return to deal more 
fully with the influence of this factor on the develop- 
ment of fallacious perception. 

Fallacies of Perception in acnte Somatic Disorders. — 
With the hallucinations already considered, those 
appearing in the course of acute somatic diseases, and 
as a result of them, seem naturally to be classed.' 
Here, as in the delirious states associated with intoxi- 
cation, the swarming of the hallucinations is character- 

1 Compare, for this section, E. Mendel, " Die Psychosen im Gefolge 
acuter somatischer Erkrankungen," DeiitscJi. mcd. Zeitschr., vii. 19 
(18S0) ; idem, "Das Delirium acutum," Berl. Klin. Wochenschrift 
(1894), No. 24; E. Kraepelin, " Ueber den Einfluss acuter Krank- 
heiten auf die Entstehung von Geisteskrankheiten," Arch. f. Psych., 
xi., xii. ; F. C. Miiller, Ueber fsych. Erkrank. bet aciiten fieber- 
haften Krankheiten (Diss. Kiel, 1881) ; G. Aschaffenburg, Allg. Ztschr. 
f. Psych., LIL, i. p. 75 



AND ILLUSIONS. 49 

istic. This resemblance is not accidental. Indeed 
the delirious states of somatic disease may, in part at 
least, be referred to intoxication. But of no less 
importance are the rise of temperature, accelera- 
tion of metabolic processes, and disturbances of cir- 
culation in the brain cavity (first, active hyperaemia ; 
later, in enfeebled action of the heart, venous stasis), 
the importance of which is indicated in typhus, for 
instance, by the parallelism between the violence of 
the delirium and the temperature curve. The initial 
hallucinatory visions of typhus, small-pox, and in- 
termittent fever, occurring before the other causes 
have had time to act, are on the other hand to be 
attributed to the direct influence of the specific virus 
of the fever, as also the afebrile delusions, sometimes 
occurring in intermittent fever in place of the fever 
attack, and the visual and auditory hallucinations 
which are observed in small-pox between the eruptive 
fever and the fever of the suppurating stage. 

Hallucinations also occur in the decline of the 
disease, during the period of convalescence.^ First 
they appear singly, in association with those of the 
fever, and are often recognised by the patient as 
such and concealed from those around him. But 
soon they overmaster the sufferer, and delirious 
states are developed, or states resembling hallu- 
cinatory insanity, in which visions of corpses, 
death's-heads, mocking voices, and offensive olfactory 
and gustatory hallucinations play a part. Of an 
equally distressing nature are most of the sensory 
fallacies of collapse-delirium, and those which some- 
times precede death. In tuberculosis, on the other 
hand, they are often of an agreeable nature, cor- 

^ Thore in Ann. mid. -psych., April 1856; ibid.^ i860, p. 168. 

4 



50 HALLUCINATIONS 

responding to the euphoria which is so characteristic 
of this disease. 

Sensoiy Delusions of the Dream-state. — We now 
pass to fallacies of perception in sleep and dreams, 
which even in olden times, by reason of their 
frequency and their universal range, could not fail 
to arouse curiosity and offer occasion for mani- 
fold hypotheses.^ Their importance in ethnology has 
been fully vindicated by Radestock.^ According to 
the usual classification, they are divided into hallu- 
cinations, or dreams induced by association of ideas, 
and illusions, or dreams induced by nerve stimulation 
(Spitta). In the first case their content is said to be 
formed from images which attain prominence because 
the emotions, ideas, and perceptions which dominate 

^ Leaving out of account the great mass of older literature, the fol- 
lowing works appear to me important for the elucidation of the subject : 
— Macnish, The Philosophy of Sleep (1830); Jan, Der Schlaf {ik-^6) ; 
Purkinje, *'Wachen, Schlaf, Traume und verwandte Zustande," in 
Wagner's Hajidw'drterb. d. Physiologie (1846) ; Buchholz, Ueber den 
Schlaf ti7id die verwandten Ziistdnde desselben ; Lemoine, Dtt sommeil 
ail point de vne physiol. et psychol. (1855); Maury, Dii som/neil et des 
reves ; also, *'De certains faits, etc.," Ann. med -psych. (1857, April) ; 
Jessen, Versnch eine?- wissenschaft lichen Begriindwig der Psycholog. 
(1855), II. Abschn. 2, Cap, i; Schemer, Das Lehen des Traiimes (1861); 
Jensen, Trdiwie und Denken ; van Erk, Ueber den Unterschied von 
Tramn und Wachen (1874) ; L. Striimpell, Natiir tuid Entstelmng 
der Trdtcme (1874); Volkelt, Die Trail inphantasie (1875); Hilde- 
brandt, Der Traitm tmd seine Verwerthung fiirs Leben (1875); Siebeck, 
Ueher Schlaf und Tratim (1877); C. Binz, Ueber den Tratim {iSjS) ; 
Siebert, Ueber Schlaf und Traum (1878) ; Giessler, Atts den Tiefen des 
Traumlebens. But the most useful of all are : Spitta, Die Schlaf tmd 
Traum-ziisldnde der menschlichen Seele{2 Auflage 1892), and especially 
P. Radestock, Schlaf und Tratnn (1879); Delbceuf, " Le sommeil et 
les reves," in the Rev. philosoph. (1879-80) ; Weygandt, Entstelmng 
der Traume (1893); and Mourly-Vold, "Experiences sur les Reves," 
Revue de V Hypnotisine, Jan. 1896. 

2 Op. cit., Cap. I. . , 



AND ILLUSIONS. 51 

the consciousness during the waking state are blotted 
out, allowing the ideas kept under by them, and long 
struggling to arise, to emerge above the threshold of 
consciousness — a process which Aristotle compares 
to the emergence of a frog frozen in the ice, and 
Radestock to the appearance of the stars after sunset. 
Often, it is said, old memories (from youth's "golden 
age") or wishes, still active, or cherished long ago, 
are realised in these visions. 

One individual re-visited in a dream the playground of his 
youth and his youth's companions. Shortly after he returned 
in the flesh to his native place, from which he had been absent 
for many years, and reported that he found everything as it had 
appeared to him in the dream, except that his friends had grown 
older. A man-servant, who had failed to attain his cherished 
ambition of becoming a soldier, was consoled by dreams of 
mihtary glory, and while by day he blacked boots, by night he 
commanded a regiment.^ 

To this class (Spitta's Associationstrdume) belong 
many of the dreams which reveal things of which we 
were not conscious whilst awake. 

Thus Maury dreamed of the, to him, unknown town, Mussl- 
dan, and that some one told him it was in the department of Dor- 
dogne. On waking he looked it up, and found that his dream- 
informant was correct. Abercrombie^ tells how a friend of his, 
who was employed as cashier in a Glasgow bank, Avas enabled 
through information received in a dream to correct an error of 
long standing, for which he had vainly sought to account in mak- 
ing up his books at the close of the year. He also gives another 
case in which a father appeared to his son in a dream, and 
named a witness who could testify to a certain payment made 
by him before his death. For this sum the son was then being 
prosecuted, and though he was convinced that the claim was 

1 Radestock, op. cit., p. 138. 

2 Abercrombie, Inquiries concerning the Intellectual Pozvers, pp. 
280-288. 



52 HALLUCINATIONS 

unjust, he had hitherto failed to find any proof in his favour. 
But the apparition mentioned a trifling circumstance which had 
occurred in connection with the payment, and which later 
proved to be of great importance, for the witness had forgotten 
all about the transaction till the mention of this httle incident 
called up the whole scene to his mind. 

Professor Reubold (of Wiirzburg) tells of a young betrothed 
couple who, after hastily clearing the table in order to write an 
important letter, found that a watch which had been lying on 
the table had disappeared. All search proved fruitless, but a 
week later the man dreamed that it was in the outer breast- 
pocket of the coat he had been wearing at the time, and there 
the watch was found. ■" 

It is clear that in all these cases it is not a 
question of new knowledge, but of the emergence 
in the dream-state of an apparently forgotten im- 
pression. We shall encounter such phenomena fre- 
quently. 

Let us now pass to the other group, the illusions 
(Spitta's Nerveiireiztrdume^ brought about by ex- 
ternal stimuli which, as in the waking state, reach us 
through all the ordinary channels of sense. Perhaps, 
as the eyes are closed, they reach us on the whole 
less through the visual sense, yet lightning, moon- 
light, and sunlight not infrequently exercise an 
influence on the imagery of our dreams. 

Krauss^ relates that he once caught himself, on waking, in an 
amorous attitude, with his arms stretched out towards the 
opposite window, in which the image of his absent mistress 
appeared. When fully awake, this image resolved itself into the 
full moon. Schemer dreamed once, when the morning sun 
streamed into his room, that a fiery dragon was rushing upon 
him. Suddenly the dragon retreated, and on waking he found 

1 Taken from the Miinchner K'eiiesi. Nachrichten (1896), No. 138. 
^ Krauss, Der Sinn ini Wahnsinn. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 53 

that clouds had hidden the sun. Weygandt dreamed of "living 
pictures" suddenly seen in a blaze of magnesium light. In this 
case the morning sun had just broken through the clouds. 

Besides these external influences acting on the eye, 
changes taking place in the visual organ itself are to 
be noted. I pass them over here, however, as we 
shall encounter them later on, when we come 
to discuss the theory of hallucination. 

The sensory stimuli which reach us through the 
ear are of great importance in the formation of 
dream-images. 

The banging of a door or the noise of an overturned chair 
may involve us in a dream-duel, ending in the loud report of a 
pistol. When a child, Maury fell asleep one day of great heat, 
and dreamed that his head lay on an anvil and was being 
smitten with a blacksmith's hammer ; yet it was not crushed ; 
it melted away to water. On awaking he found himself bathed 
in sweat, and heard from the neighbouring smithy the sound of 
the blacksmith's hammer. Weygandt dreamed on a railway 
journey, when the engine whistled, of a girl who was screaming 
and crying shrilly because she was being scolded. " Between 
sleeping and waking this morning I perceived a dog running 
about in a field (an ideal white and tan sporting dog, etc.), and 
the next moment I heard a dog barking outside the window. 
Keeping my closed eyes on the vision, I found that it came and 
went with the barking of the dog outside." ^ 

The part played in building up dream-images by 
the two senses of smell and taste is not so easy 
to indicate. While visual stimuli in far the greater 
number of cases give rise to visual hallucinations, 
and noises, etc., generally induce hallucinations of 
hearing, it rarely happens that the dreams which 
spring from olfactory and gustatory stimuli bear any 
qualitative relation to their exciting causes. Thus 

^ PhaiitasiHS of the Livings i. p. 474. 



54 HALLUCINATIONS 

strong odours, flower-scents, heavily perfumed hand- 
kerchiefs or soap, have an unpleasant effect upon the 
dreamer, causing oppressed breathing, with its accom- 
panying dreams, but seldom give rise to percepts 
normally associated with such scents. These do, 
however, sometimes occur, as in the case of the 
individual who directed his servant to sprinkle his 
pillow sometimes after he was asleep (leaving the 
choice of the particular night to the servant) with a 
perfume which he had only used during a certain 
stay in the country, but to which he had then taken 
a great fancy. On those nights he visited again in 
his dreams the scenes associated in his mind with the 
perfume. The occurrence of imaginary tastes and 
smells in dreams is very rare, so much so that it has 
been altogether denied by many observers. Still a 
few cases have been reported.^ 

Sensations of pressure, temperature, and of the 
cutaneous sensibility in general are among the chief 
causes of dreams. 

The bedcover pressing on the arm is embraced as a mistress, 
or felt as a heavy weight; a dream of being impaled, that is to 
say, of standing on a stake, the point of which was thrust through 
the foot, has been known to arise from the pressure of a straw 
lodged between the toes ; a covering which has slipped to the 
ground is sometimes a source of great embarrassment, when it 
causes us to dream of appearing half clad in the street or at a 
social gathering; or it may call up visions of skating, Alpine 
travels. Polar expeditions, and these again may suddenly end in 
the feeling of falling into a gulf, due to a slight alteration of the 
sleeper's position in bed.^ Gregory, when he had a hot-water 

^ Sully, Illusions (1881), p. 144. In the case quoted by Weygandt, 
op. cit., pp. 47 et seq., the olfactory stimulus was perceived objectively, 
and therefore can hardly be called an olfactory dream. 

- Savage, op. cit., p. 129. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 55 

bottle at his feet, dreamed that he was chmbing Etna and 
walking on hot lava. Purkinje says : " If our hand has become 
numb by pressure, in the dream-state it may appear as some- 
thing strange and gruesome touching us, and if the whole side 
is affected, we imagine that a strange bedfellow, whom we 
cannot get rid of, is stretched beside us." ^ 

Besides arisinsr out of these and similar external 
influences, our dreams often spring from feelings 
connected with the bodily organs themselves, for in 
the dream-state the " organic sense '' of our waking 
life is split up into its constituent parts, and separate 
feelings due to slight irregularities or disturbances of 
the functions easily become elements in the dream- 
consciousness.2 Thus, for example, the dream of 
having a tooth extracted may originate in an in- 
cipient toothache, which perhaps twenty-four hours 
later may become sufficiently intense to affect the 
waking consciousness. Irregularity of the heart's 
action, difficulty in breathing, an uncomfortable 

^ According to J. Hourly- Void, " Experiences sur les Reves, etc.," 
Revue de V Hypnotisme^ Jan. 1896, the influence of position during sleep 
is generally exhibited in one of the following ways: — (i) The position 
of a member may be perceived more or less correctly, but suggest ah 
attitude; for instance, if the foot is stretched and bent back it suggests 
the dream of standing on tip-toe to reach something ; (2) the strained 
position may be taken to be part of a movement, and the dreamer seem 
to be dancing on his toes; (3) the movements may appear to be executed 
by some one else; (4) sometimes the movements seem to be impeded; 
(5) the affected member may be changed in the dream into some animal 
or inanimate object of analogous form; (6) sometimes the dream-per- 
ception of the member gives rise to abstract ideas, which it symbolises; 
for instance, the perception of several fingers may give rise to dreams 
of numbers and calculations. 

^ Of these constituent parts in relation to the character of dreams, 
Weygandt has experimentally investigated sensations of fatigue, in- 
digestion, fulness of the bladder, free and restricted breathing, the 
circulation, and the sense of equilibrium. The influence of sexual 
excitation could also be easily proved. 



^6 HALLUCINATIONS 

position, and errors of diet are the not infrequent 
causes of distressing dreams. 

Thus Herrmann, when suffering from an attack of colic, 
dreamed that his abdomen was opened, and an operation 
performed on the sympathetic nerve. Others dream of going 
Up for examinations. The house-wife dreams she is giving a 
party, and that all her dainties are burnt up, and so on. 

To the causes just mentioned (Schech also men- 
tions nasal polypus) is to be referred nightmare^ 
(also called incubus, succubus, and night-hag), which 
has played no small part in the development of 
daemonology, the belief in vampires, witches, and 
so on. For naturally the character of the dream 
imagery does not depend only on the stimuli which 
started it, but also on the intellectual and emotional 
idiosyncrasies of the dreamer (Radestock). Accord- 
ingly, the dream-images accompanying the stimuli, 
or rather originated by them, differ widely in 
different persons, and this is also true of the further 
secondary fallacies of perception which associate 
themselves with these primary illusions. Generally 
speaking, however, we may assume that in the 
majority of cases externally associated images are 

^ ]\L Strahl, D6r Alp, sciii IVesen and seine Heilung (1833), with a 
bibliography of the older woiks; Albers, Beobachtiingen atif deiii Gebia 
d.r Falhologie, iii. p. 59 (1840); Boerner, Das Alpdrncken, seine Begriln- 
dimgund Verhiilimg {\?>^^)', Binz, op. ci!. In a viva vcce communi- 
cation from Dr. C. Y. Mailer I obtained the following : — A medireval 
superstition explained incubus, vampires, etc., as the fruit of unnatural 
intercourse between man and beast, and was formally expressed up to 
the beginning of our century by the fact that the legal punishment for 
this offence, death by fire, was inflicted only when such intercourse was 
proved to have been consummated. In such cases the animal was also 
burnt, or otherwise put out of the way, a proceeding partaking more of 
the nature of sel ''-protection than of punishment. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 5/ 

reproduced, even when such pronounced cases as the 
following have to be classed as exceptions. 

Maury once dreamed that he made a pilgrimage ijpelerinage) 
to Jerusalem, then found himself in the presence of the chemist 
Pelletier, who gave him a shovel {pelle). Another time he 
dreamed first oi kilometres, then oi kilograms, the island Gilolo, 
the flower lobelia, General Lopes, and a party of loto. An 
acquaintance once told hjm that he dreamed he was in \.h.Q./a>din 
des Plantes, and there met the traveller Chardiii, who gave him 
a book h\' Jules Janin. 

The dependence of dreams on particular stimuli is 
best shown by experiments ; new conditions may be 
artificially introduced, and the dream may then be 
compared with the means employed.^ 

When water was dropped into the open mouth of a sleeper, 
he dreamed that he was swimming, and made the corresponding 
motions. A light silk handkerchief laid over the mouth and 
nose produced the dream of being buried alive. A mustard- 
plaster laid on the head caused the subject to dream of being 
scalped by Indians; and so on." 

Fallacious Perception in Hypnosis. — Dreams ex- 

^ Self-experiment, and the repetition of the same experiment in 
order to induce a dream experienced before under like conditions, 
is a less trustworthy method. (Compare Spitta, op. cit., p. 227,) The 
train of thought which is started in the waking state, while we are 
preparing for the experiment, is likely to act as a pre-hypnotic 
suggestion. As examples of this kind of self-suggestion are com- 
paratively rare in the literature of the subject, I venture to cite one 
here. A shoemaker with whom I sometimes experimented begged me 
to give him a suggestion which would cure him of the bad habit of 
oversleeping himself. Although by an oversight the suggestion was 
not given while he was in the hypnotic trance, the pre-hypnotic auto- 
suggestion proved sufficient for the purpose ; at least a fortnight later 
he had not once failed to respond to the summons of the early morning 
bell, which he had not heard for years before. 

^ Spitta, op. cit., p. 278 ; Boerner, op. cit.; Weygandt, op. cit.; and 
Qthers, 



SS HALLUCINATIONS 

perimentally induced during sleep in the manner 
above described lead us naturally to those of the 
hypnotic state, and indeed they are in some cases 
not to be distinguished from tbem — in cases, that is 
to say, where in normal sleep the hallucinations cor- 
respond directly to distinct verbal suggestions. The 
classic instance is that furnished by i\bercrombie 
of the officers who, by whispering in their sleeping 
comrade's ear, made him go through all the incidents 
of a duel, from the challenge to the final pistol-shot. 
Beattie gives similar cases. The numerous examples 
supplied by the literature of hypnotism render it 
superfluous to cite further experiments here, for 
instances like the above in nowise differ from the 
ordinary phenomena of hypnotic suggestion. The 
suggested hallucinations of hypnosis are to be dis- 
tinguished, however, from the fallacies of perception 
discussed in the preceding paragraph, where the 
stimulus which is elaborated into a dream-illusion is 
but dimly and vaguely felt by the sleeper, where the 
sound of words addressed to him, for instance, only 
reaches his dreaming ear as a murmur, so that he 
imagines himself walking by a murmuring stream, or 
among trees soughing in the wind. But in the cases 
with which we are now concerned, spoken words are 
clearly distinguished from other sounds, are intel- 
ligently perceived, and produce their appropriate 
dream-images. 

As, however, this direct dramatic response to 
verbal suggestion had rarely been observed except 
in hypnosis, and in that state could be very easily 
produced, it came to be regarded as a typical hyp- 
notic phenomenon, and the distinction drawn by 
Spitta between sleep and hypnosis was generally 



AND ILLUSIONS. 59 

accepted.! According to him, "normal" sleep is 
less pervious to external influences than the alert 
"artificially induced" state of the hypnotised subject. 
In the former case, he says, the suggested dream 
depends on the operator only at its commencement, 
and is continued quite independently by the " auto- 
matic action " of the brain. 

This is no doubt true of the greater number of 
suggested dreams in sleep, for in the first place the 
experimenter wishes, as a rule, to study the results of 
a single isolated impression, and refrains from con- 
fusing it by adding other suggestions, and the further 
course of the dream is abandoned to the guidance of 
cerebral automatism, or becomes modified by incal- 
culable accidents; while, on the other hand, the dream 
of the hypnotic subject is generally guided by a 
series of suggestions. Secondly, the suggestions given 
to the normal sleeper have usually been vague and 
elementary in character (pressure, cold, touch, light, 
etc.). He interprets these mistakenly, and it is 
difficult for the experimenter to guide further a dream 
of which he does not know the content.^ In most 
hypnotic experiments definite suggestions are given, 
and though the subject does indeed develop them 
in his own way, still the experimenter remains in 
closer touch with him. Thus the difference is not a 
fundamental one, but is conditioned by the difference 
in the amount of experimental interference; more- 
over, there are cases on record, like those cited by 
Abcrcrombie and Beattie, where the experimenter 

^ Spitta, op. ciL, p. 130. 

^ How important it is for the operator to be in touch with the content 
of the subject's dream is shown by Moll, Rapport in der Hypnose^ 
p. 30S (36), Case 21. 



6o HALLUCINATIONS 

was able to guide as he liked the dream of a 
normal sleeper. 

On the other hand, there are cases where the hyp- 
notic dream depends but little on the direct influence 
of the operator, when only a vague suggestion is given. 
Suppose a march is played on the piano without any 
verbal suggestion being added, the subject may, as 
likely as not, look out of an imaginary window and 
watch a phantom band march past w^ith fife and drum. 
Again, the suggested dream of hypnosis may be 
carried on by the subject independently. Let the 
experimenter but refrain from breaking in with new 
suggestions, let him leave the subject to his own 
devices, and the opportunity will be afforded him of 
watching the unfolding of a continued dream. 

This was very well shown in the case of a gardener-lad with 
whom I experimented. After a series of experiments, I left 
him to himself for some time smoking a "suggested" pipe, 
while 1 noted down my observations. Suddenly he snatched 
this miaginary pipe out of his mouth, made a horrid grimace, 
and proceeded to spit out imaginary tobacco juice, with signs 
of lively disgust. 

Nor is the well-known phenomenon called ^^ deroule- 
inent'' anything more than a vivid continued dream. 
It consists in this, that often on a slight and accidental 
incitement, and sometimes very much against the 
intention of the experimenter, a long or short 
series of scenes from a former state of hypnosis are 
automatically reproduced. 

A similar phenomenon is the objectivation des types^ 
when the subject develops a mental delusion sug- 
gested by the operator in association with various 
hallucinations and illusions which are interwoven 
with it. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 6 1 

Furthermore, It is a fact that in hypnosis, exactly 
as in sleep, spontaneous hallucinations and illusions 
occur. Sometimes they are so lively, as in the case 
of " mediums" and "magnetic" somnambulists, that 
the experimenter ceases to exert any power over them 
at all ; in other cases he may be able to guide them 
to some extent, and at least he is generally able to 
break the chain of associated ideas at any moment by 
suggestion and cause them to disappear. Bernheim 
quotes two cases,^ and though he mentions this type 
of somnambulism but seldom, it is nevertheless to be 
met with quite frequently in cases where the experi- 
menter contents himself with watching the course of 
a dream which is not " acted out," but which runs on 
like the dreams of ordinary sleep, and occurs oftenest 
when the subject is left to himself On account of 
this tendency of the hypnotic dream to run on, 
Ringier has urged^ that, in the therapeutic practice 
of hypnotism, it is unadvisable to leave the patient 
long alone without from time to time repeating the 
curative suggestion. 

Generally speaking, the similarity which exists 
between the hallucinations of hypnosis and of sleep 
extends to those of the post-hypnotic state. But 
it should be noted that while in the majority 
of cases the appearance of the suggested hallu- 

^ Bernheim, De la Suggestion, pp. 64-67. {Suggestive Therapeutics. 
From the French, New York and London, 1889.) 

" Ringier, Erfolge des therapeutischeit Hypnotisvms in der Land- 
praxis, pp. 95 et seq. 

^ Though the auto-suggestive continuation and spontaneous origin of 
sensory delusions can be so easily observed in hypnosis, it may not be 
superfluous to emphasize their occurrence here, since Ochorowicz still 
thought it necessary to question it in the programme of the Psycho- 
physiological Congress in Paris. 



62 HALLUCINATIONS 

cination is sufficient to induce a more or less 
pronounced hypnoid condition, there are other sub- 
jects who, while responding to the suggestion, 
remain to all appearance in the normal state.^ Such 
cases recall the hallucinations of paranoia, which are 
also characterised by the maintenance of conscious- 
ness, and here as there the percipient is in nowise 
confused, and while experiencing hallucinations may 
perhaps be engaged in a lively conversation with 
those around him. 

Frau U.J an innkeeper's wife, 45 years of age, an extremely 
sug-gestible subject (so much so that while awake a mere assur- 
ance that she could not move her limbs deprived her of all power 
of movement), was hypnotised by me, and the post-hypnotic sug- 
gestion given that each time A., who was present, should cough, 
a fly would alight on her brow. The hallucination was realised; 
at each cough of A.'s she raised her hand to her forehead and 
looked up into the air as though watching a fly. This did 
not prevent her, however, from continuing with animation her 
conversation with me on the preparations for her daughter's 
approaching marriage. Her prompt reaction to suggestions 
given in ordinary life rendered her post-hypnotic suggestibility 
valueless as a test of her state of consciousness. 

Bernheim communicates the following case of a young girl, 
of unusual intelligence, and free from hysterical tendency^: — " I 
arranged that on waking she should see an imaginary rose. 
She saw it, touched and smelt it, and described it to me ; but 
knowing that I might have given her a suggestion, she asked 
me if the rose was a real or imaginary one, adding that it was 
quite impossible for her to tell the difference. I told her 
that it was imaginary. She believed me, and yet found 
that by no effort of the will could she make it disappear. ' I 
can still see and touch it,' she said, 'as though it were natural; 
and if you were to show me a real rose beside it, or instead of 
it, I should not be able to tell the one from the other.' All this 

^ Gurney in the Proceedings of the S.P.R., 1S87 ; see note, p. 307. 
^ Bernheim, op. cit., p. 38. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 63 

time she was thoroughly awake, and talked quietly with me 
about the apparition." 

Crystal-visions. — The class of hallucinations which 
we shall now proceed to discuss, those known as 
" crystal-visions," 1 also seem to occur in full normal 
consciousness. These visions may be experimentally 
induced as follows. The percipient strives to banish 
all conscious thought from his mind, and fixes his 
gaze continuously on a " Braid's crystal," a burning 
glass in a dark frame, a glass of water or some similar 
reflecting object.^ Many persons after gazing thus for 
some time begin to see pictures in the crystal, the 
spire of the parish church perhaps, or familiar faces. 

The art of crystal-gazing has been practised from very early 
times.^ Divination by means of crystals and various reflecting 
objects (such as metal mirrors, beryl stones and other gems, 
vessels containing water, wells and springs, liquid poured into 
the palm of the hand, oiled finger-nails, etc.) was practised 
by the Assyrians, Persians, Egyptians, and in Greece, Rome, 
China, India, and Japan, not to speak of the cup-divination 
among the South Sea Islanders. This art, whose discovery 
y^schylus attributed to Prometheus, Cicero to the Assyrians, 
Zoroaster to Ahriman, and the Fathers of the Church to the 
Father of Lies, reached its highest development in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, and found its exponents among the 
learned physicians and mathematicians of the Courts of Eliza- 
beth, the Italian Princes, Catherine de Medici, and the Emperors 
Maximilian and Rudolph. As all the various methods of mirror 

1 Compare "Recent Experiments in Crystal- Vision," Proceed, of the 
Sac. f. Psych. Pes., vol. v. (1888-89), PP- 4^6 et seq.; Myers, "The 
Subliminal Consciousness," id., vol. viii. (1892), p. 472; Rells, 
Psychol. Skizzen (1893), p. I. 

^ C. G. Carus reports a case where fixed gazing at the shining lock 
of a door gave rise to hallucinations. 

^ For the historical part, see "Recent Experiments, etc.;" Kiese- 
wetter, Faiist in der GeschicJite taid Ti-adi(io7i, etc. (1893); and 
mUuchen akad. Monatshefte (1890), vol. 78-82. 



64 HALLUCINATIONS 

or crystal divination resemble each other closely in many ways, 
— for instance, in laying stress on the condition that the seer 
should be a child "who had not known sin,"— suffice it in this 
short glance at the history of the subject to take the description 
written in Egypt by an eye-witness, LaneJ His curiosity was 
excited by Mr. Salt, the English Consul-General, who, on 
suspecting his servants of theft, sent for a magician, Mr. Salt 
himself selected a boy as seer, while the magician occupied 
himself with writing charms on pieces of paper which, with 
incense and perfumes, were afterwards burned in a brazier of 
charcoal ; then, drawing a diagram in the boy's right palm, into 
the middle of which he poured some ink, he bade him look 
fixedly into it. After various visions had come and gone, the 
form of the guilty person appeared to the boy, and was re- 
cognised by the description he gave. On being arrested the 
thief thus strangely convicted confessed his crime. 

This incident prompted Lane to further inquiries, and other 
results, of which he gives a very full account, were obtained. On 
one occasion the magician wrote certain invocations on paper, 
summoning his two genii, then added a verse from the Koran, 
"to open the boy's eyes in a supernatural manner . . to make 
his sight pierce into what is to us the invisible world." These 
were burnt in a chafing dish containing live charcoal, with frank- 
incense and various spices, etc. A boy of eight or nine years 
old had been chosen at random from a number who happened 
to be passing in the street, and the magician, taking hold of his 
right hand drew in the palm a magic square, that is to say one 
square inscribed within another, and in the space between 
certain Arabic numerals ; then, pouring ink into the centre, 
bade the boy look into it attentively. At first he could only see 
the face of the magician ; but proceeding with his inspection 
while the other continued to drop written invocations into the 
chafing-dish, he at length described a man sweeping with a 
broom, then a scene in which flags and soldiers appeared; and 
finally Lane asked that Nelson should be called for. The boy 
described a man in European clothes of dark blue, who had 
lost his left arm, but added, on looking more intently, " No, it 

■^ Lane, Customs of the Modern Egyptians (1833-35), I. cap. 12. 
Compare a similar description in Burke's Anecdotes of the Aristocracy 
and Episodes of Aiicestral History^ vol. i. p. 124. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 6$ 

is placed to his breast.'^ Lord Nelson generally had an empty 
sleeve attached to the breast of his coat, but, as it was the ri'^/i^ 
arm he had lost, Lane adds : " Without saying that I suspected 
the boy had made a mistake, I asked the magician whether the 
objects appeared in the ink as if actually before the eyes, or as 
if in a glass, which makes the right appear left. He answered 
they appeared as in a mirror. This rendered the boy's descrip- 
tion faultless." 

Among the Greeks, besides crystal-gazing strictly so-called, 
other methods of divination by reflection were used. There 
was /lydromancy, which was practised chiefly at Patrae, where 
the fountain before the temple of Demeter delivered oracles. 
The manner of consulting it was this : a mirror was let down by 
a small cord into the fountain, so that it just touched the surface 
of the water, and from the various figures and images which 
appeared upon it, divination was made. Then there was 
/ecanomancy, in which a bowl containing water, or a mixture of 
oil and wine, took the place of the crystal; caioptromancy^^ in 
which metal mirrors were used ; gastromancy^ in which with 
certain incantations a boy was appointed to observe the middle 
point {ya-cFT-qp) of a glass vessel full of water, surrounded by 
torches ; lastly, onycJioniancy^ performed by the oiled finger nails 
of an unpolluted boy. There can be little doubt that the cup of 
Joseph, "in which my lord drinketh, and whereby indeed he 
divineth," was used for such magical purposes.^ 

Numerous instances of divination by mirror or crystal-gazing 
occurred among the Romans. In the writings of St. Thomas 
Aquinas, and others of the Fathers, the art is condemned as 
devilish in its origin, but in spite of saintly malisons, in spite of 
a special condemnation from the Faculty of Theology in Paris 
(1398), the Specularii continued to flourish. Pico de Miran- 
dola (1463-94), himself a foe to astrologers, who had declared 
his death in his thirty-second year, was a firm believer in mirror- 
visions. 

1 Practised by Septimius Severus and Julian the Apostate, among 
others. Bodinus, DLVvioioviania, and Fromman, De Fascinatione 
(1676), p. 727, report the like of Catherine de Medici. 

^ Genesis xliv. 5. Compare also the names of two of the stones 
on the breastplate which the high priest wore when he went before the 
Lord — Johalam and Ahaloma (//a/aw = vision), Exodus xxviii. 19, 20. 

5 



66 HALLUCINATIONS 

Johann Rist, the accomplished mathematician and scholar, 
tells of a wonderful crystal made by Wysbro in Augsburg ; and 
seventeenth century writers frequently refer to a famous crystal 
at Nuremberg, by which even a scientific problem is reported to 
have been solved ! In England, in the middle of the sixteenth 
centur}', Dr. Dee, famous for his crystal visions and prophecies, 
flourished at the court of Elizabeth. He has left behind him 
a chronicle of his experiences in a very readable book. The 
story is well known of the prophecy which revealed to the Duke 
of Orleans the fate of the princes through whose death he 
became Regent of France. 

In legends and fairy tales too the magic-mirror often figures 
(Snowwhite's "little mirror on the wall;" The Arabian Nights); 
and the theme has passed into modern literature, in the fairy 
tales of Musseus, Fouque's " Zauberring," etc. 

Some of the crystal-visions obtained in the manner 
above described are held by those who report them 
to be telepathic or "veridical." I shall not discuss 
these here, however, as we must first come to some 
conclusion on telepathy itself. By far the greatest 
number deal with memory-pictures, and not a few- 
reproduce visual impressions which have not pene- 
trated to the " upper consciousness " (Dessoir's 
Oberbewiisstsein} Myers' supra-linmial consciousness)^ 
or externalise ideas which, to keep to the same 
terminology, were latent in the percipient's sub- 
limmal consciousness. The reproduction of a visual 
impression which had apjDarently " dropped out " is 
well illustrated by the following example : — - 

" I had carelessly destroyed a letter without preserving the 
address of my correspondent. I knew the county, and search- 
ing in a map recognised the name of the town, one unfamiliar 
to me, but which I was sure I should know when I saw it. 

^ M. Dessoir, Das Doppel-ich. 

^ "Recent Experiments in Crystal-Vision," from which account the 
following examples are taken. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 6/ 

But I had no clue to the name of house or street, till at last 
it struck me to test the value of the crystal as a means of 
recalling forgotten knowledge. A very short inspection sup- 
plied me with ' H ■ House' (the entire word in grey letters 

on a white ground), and having nothing better to suggest from 
any other source, I risked posting my letter to the address so 
strangely supplied. A day or two brought me an answer, 
headed 'H House,' in grey letters on a white ground.*'^ 

A similar case is that of the appearance in the 
crystal of a newspaper paragraph announcing the 
decease of an acquaintance, whose illness and death 
were unknown to the percipient. It happened, how- 
ever, that she had been interrupted the day before 
while reading the first sheet of the Times, and the 
paragraph, almost word for word as it had appeared 
in the crystal, was discovered just where she had 
broken off The visual impression of the words had 
been received, but had never reached the percipient's 
consciousness, and now emerged as a hallucination.^ 

1 In another case the information obtained through the crystal was false. 

- That in such cases there is no need to speak of a subconscious 
"intelligence" is shown by those examples in which the impression 
subconsciously received is wholly destitute of ideational quality, and is 
therefore reproduced hallucinatorily as a pure sense impression. Thus 
a lady saw in the crystal the following letters appear one after another, 
de tnazv aen oemo s 1 ni oj aet av irpelc r ic, and so on, which 
apparently meaningless message was at length discovered to be the 
reproduction of a newspaper paragraph : " Wanted a some one to join 
a private circle," etc., each word being spelt backward separately. 
Such a senseless reproduction of visual impressions, associated only by 
mere external sequence, is often met with in automatic writing. This 
occurs most frequently as "mirror-script"'; or, as I have myself 
observed, planchette somethiies writes bonsirophedo7i, that is to say 
from left to right in the ordinary way, and back again from right to left 
in " miiror-script." Another illustration is to be found in the anagrams 
produced by automatic writing. (See the case of " Clelia " in the 
Froc. of the S.F.R., 1883-84, p. 226.) So there is absolutely no 
need to postulate, like Du Prel, special mysteries and laws of the 
"spirit- world." 



68 HALLUCINATIONS 

The part played by association in this reproduction 
is shown in the following case : — 

" One of my earliest experiences was a picture, perplexing 
and wholly unexpected — a quaint oak chair, an old hand, a worn 
black coat-sleeve resting on the arm of the chair, — slowly 
recognised as the recollection of a room in a country vicarage, 
which I had not entered and but seldom recalled since I was a 
child of ten. But whence came this vision, what association 
had conjured up this picture ? ... At length the clue was 
found. I had that day been reading in Dante, first enjoyed 
with the help of our dear old vicar many a year ago." 

If we now pass to the visions of the second class, 
the externalisation of latent ideas, w^e find that, as in 
hypnotism, the image may be awakened by the sound 
of an associated word, and rise to the level of a 
hallucinatory perception. Exactly in the same way 
in crystal-vision it may be excited by a related 
visual impression, a printed word for instance, con- 
sciously or unconsciously received, and may under 
favourable conditions be projected in the form of a 
hallucination, like the frozen music in Baron Munch- 
hausen's posthorn, which could be thawed out m a warm 
room and set merrily sounding. Thus Miss X., the 
writer on crystal-vision in the Proceedings, tells how she 
cut the pages of a book without reading it, and soon 
after, on looking into the crystal, saw first a rock}- 
coast, which was afterwards nearly eclipsed by the 
image of a large mouse. Two da}\s later, on taking 
up the same volume to read it, a couple of lines 
which caught her eye seemed somehow familiar — 

" Only the sea intoning. 
Only the wainscoat mouse," 

and she concluded that these words, unconsciously 
read before, had suggested the visions. On another 



AND ILLUSIONS. 6g 

occasion it was shown that a puzzHng vision of the 
corner of a room decorated in green, white, and red 
stripes, was to be explained by a letter recently 
received from a friend who was having her house re- 
decorated, and wrote that the staircase had just been 
painted, and "looked at present like a Neapolitan 
ice." 

From my own experiments I select the following : — A hyp- 
notised subject, A., received the post-hypnotic suggestion that 
he could not open the door of the room or go out through the open 
door. When awakened he was absolutely amnestic. An experi- 
ment in crystal-vision, made after twenty-five minutes' talk, 
yielded the pentagram ; on a second experiment being made, the 
word "" D7'ude/{fi/ss'" (AngUce, pciitagrani) appeared in Roman 
characters. The first two letters were so indistinctly written 
that A. could only read '"'' udenfiiss'''' at first, and arrived at the 
word through trying various combinations. Even then he con- 
tinued to complain that the ^'' Dr" was. hardly legible. 

The last example which I shall give is again taken 
from Miss X.'s account, and seems to me of special 
interest, as illustrating how purely abstract concep- 
tions may give rise to concrete images. 

" On March 20th I happened to want the date of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, which I could not recall, though feeling sure that I 
knew it, and that I associated it with some event of importance. 
When looking in the crystal some hours later I found a picture 
of an old man, with long white hair and beard, dressed like a 
Lyceum Shylock, and busy writing in a large book with tar- 
nished massive clasps. I wondered much who he was and what 
he could possibly be doing, and thought it a good opportunity 
of carrying out a suggestion which had been made to me, of 
examining objects in the crystal with a magnifying glass. The 
glass revealed to me that my old gentleman was writing in 
Greek, though the lines faded away as I looked, all but the 
characters he had last traced, the Latin numerals LXX. Then 
it flashed into my mind that he was one of the Jewish elders at 
work on the Septuagint, and that its date, 277 B.C., would 



70 HALLUCINATIONS 

serve equally well for Ptolemy Philadelphus ! It may be worth 
while to add, though the fact was not in my conscious memory 
at the moment, that I had once learned a chronology on a 
mnemonic system which substituted letters for figures, and that 
the memoria technica for this date was ' Now Jewish Elders 
indite a Greek copy.' " 

Just as visual images may be called up by gazing 
on a shining object, so by placing a sea-shell to the 
ear it is possible to induce auditory hallucinations. 
I therefore class such hallucinations with crystal- 
visions, which they resemble in their content. This 
analogy is borne out by cases like that of the 
lady who, if she listened to the shell after a dinner- 
party generally heard repeated, not the conversation 
of her "lawful interlocutor," to which her attention 
had been directed, but the talk of her neighbours on 
the other side, which she had not consciously noted at 
the time.i 

The history of divination by voice-oracles and 
sounds takes us, like crystal -vision, to remote 
countries and legendary times. Dodona had its 
murmuring grove, and, coming to a later date, we 
read of shell-divination as practised by the Thibetan 
Buddhists, by the Chinese, and by other Eastern 
folks, while even to this day the Hungarian gipsies 
listen for the voice of the Nivasha, or Spirit of the 
Air, in the sea-shell. That this art was familiar 
to the necromancers of the Middle Ages is indicated 
by a passage in Paracelsus.^ Some experiments are 
reported by Spitta,'"^ who fastened up a bell of about 
twenty inches in diameter in a large and lofty room, 

^ Myers, "The Subliminal Consciousness,' Proc. of the Soc. f. 
Psych. Res., vol. viii. p. 493. 

^ Paracelsus, Archidoxoruni, L. 6. 
^ Spilta, op. cit., p. 293. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 7 1 

from which he excluded the hght. He then struck 
the bell several times gently on the rim with a sort 
of drum-stick covered with a cloth. While straining 
his ear to catch the last faint reverberations he found 
that he was able to call up auditory delusions. The 
only one which he has recorded, however, is founded 
upon an illusory interpretation of the sound of the 
bell. 

Dissociation of Consciousness the common Character- 
istic of all these States. — If we now cast a glance 
back at the matter which we have been considering 
in this chapter, and seek for some quality common 
to all the various states in which hallucinations occur, 
we shall find that their most striking characteristic 
is the dissociation of consciousness. Obstructed as- 
sociation is indicated in almost every case. In 
melancholia it is " not the energy of the psychical 
processes which is abnormally feeble, but the resist- 
ance which is abnormally great." ^ In mania, indeed, 
there would seem to be a swifter on-rush of ideas. 
In alcohol-delirium however, which, besides its many 
other resemblances to mania,^ exhibits a quickened 
flow of verbal images, it is seen that this is accom- 
panied by a slowing downof the actual work of thinking.^ 
"It would seem, therefore, that there is free play of 
mental images when the intellectual factor gives 
place to those motor elements which arise out of 
mere verbal naming. This would at least explain 
the want of unity in the train of thought frequently 

^ Kraepelin, Psychiatrie, p. 292. 

- Compare the parallel drawn by Griesinger between alcohol-de- 
lirium and mania, op. cif., § 144, 

^ See Kraepelin, Ueber die BeeinJIussiing eiiifach. psych. Vorgiinge 
dwell einige Arzneimittel (1892). 



yi HALLUCINATIONS 

to be observed under such circumstances, and the 
prominence of purely external auditory associations. 
The patient babbles senselessly, because the flow of 
verbal images is accelerated, while the association of 
ideas is impeded/'^ Since the hereditarily degenerate 
are so liable to hallucinations, that some patients 
seem to see and hear everything they think, and 
cannot shake off the deceptions of which they are 
conscious,^ we must suppose that the higher neural 
elements are in their case easily exhausted, so that 
their state resembles that which follows on prolonged 
fasting;^ or where, from whatever cause, inanition, 
with its attendant hallucinations, is present* 

It is unnecessary to emphasise the point further 
with regard to the hallucinations accompanying 
hysteria, epilepsy, states of intoxication, fever-de- 
lirium and sleep,'^ or indeed with regard to those 
occurring in hypnosis, notwithstanding the rare cases 
of post-hypnotic hallucinations in which a disturbance 
of consciousness has not been observed or proved. 
In crystal-vision, freedom from conscious thought or 
mental pre-occupation is an essential condition.*^ 

Whilst laying stress upon this connnon element we 

^ Kraepelin, Psychialrie, pp. 280, 281. 

2 Lange, On Arvelighendens IndJIydehe i Siiisygdomene (1883). 

^ For instance, as a preparation for ecstasy. 

^ Becquet, Arch. gen. 6, Ser. VII., pp. 169, 303 (1866), says that the 
delirium of inanition is mild, and the accompanying hallucinations not 
of a terrifying nature. 

^ For the grounds for assuming a partial dissociation in the halluci- 
nations of paranoia, especially of the auditory type, see later. 

*' " Miss X" states that during her experiments in crystal-vision her 
consciousness was in every way quite normal, but the expressions used 
by the writer of the letter, published in another article by " Miss X" 
{^Proc. S.P.R.^ vol. i., March 1895, p. 132)5 about the latter's " un- 
canny "and "fixed" look, and her "dreamy, far-away tone," make 
these statements appear somewhat paradoxical. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 73 

do not seek in any way to underrate the differences 
between the various states in ivJiicJi sense-deceptions 
may occur. Indeed, these differences are shown 
clearly enough in the character of the hallucinations, 
not so much as regards their content, as in the 
manner of their occurrence. Thus the strongly- 
marked, vividly-externalised hallucination of mono- 
mania is self-contained, and changing but slowly, 
differs widely from the unstable hallucination of the 
hysterical subject, which springs like his mental 
delusions from obscure sensations, and owing to the 
transitory nature of the exciting cause generally 
possesses little permanence. In general paralysis the 
loss of the critical faculties and power of judgment^ 
caused by the lapse of the higher mental functions, 
which expresses itself in absurd and aimless babble, 
is reflected also in the character of the hallucinations ; 
whilst in mania nothing is more striking than the 
superficiality of the sensory delusions, and their 
liability to change their character, as indicated by 
the way in which the patient will laughingly contra- 
dict his own statements of the moment before. 

It is clear that the state of dissociation is not 
always the same. Rather we find an endless series 
of gradations from the deepest stages of beclouded 
consciousness to one which is hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from the normal ; or, to express it differ- 
ently, from the slightest indications of obstructed 
association to its almost complete inhibition; or from 
the profound cleavage of consciousness to the mere 
splitting off of single elements, or small groups of 
elements. The more complete the obstruction of the 
association paths, and the deeper the disturbance of 
consciousness, the more numerous are the sensory 



74 HALLUCINATIONS 

delusions (as in collapse and fever-delirium, for 
instance), and the less likely are they to be re- 
membered. Thus, states of profound disturbance of 
consciousness, like epilepsy and deep sleep, are sub- 
jectively described as dreamless ; whilst states of 
only slightly disturbed consciousness, for instance, 
the periods of transition between sleeping and 
waking, are regarded as favourable to the occurrence 
of sensory delusions (hypnagogic and hypnopompic 
hallucinations). It is natural, therefore, that the 
occurrence of hallucinations should be reported, not 
only in such transition states between sleeping and 
waking when in bed at night, or during the afternoon 
siesta, but also in analogous states otherwise pro- 
duced. The performance of automatic movements, 
for instance, such as the monotonous tramping on a 
long walk or march, often induces such a condition. 

In the winter of 1814 Herr Prus had left the regiment to 
which he was attached to visit his family, who Hved about two 
leagues off. He relates his experiences as follows : — " I had 
hardly walked one league in the extreme cold when I 
noticed that my condition was no longer normal. I walked 
mechanically, and my body seemed to me strangely light. I 
knew well the cause and the danger of this state, and tried to 
hasten my steps, but in vain. Worse still, my eyes kept closing 
in spite of all my efforts. Then delightful visions visited me. 
I seemed to be in a beautiful garden, and saw trees, lawns, 
and streams," etc. ^ 

But the on-coming of this hypnoid state is seldom 
so amenable to observation as in the case just quoted. 
It generally eludes self-observation. In some cases, 
like the following, a disturbance of the waking con- 

^ Brierre de Boismont, Des Halliicinatiojis, p, 349. He mentions 
also the visions, sometimes gay, sometimes melancholy, which haunted 
the soldiers of the Grande Armee on the retreat from Moscow. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 75 

sciousness is indicated, though it is not subjectively 
perceived. 

R states' : — " I started from Lucerne on the 2nd Nov., 

iS6i, intending to cross over to Glarus by the pass called the 
INIutterthal. Lightly clad, with broken boots, bleeding feet 
wrapped in clouts, and only a few sous in my pocket, but 
trusting in God, I set forth and had climbed for about an hour 
when a snowstorm came on, and it became impossible either 
to proceed or to turn back. It seemed to me that I should 
certainly die there, and my whole life passed before me in a 
few minutes. I saw all my friends and folk at home. Then 
the strap of my knapsack broke, I saw it roll down into the 
abyss, and I gave myself up for lost. How well it was 
with me then I cannot describe. I saw heaven opened. In 
the evening I found myself with some kind folk in a hut, but 
how I got there I know not, nor whether I ran or flew, and, 
strange to say, my knapsack had been restored to me." 

Such accounts show, what also appears from obser- 
vations on the hypnotic state, that the dissociation 
may be very profound though it cannot be proved so 
clearly as in the above example. For instance, a 
medical man told me that during his tours among 
the Bavarian and Tyrolese Alps he enjoyed a special 
pleasure in the auditory hahucinations which accom- 
panied him on his solitary excursions whenever he 
climbed above a certain height. Yet he seems to 
have had no inkling of what these phenomena 
signified. The point illustrated by these cases 
should, at all events, never be lost sight of in the 
discussion of hallucinations reported as occurring 
in the waking state ; for if a man imagines that he 
is awake, he will naturally feel that his actions and 
conduct are rational, and will in all good faith so 

^ Stat. Fragebogen d. Mtuich. Saninihing, Bog. 38. See Perty, oJ>. 
cii.y i. p. 88, for the account of a similar experience which happened 
to a certain Peter Stucki. A\so Journal S. P. 2^., Jan. 1889, p. 12. 



"16 HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. 

describe them, but an attentive study of such cases 
reveals more or less certain indications of dissociation 
of consciousness. What these indications are we 
shall see later, when, for instance, we come to con- 
sider the twenty-six cases of " waking-hallucinations" 
cited in proof of telepathy in the " Report on the 
Census." {^Proceedings of the S.P.R., vol. x., August 
1894, PP« 2 II -24 1.) 

Such sensory delusions as those experienced in 
the case of the physician quoted above may neverthe- 
less be regarded, especially if they occur singly 
and sporadically, as transitional forms to the class 
of hallucinations which have lately formed the sub- 
ject of an extended international inquiry, the results 
of which, consisting as they do of entirely new 
material, appear to call for special consideration. 



CHAPTER III. 

WAKING HALLUCINATIONS AND THE RESULT OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL CENSUS. 

Early Accou7its — The International Census — General Results 
— Sex^ Age^ Nationality, and State of Health of the 
Percipie7its — Their so-called '"'' Wakiiig'''' State really one 
of Dissociation — Indications of this in the Narratives — 
Why such Indications are sometimes wa7iting — Hallu- 
cinations classified according to the Se7ise affected — The 
less startli72g Hallucinaiio7is are soo7tfo7gotten. 

Eai'ly Accounts of Waking Hallucinations. — Numer- 
ous accounts have come down to us even from classical 
times of " waking hallucinations " experienced by 
sane persons. It is sufficient to mention here a few 
of the most celebrated.^ 

Socrates,^ as we learn both from Plato and Xeno- 
phon, w^as often restrained and admonished by an 
inner voice when he, or one of his friends, was about 
to do something undesirable or displeasing to the god. 
The case of Timarchus (Plato, Theages) is the most 
dramatic of these warnings. Timarchus was sitting 
at supper with Socrates, and rose to go out to a 

^ Most of the cases given here are taken from Brierre de Boismont, 
Des halluciiiations ; C. Lombroso, V Uonio di Genio (English ed., 
The Man of Genius, 1891) ; and Perty, op. cit. 

- Lelut, Dh Dtnnon de Socrate (new edition, 1856); Myers, "The 
Dcemon of Socrates," Proc. S.P.R. (June 18S9,) p. 538. Bodinus 
mentions in his Dmnonomania a similar case of an acquaintance of his 
who felt a touch on his right ear when setting about some good or 
auspicious act, and on his left if the undertaking were evil or unlucky. 



yS HALLUCINATIONS 

plot of assassination, to which plot only one other 
man was privy. " ' What say you, Socrates ? ' said 
Timarchus, ' do you continue drinking ; I must go 
out some whither, but will return in a little, if so 
I may,' And the voice came to me ; and I said to 
him, ' By no means rise from the table ; for the 
accustomed divine sign has come to me.' And he 
stayed. And after a time again he got up to go, and 
said, 'I must be gone, Socrates!' And the sign came to 
me again, and again I made him stay. And the third 
time, determining that I should not see, he rose and 
said nought to me, and my mind was turned else- 
where ; and thus he went forth and was gone, and 
did that which was to be his doom." 

Athenodorus, the philosopher, saw a spectre in a 
house in Athens. On the following day he informed 
the magistrates, who caused the place to be searched, 
and a skeleton was found buried in the spot where 
the spectre had disappeared. During one part of his 
career Descartes was constantly followed by an in- 
visible being who urged him not to abandon his 
search after truth. On the completion of his book 
De Veritate, Lord Herbert of Cherbury received a 
sign of approval from heaven. Cardan had a guardian 
spirit which interposed to prevent him lapsing into 
error; and Pascal, after a fall, saw a black gulf always 
at his feet. The materialist Hobbes was continually 
haunted in the dark by the faces of the dead. The 
philosopher Krause frequently from his fifth to his 
sixth year, and occasionally also in later life, heard a 
voice utter the words, '' Remember death." 

Out of religious history I select the four following 
examples : — Savonarola saw visions even in his early 
youth ; and later on he saw heaven opened and the 



AND ILLUSIONS. 79 

appearance of a sword, upon which was written, 
" Giadiiis Domini super terrain!' Luther was subject 
to numerous auditory and visual delusions. In the 
church at Wittenberg and on the Sacred Stairs at 
Rome he seemed to hear the words, " The just 
shall live by faith;" and often enough midnight found 
him disputing with the devil on knotty points of 
doctrine. But Audin^ is of opinion, arguing from the 
feebleness of Luther's replies, that the whole dispute 
must have taken place in a dream. Not less subject 
to hallucinations was Luther's great opponent Loyola, 
for to him the Virgin appeared, and celestial voices 
encouraged his projects and fired his zeal. It was in 
obedience to a " divine voice " which told him to 
" forsake all and be a stranger to all," that George Fox, 
the founder of the Quaker sect, left his family and 
friends. When distressed at finding no support on 
any side, he was consoled by a voice which said, 
"Jesus Christ understands thee." 

Tacitus- relates how Curtius Rufus, when only a 
gladiator's son, was visited by the apparition of a 
glorious female form, who informed him that he should 
become Proconsul of Africa. Oliver Cromwell also 
had his future greatness foretold to him by an ap- 
parition. Drusus, on one of his campaigns, was 
turned back from crossing the Rhine by a gigantic 
form which appeared to him ; Julian the Apostate 
beheld on the eve of his death the genius of the 
empire flying from him in consternation ; and it was 
not so much veneration for Leo that checked Attila's 
march upon Rome, as the vision of an old man in 

^ Audin, Geschi elite d. Lehens, d. Lehren n. Schriften Dr. M. 
Lnthers. 

2 Tacitus, Ann. xi. 21. 



So HALLUCINATIONS 

priest's raiment who threatened his death with a 
drawn sw^ord. 

Plutarch^ tells the story of Bessus the parricide 
who, like Shakespeare's Macbeth, was haunted by 
the personified voice of conscience. One day, when 
sitting at a banquet with his friends and parasites 
he suddenly became inattentive to their flatteries, 
sprang up, and seizing his sword, struck at a nest 
full of young swallows and killed the poor birds, 
because, said he, they dared to reproach him with 
the murder of his father. Theodoric the Great, over- 
whelmed with remorse because he had consented 
to the death of Symmachus, one day uttered a cry 
of horror when a new kind of fish was served at 
his table, for he imagined he saw, not the head of 
the fish, but that of the unfortunate senator.^ Manoury, 
who was chosen to examine Grandier on the charge 
of witchcraft (see p. 37, Note 2), tortured his victim 
with ruthless barbarity. Soon after he saw the spirit 
of the dead Grandier before him, and thereupon 
fell into a frenzy and died raving mad. After the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew, Charles IX. took his 
favourite physician aside and begged him to find some 
means to deliver him from the phantoms of the 
victims which constantly haunted him. 

A vision of the Madonna was granted to the 
painter Raphael, when he had been vainly striving to 
picture her features with his mind's eye and fix them 
on the canvas. After Spinello had painted " The 
Fall of Lucifer " he was visited by the devil in person, 
who reproached him bitterly with making him look 
so firightful. The painter Montana saw the pictures 

^ Plutarch, De sera miminis vindicta. 
2 Procopius, De hello Italico, 



AND ILLUSIONS. Si 

he was about to paint so vividly before him, that if 
any one got between him and the phantasmal scene or 
figure he would ask them to stand aside. It is told 
of another popular portrait-painter that he only re- 
quired one sitting from his model, and afterwards 
completed the portrait from the hallucinatory image 
which he was able to call up at his will. Benvenuto 
Cellini relates how a voice spoke to him in prison and 
withheld him from suicide. This auditory hallucina- 
tion was in his case the starting-point of other sensory 
fallacies. Tasso was vexed by many strange de- 
lusions, and Byron was often haunted by spectres. 
After receiving the news of Byron's death, Walter 
Scott suddenly saw his friend's image before him. 
Astonished at the natural appearance of the clothes, 
he approached the phantom and discovered that it 
was an illusion, and that the clothes of the figure 
consisted of the folds of a curtain. Schumann 
suffered from auditory hallucinations and imagined 
that Beethoven dictated to him the melodies which 
he composed. Talma confided to a friend that often 
when acting with most force and brilliancy he saw 
the theatre filled with an audience of skeletons in 
place of living playgoers. 

This mass of old material consists for the most part 
of picturesque cases like those quoted above, more 
satisfactory to the raconteur than to the student. 
The sensory delusions of Luther, Tasso, and Schu- 
^mann may certainly be referred to neurotic or psycho- 
pathic states of which the presence is also indicated by 
other symptoms, but the narratives are in general so 
confused and contradictory, and so seldom come to us 
at first hand, that it is difficult to arrive at any satis- 
factory conclusions about them. Until lately it was 

6 



82 HALLUCINATIONS 

not even possible to say with certainty whether 
hallucinations were exceptional or quite frequent 
phenomena of the waking state. 

The I liter national Census of Waking Halhtcinations. 
— Of a very different evidential value is the material 
which we have now to consider. A statistical inquiry 
on the subject was first undertaken by Edmund 
Gurney.^ Later on the inquiry was approved by the 
Paris Congress for Psycho-Physiology ; and for the 
valuable results of the present census we have chiefly 
to thank the English Society for Psychical Re- 
search.^ The source from which I shall mainly 
quote these results will be the Report on the Census of 
Halliicinations^ — a model of clearness, accuracy, and 
indefatigable industry, — which analyses and elucidates 
in various ways the answers received to the thousands 
of circulars which were sent out on the " Nature and 
Frequency of the Occurrence of Hallucinations in the 
Sane." Besides the tables published in the Report, 
I have availed myself of those communicated to the 
London Liternational Congress for Experimental 
Psychology.^ Further, in addition to the ad interim 
reports published from time to time during the pro- 

•• See Phanlasms of the Living. 

^ To which I shall henceforward refer as the ''S.P.R.'^ 

^ Published by Professor Henry Sidgwick's Committee in the Pro- 
ceedings of the S.P.R., vol. X., Aug. 1894, and to which I shall hence- 
forth refer as "the Report." 

^ These tables do not agree figure for figure with those of the Re- 
port, owing to the fact that in preparing the " Report" it was found 
necessary to make some changes in the methods of calculation. The 
earlier tables, however, have here often been used, as the changes are 
not of very great importance, and as the French and American results 
are still before us only in their provisional form. The reports of the 
Munich section are here published for the first time. (Compare 
Appendi.K I.) 



AND ILLUSIONS. 83 

gress of the inquiry, I have sought to incorporate, as 
far as possible, the results of the census carried on at 
the same time and for the same purpose in America 
(by William James), in France (by L. Marillier), and 
in Germany (under the guidance of Von Schrenck- 
Notzing, by the Munich section^ of the Gesellschaft 
flir psychologische Forschung).^ 

The question put to all persons included in the 
inquiry was : " Have you ever^ zvJien believing yourself 
to be completely awake, had a vivid impression of seeing 
or being touched by a living being or inanimate object, 
or of hearing a voice ; which impression, so far as you 
could discover, zvas not due to a7iy external physical 
cause ? " 

In answer to the question, 27,329 answers in all 
were received (see Table I.), of which 24,058 were 
negative and 3271, or 11.96 per cent, affirmative; 
that is to say, 3271 persons stated that they had 
experienced hallucinations. Though a certain pro- 
portion of these cases might be explained away, as 
due to mistaken identity, for instance, or in the case 
of auditory phenomena, to the real banging of a door 
or creaking of furniture, and such like, still, when 
we consider the high percentage of results, and the 
careful investigation of individual cases (on which- 
we may depend in the case of the English collectors 
especially), it is impossible to doubt that the frequent 
occurrence of so-called "waking hallucinations" is 
proved. 

Sex of the Informants. — Little Information is given 

^ The results of the Berlin section were forwarded to the English 
Committee, and doubtless have been incorporated with their 
Report. 

^ Compare throughout this chapter the tables in Appendix II. 



84 HALLUCINATIONS 

as to the persons who were the subjects of the 
experiences. The first fact that strikes us is the 
difference between the two ^exes in the percentage of 
persons who had experienced halhicinations (in men 
9.75, in women 14.56). It is unfortunate that this 
division of the two sexes was not carried further, as it 
might have led to interesting results in the tables which 
deal with the age of the percipients. Be that as it 
may, the general conclusion of the Report, that this 
apparent difference should to a great extent be 
attributed to the fact that men, among the pressing 
interests and occupations of their lives, forget these 
experiences sooner, may on the whole be regarded 
as satisfactory. 

Age. — With regard to age, hallucinations are 
reported as occurring most frequently (I quote here 
specially from the English table, which is the most 
complete) between 15 and 30 years of age, more than 
half (52 per cent) being experienced during this 
period. The lustrum from 20 to 25 yields the highest 
percentage of all — over 21 per cent.; while after that 
their frequency diminishes in a regular curve.^ These 
figures must not of course be taken as expressing a 
proportion which holds true absolutely ; they refer 
only to the number of hallucinations communicated 
as occurring during these periods, and we should not 
be justified, without closer inquiry, in arguing from, 
them a greater disposition to hallucinations at one 
age than at another. For it stands to reason that 
few^er answers were received from persons between 
60 and 80, since only the minority reach that age ; 
and careful observation would no doubt reveal a 

^ A similar curve is shown bj' the Munich collection. See Table 
III. b. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 8$ 

much higher percentage among children.^ In any 
case it seems very desirable, in view of the import- 
ance of the question, that some statistics bearing 
upon it should be collected and published. 

Nationality. — One table of the English collection 
is devoted to the nationality of the informants. 
It yields the following results (see Appendix IL, 
Table IV.) :— 

Afl&rmative 
Answers. 

Answers from English-speaking 

countries 15,940 ... 1,499= 9.4 per cent. 

Answers from Russians "... 680... 108 = 15.9 •>•> 

„ „ Brazilians ... 264 ... 63 = 23.9 „ 

„ „ other nations ... 116... 14=12.1 „ 

These figures show that the percentage of affirma- 
tive answers decreases in proportion as the total 
number of answers increases, and indicates that the 
percentage already quoted, 11.96, must be regarded 

^ Children seem to be specially liable to hallucinations. As to what 
is the earliest age at which hallucinations may occur, an instance is 
given by Thore, Ann. Med. Psych., i860, p. 168, of a hallucination 
seen by a child of 5 years old during convalescence from an attack of 
pneumonia. Berkhan, Irresein bei Kindern (Neuwied, 1863), reports 
one in the case of a little boy of 3^. Kelp, on the other hand, con- 
siders [Irrenfreujid, 1879) that the alleged occurrence in such a case is 
due to a mere confusion of expression ; that the occurrence of halluci- 
nations is only possible in older children, as, for instance, in those 
cases of epileptic children observed by Kohler {Irrenfreund, 1878). 
In the Annates des Sciences Fsycliiques, Jan. -Feb. 1894, p. 7? ^i^ 
instance is recorded of hallucination in a child not quite two years 
old. But no one who has watched the lively dreaming of a two or 
three-year-old child will find anything remarkable in the occurrence of 
hallucinations at that age; compare Sidney Ringer, Med. Times and 
Gazette, May 1867 ; Ann. Med. Psycli., 1848, " Un mot sur les halluci- 
nations de la premiere enfance ;" see also above, p. 30, Note 3. 
Amongst the hallucinations experienced by children grotesque or 
monstrous forms seem to predominate. 



86 HALLUCINATIONS 

as still too high, and as certain on a further 
" intensive " (not extensive) inquiry to be further 
lowered. It cannot indeed well be otherwise. The 
collectors of the answers were themselves interested 
in the subject, and were very probably therefore 
acquainted with cases of hallucinations; and although 
they had been instructed carefully to avoid selecting 
the persons to be asked according to what they were 
likely to say, still it is not to be expected that they 
would as a rule exclude cases already known to them 
(which would also have been a kind of " selecting "). 
It would be but natural indeed that they should 
obtain accounts of such cases first. Thus it happens 
that the fewer the answers received, the higher is the 
percentage of 'yeses'; and the more thoroughly the 
field is gleaned, so to speak (the more "intensive" 
the inquiry), the smaller is the proportion of affirma- 
tive answers received. A similar result is given by a 
comparison of the English ad interim reports^ with 
each other : — 

I. Report up to 24/10/1889. ..Answers, 2928... Affirmative, 12.4 

II. „ 11/7/1890... ,, 6481... ,, II. I 

III. „ 1/7/1891... ,, 9276... „ 11.46 
Congress Report, 1/7/1892... ,, 17,000... „ 9.9 

That is to say, that after the first 3000 answers had 
brought 12.4 affirmative answers, the following 3500 
brought only about 10 per cent. Then the percentage 
rose — perhaps as the result of new sources being drawn 
upon — to fall still lower in the last period. Up to 
the middle of 1890 (11. Report), out of 6481 answers, 
I LI were affirmative; between the third ad interim 

^ Quoted from the Pioceedings of the S.P.R. for tlie corresponding 
years. 



AND ILLUSIONS. §7 

tleport and the Congress Report, that is to say, be- 
tween July 1 89 1 and July 1892, the answers received 
numbered 7724, of which only 8.S were affirmative. 
But if the figures in the third intermediate Report 
related only to England, and the reports from Brazil, 
etc., were not received or incorporated till the fourth 
period (which seems probable from the heading of 
the ad interim report), then the difference is still 
more striking; for it would appear that the 6481 
answers in the second Report, of which 11. i were 
affirmative, must be contrasted with the total of 6664 
answers in the fourth period, of which only 6.6 were 
affirmative. 

If we leave out of account the figures of the 
Munich collection, which are too small to generalise 
from, we find that Table I. gives the same result : — 

Collected by Marillier ..Answers, 3493...x\ffirmative, 19 per cent. 
„ W.James.. „ 6311... „ 13.5 

„ the S.P.R.. „ 17,000... „ 9.9 „ 

For these reasons it seems to me that even the 
percentage of the English-speaking section, in which 
every eleventh individual can remember having had a 
halhicination, is considerably too high ; nor is this 
inaccurate result rendered more accurate by the 
addition of reports from other countries (see Table 
I. bi)} On the contrary, an inquiry on such a 
superficial and extensive plan yields results which 
are more and more misleading, since only the cream 
is skimmed off. Nothing but a rigidly intensive 
inquiry spread over a comparatively small area can, 
in my opinion, lead to approximately correct results 

1 For this reason I rely in the following account only on the figures 
of the English collection. The results of the Munich collection are 
given in the Tables at the end. 



88 HALLUCINATIONS 

— results which may be checked and amended latef 
by the figures yielded by similar inquiries in other 
districts. Whether equally thorough researches in 
various countries and among different nationalities 
would show any marked difference in the frequency 
of hallucinations is another question. The surprising 
results of the French collection seem to indicate such 
a difference, but the material before us would not 
justify us in answering the question one way or the 
other.i 

Health and Heredity. — According to the Report, 
23 cases which took place during scarlet fever, or 
typhoid, or other similar states, w^ere counted in the 
tables as though the persons who had experienced 
them had answered " No," as it w^as the purpose of 
the inquiry to enumerate the hallucinations only of 

•^ The fact that in the cases in which all the members of certain well- 
defined groups were questioned (for instance, the guests at one table, 
the dwellers in one house, the members of a committee) a higher per- 
centage than the average resulted, in nowise weakens my contention, 
for the number of persons in these groups was by far too small. Thus 
answers were obtained from 625 persons in all in such groups, of which 
82, or 13. 1 per cent., were affirmative — 41 visual, 37 auditory, and lo 
tactile hallucinations being reported, while in three cases the details 
were not given (collection of the S.P. R. ). It is shown, on the other 
hand, by the English committee, that 6500 — that is to say, over one- 
third of the total number of answers — were collected by 37 persons. 
These collectors, at least, must have gone pretty thoroughly through 
their circle of acquaintances ; moreover, some of the rest of the col- 
lection was made by their friends, whose circle of acquaintance would 
overlap theirs, so that certain sets of people have been exhaustively 
canvassed. The Brazilian collection was the work of one collector, yet 
these figures do not seem to me to be inconsistent with the assumption 
of selection. That selection has taken place is acknowledged in the 
Report, and in the interesting cases — the "telepathic" ones — its in- 
fluence is specially noticeable. In drawing up the Report it was a 
matter of some difficulty to trace even these obviously selected cases 
and to eliminate them from the calculations. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 89 

persons in a normal condition. Nevertheless, 123 
other cases were retained, in which a certain degree 
of ill-health was reported. In 21 of them the per- 
cipient was in a state of convalescence after some ill- 
ness, apparently acute, and in 55 a state of depressed 
health or minor illness was indicated by such ex- 
pressions as " in a nervous, dyspeptic condition,'^ or 
" bronchitis with weakness of the heart." In 48 per 
cent, of the cases no statement at all was made as to 
health; in about 44 per cent, a positive statement was 
made that the percipient was in good health at the 
time. The proof that this was really the case rests 
for the most part solely on subjective impressions.^ 
In a few cases in the Munich collection, w^here the 
reports were collected by medical men, such remarks 
are to be found as " nervous temperament," " marked 
chlorotic condition," along with notes to the effect 
that the percipient was perfectly sound in mind, and 
so on. 

No questions referring to the heredity of the per- 
cipient w^ere printed in the schedules, and thus the 
Report has no statistics on the subject. But the 
question whether certain families show a predisposi- 
tion to hallucinations has been treated as far as the 
fragmentary material would allow, with the following 
results: — Taking three generations of lineal de- 
scendants into consideration, it was found that in 34 
families hallucinations had occurred in at least two 
generations ; in 41 families they had been experienced 
by a brother and sister, or two sisters, or two 
brothers ; and in 10 cases by at least two persons 

^ There are a few cases which should be more strictly judged, and 
perhaps ruled out — such cases, for instance, as 327,25, where, according 
to the account given, a high degree of hysteria was present. 



90 HALLUCINATIONS 

related to one another as uncles or aunts to 
nephews or nieces, or as cousins, or by " other 
members of the family," whose exact relationship to 
the percipient is not stated. Nor does the material 
collected on the subject of the kinship of persons 
who experience collective hallucinations (those simul- 
taneously shared by two or more persons) furnish us 
with any trustworthy data concerning family pre- 
disposition to hallucination ; it proves nothing more 
than that such experiences are most likely to be 
shared by those who spend a great part of their time 
in each others' society.^ 

State of Consciousness. — ^In one important par- 
ticular the sensory fallacies with which we are now 
dealing seem to be distinguished from all others. 
While in most other cases a more or less general 
state of dissociation of consciousness is met with, 
the sensory delusions are here supposed to take place 
in a state of complete wakefulness. According to 
the schedule, it is only under such circumstances that 
the question is to be answered in the affirmative ; 
and the answers are mostly to the effect that the 
apparitions, voices, etc., occurred in the waking state. 

Nevertheless, the Committee of the S.P.R. have 
seen fit to divide these reports into two groups, and 
to distinguish the cases in which the percipient was 
out of bed, or even out of doors, and in which, there- 
fore, he might be presumed to be fully awake, from 
those cases where the hallucinations occurred in the 
brief interlude between two periods of sleep, or 
generally when the percipient was in bed. The 
latter class are reckoned as " borderland hallucina- 

^ With regard to the collective hallucinations, it would have been 
interesting to know the ages of the percipients. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 91 

tions." On a first comparison of the figures in these 
two groups we seem to find confirmation of the 
percipient's own statement, that the hallucinations 
occurred during the waking state, and furthermore 
it seems possible to establish a rule as to the con- 
ditions under which they occur. 

Thus, if we take the relative figures out of the 
various tables and examine into the frequency of 
hallucinations in the following circumstances,^ we 
discover a marked preponderance in the waking state 
as opposed to the " borderland " state. 

The figures are as follows : — 

Visual hallucinations when fully awake 6ii 
Auditory ., „ „ 225 

Tactile „ „ „ 79 



Borderland 


394 


5) 


192 
80 



Totals . .915 ... 666 

It would seem, then, as if the rule were that the 
conditions favourable to the occurrence of the dream- 
state are unfavourable to the occurrence of hallucina- 
tions. Indeed, this rule finds further confirmation 
when we compare the sensory delusions occurring 
during a short break between two states of sleep with 
those which occur at other times when the percipient 
is in bed ; for here also, in this conspicuously favour- 
able moment for the occurrence of dream-conscious- 
ness — the short interlude between two states of sleep, 
— only 127 hallucinations have been observed, while 
more than double that number have been reported as 
taking place in bed, but not in this borderland state. 

Such a result, however, seems to me self-contra- 
dictory. It is impossible to reconcile it with the 

1 Compare Tables V., V. d., VI. i>., VII. 



92 HALLUCINATIONS 

known fact, that in the experimental induction of 
hallucinations it is just this dream-state we seek 
to bring about by every means in our power, narcotic, 
psychic, or hypnogenic. We are therefore bound here 
also to assume dissociation of consciousness as the 
favourable ground in which alone sensory delusions 
flourish, and when it is borne in mind that we are now 
dealing not with the hallucinations which actually 
occur, but only with those which are remembered, 
the figures, which seem to clash with our view, serve 
further to confirm it, and the dissociation which we 
have assumed a priori is found to be not inconsistent 
with the facts. If we look at the figures in this 
light, it is easy to see why the conditions favour- 
able to the occurrence of dream-consciousness impede 
the remembrance of the sense-deceptions experienced 
in that state. In the first place, these conditions 
promote deep sleep and the amnesia associated 
with it, and, secondly, even in a less profoundly 
hallucinated state the conditions are favourable to 
the transition into true sleep, in which new dreams 
occur, which serve to blot out the impression of 
those experienced in the previous state.^ On the 
other hand, everything which impedes the occur- 
rence of dream-consciousness tends to preserve the 
memory of the sensory delusions experienced in the 
light stage, and to prevent the percipient from 
passing into a deeper state, and thus ultimately 
makes for a sudden arousing of the dreamer into the 
state of waking consciousness, the only state in which 
memory of a hallucinatory experience is possible, or 
at least probable. 

1 Compare Moll, Der Rapport in der Hypjiose, p. 318 (38), cases 
23 and 24. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 93 

Evidence of Dissociation furnished by these Nar- 
ratives. — A large number of the narratives dealt 
with in the Report indicate that the informants 
were firmly convinced that their hallucinations 
occurred in the waking* state. In a few cases only- 
do the percipients themselves admit, or suggest, that 
they may not have been fully awake, and express 
their doubts by saying, " I was drowsy," etc. In such 
cases we may safely assume the presence of a dream- 
state. In other accounts the narrator is not sure 
whether he was awake or asleep, or perhaps he 
points to some circumstance to prove that he was 
awake at the time. 

In considering these cases, we must not forget the 
lessons of the preceding chapter. In every case we 
should be on the look-out for hints and suggestions 
indicating that the narrators are mistaken as to their 
state of consciousness ; and, as a matter of fact, there 
is no lack of such indications. It is evident, for 
instance, that in many cases the hallucination was 
experienced at the moment of waking. Thus, to 
quote a less recent case in illustration, a clergyman 
reports that while he was lying in bed he heard a 
loud knocking, and called out " Come in," where- 
upon there entered a gigantic shape — the figure 
of his host, as we may suppose, fantastically 
altered and grown to huge proportions. The appa- 
rition vanished with a loud crash, and directly 
afterwards the owner of the house himself came 
into the room and asked what was the matter, 
he had heard such a noise. In this case the dream 
was evidently evoked at the moment the host 
knocked and entered; and some loud noise which 
had been heard all over the house, and had tardily 



94 HALLUCINATIONS 

penetrated to the dreamer's consciousness, also played 
a part in the drama.^ 

In the same way the dreamer sometimes lives 
through a long and exciting romance, ending in a 
duel perhaps, and the noise of the pistol shot wakens 
him at the exact moment when the wind bangs a 
door. In both cases the fantastically interpreted 
sound is the starting-point of the dream, and in the 
waking recollection the complex sensory impression 
is split up and represented as a chain of events. 
Propter Jioc^ ergo post hoc. 

Again, it seems to me that the frequently recurring 
phrase, " I had just awakened and given my baby the 
breast," does not necessarily imply a state of waking 
consciousness. I think that in such moments a more 
or less drowsy state ma}^ often be presumed, to which 
the exhaustion of a recent confinement, and perhaps 
also the monotonous sucking of the child and similar 
circumstances may contribute. Of course cases where 
the percipient, though not in bed, was resting after 
dinner on a couch or in an arm-chair belong to the 
same category. 

Further, in some cases we find evidence of sugges- 
tion acting in a state of expectancy, especially in 
collective hallucinations. For instance, a wife saw 
an apparition; the husband declared he could see 
nothing, but when the wife laid her hand on his 
shoulder, saying, " George, do you really not see 

1 Retarded perception is illustrated by the case of a lad)' hypnotised 
by me, who at the time heard nothing of the noise made by X., one of 
those present. Even when I asked her, " Do you hear what X. is 
doing ? " she said she heard nothing. After X. was quiet again and 
some other matter had been talked of by the subject and myself, she 
suddenly asked me, " Why is X. knocking over the chairs and laugh- 
ing?- 



AND ILLUSIONS. 95 

him?" the apparition speedily became visible to 
him too. Or, again, a son waked his mother in 
the night by calling out, "Look, mother, there 

is Mr. ," whereupon the mother also saw the 

figure. In another case a child saw the form of 
his mother, who had died recently, and screamed 
aloud so that his father and nurse hurried to him, and 
then shared in the vision. A lady saw one night the 
form of her sister standing by her bed : " If it is real, 
and not a delusion, I shall see her reflection in the 
mirror," she said to herself The fact that the hal- 
lucination was reflected in the mirror, while the 
percipient was only half awake and in a state of 
excited expectancy, completely convinced her that it 
was a real objective figure which she saw.^ 

In other cases we have evidence that fixation of the 
eyes, or prolonged, abstracted gazing on a shining 
surface, has had some share in bringing about the 
phenomenon. Some narrators, indeed, state that 
the hallucinations occurred when the eyes were 
directed fixedly to one point; for instance, '^as we 
were gazing intently at part of the dress," and so on. 
To this category are to be referred the apparitions 
seen while the percipient stands before the mirror 
(perhaps dreamily brushing her hair), or those phan- 
tasms which haunt a writer or reader who has had 
the white paper for a long time under his eyes, 
especially in bright lamplight. It is also to be 
noted that in percipients who are often subject to 
hallucinations, over-work or over-strain and similar 
causes induce numerous waking hallucinations, and 
that in 13.56 per cent, of the cases nervous disturb- 

^ Compare the interesting chapter on Expectancy and Suggestion in 
the Report, pp. 174 et seg. 



g6 HALLUCINATIONS 

ances, such as grief or anxiety, are reported. It 
should be added that in 62 per cent, of the cases of 
visual hallucination it is stated that the percipient 
was alone ; that is to say that the presence of others, 
a circumstance which conduces to the waking state, 
is unfavourable to the occurrence of hallucinations. 

A few more examples may serve to illustrate this 
point. The first case is hardly to be distinguished 
from a dream, called up by the perception of the 
morning light at the moment of waking. It is 
possible that the " loud scream " mentioned by the 
narrator was also dreamt. 

(Munich Collection, x. 13.) Three years ago in the spring of 
1886 (the month was April), between four and five o'clock in the 
morning, after I had waked, I saw my sister, who had died in 
her ninth year, standing by my bed. She was dressed in her 
grave clothes. She approached my bed. At first I could only 
see something dim and mist-like, out of which the figure grew as 
it came near. I screamed aloud, and the form, which was not 
yet fully developed, melted away before my eyes. A sister who 
slept in the same room was not wakened by my cry, and did not 
share my experience. 

In the next account the effect of long abstracted 
gazing, perhaps in a state of fatigue, at a sheet of 
paper, seems to be clearly indicated. The vision 
appears to have been an illusory perception of the 
after-image of the brightly lighted paper. 

(Munich Collection, xv. 10.) At the time referred to (accord- 
ing to my recollection between i and 2 a.m., towards the end 
of November 1879) I felt as though a hand touched me on the 
right shoulder, and turning round I seemed to see the form of 

my friend, Lieutenant Chr . As the door was locked I 

exclaimed, fully persuaded of the reality of the figure, " How 
came you here, in God's name ? " The apparition gazed fixedly 



AND ILLUSIONS. 97 

at me, as I at it, and vanished in a few seconds. I sprang up 
and examined the door, which I found locked on the inside, and 
I could in nowise explain the occurrence, as I believed myself 
to be fully awake. According to my usual habit I was studying, 
and absorbed in the book I was reading, but was nevertheless, 
as I certainly believe, fully awake. The impression came from 

my friend Chr , in whose company I had been five or six 

days previously. I knew there was a duel before him, but 
nothing more. At the moment when I had the hallucination 
my friend was no longer living, although I was ignorant of the 
fact. On the morning of the previous day he had been wounded 
in a duel, and died a few hours later, before noon. I first heard 
of his death on the morning after I had seen the apparition, at 

half-past seven o'clock. In a talk we had had together — Chr , 

another friend, F., and myself — about three or four weeks 
before, we promised each other (on our oath) that if there was 
a life after death the first to die would give the others a sign, to 
assure them of the fact of an existence beyond the grave. The 
third, F., has died since, but without giving me any sign, and 

he on his part had received no sign from Chr . As regards 

the details of the apparition, my friend appeared to me in full 
uniform, and just as I knew him in life, even to his pleasant 
expression, though the gaze was fixed. He stood perfectly still 
for a moment before me, and then vanished. Although the 
lamp was covered with a dark green metal shade, and the upper 
part of the room was therefore but dimly lighted,^ the figure 
seemed to me unnaturally distinct, as though it were lighted 
up from some other source,^ 

(S.P.R. Collection, 579. 24.) " C'etait a Milan, le 10 (22) 
Octobre, 1888. Je demeurais a I'hotel Ancora. Apres le diner, 
vers 7 heures, j'etais assis sur le sofa et je lisais une gazette. 
Ma femme se reposait dans la meme chambre sur une couchette, 
derriere un rideau. La chambre etait eclairee par une lampe 
placee sur la table, aupres de laquelle j'etais assis et lisais. 
Tout-k-coup je vis sur le fond de la porte, qui se trouvait en face 

^ While the book on which the percipient, Dr. H. Gr , was 

gazing was, of course, intensely lighted up. 

- Compare the account in Brierre de Boismont {Des halhiciirai-iojis, 
pp. 391 et seq.) of the apparition of Ficinus, to which the above case 
bears a very close resemblance. 

7 



9S HALLUCINATIONS 

de moi, la figure de mon pcre ; il e'tait, comme tonjours, en 
SLirtoLit noir, tres pale, comme mourant." 

(S.P.R. Collection, 83. 21.) "I sat one evening reading, 
when, on looking up from my book, I distinctly saw a school 
friend of mine, to whom I was very much attached, standing 
near the door. I was about to exclaim at the strangeness of her 
visit, when, to my horror, there were no signs of any one in the 
room but my mother. I related what I had seen to her, know- 
ing she could not have seen, as she was sitting with her back 
towards the door, nor did she hear anything unusual, and was 
greatly amused at my scare, suggesting I had read too much 
or been dreaming." 

The following case may perhaps also be explained 
in the same way: — 

(Munich Collection, xv, 2.) "I remember distinctly — I must 
have been thirty-seven years old at the time, and was still in the 
Service — that I was sitting at my writing-table when I seemed 
to hear a voice calling out some words to me. On getting up 
and looking about for the servant I found the whole house 
empty, nor was there any one on the street (five in the after- 
noon). When I tried to think whose the voice resembled, I 
found that it had sounded distinctly like that of my deceased 
grandmother (on the mother's side). The words that she had 
uttered chimed in with my thoughts, and that was what had so 
surprised me when I heard them." 

If it be objected that we are assuming too much, 
and exaggerating the hypnogenic tendency of pro- 
longed reading, I may point to the fact that it is at least 
a matter of common knowledge, and that reading is a 
means popularly employed to induce sleep, whether 
as a prelude to the afternoon nap or by candle- 
light in bed. Thus the mother of the percipient, 
in the case mentioned above (S.P.R. Collection, 
83. 21), attributed her daughter's strange experience 
to the fact that she " had read too much, or been 
dreaming." An explanation of the way in which 



AND ILLUSIONS. 99 

fixed attention brings about dissociation, or, in terms 
of physiology, the spHtting off of the neural elements, 
will be found in Chapter V. 

It has been already observed that fixation of the 
eyes associated with automatic movements is liable 
to produce dissociation. In the following cases the 
strain of working at sewing seems to have acted in 
the same way as gazing on a mirror, and to have pro- 
duced a short twilight of consciousness. 

(Munich Collection, xxiii.) On the 15th of March, 1878, at 
ten o'clock at night, I saw an apparition of myself. One of the 
children was sleeping- restlessly, I took the lamp to see if any- 
thing was wrong. As I drew back the curtain which shut off 
the bedroom, I saw two paces from me the image of myself 
stooping over the end of the bed, in a dress which I had not 
been wearing for some time : the figure was turned three- 
quarters away from me, the attitude expressed deep grief. . . . 
I was neither specially sad nor specially excited that evening, 
and had been thinking about quite ordinary things. I was 
alone : a friend who had been with me had left about half-an- 
hour before, and I had been working at the sewing-machine. 
I was quite calm, in good health,^ and thirty-nine years old. 
Three months before I had lost one of my children. It has just 
occurred to me while writing this, that after death my child was 
laid across the foot of my bed, and I may have stood in that 
attitude then. The dress, too, was the one I was wearing at 
the time." 

In a few cases the informants state that they 
fainted from terror or shock at the apparition. Such 

^ Nevertheless the same informant adds : — " I belong to a very 
healthy family, and was never ill up to my twenty-second year. Now 
I suffer from extreme nervousness, which may indeed have been 
present even in 1878, though it had not yet appeared as a definite 
ailment." 

^ Compare, among other cases in the S.P. R. Collection, No. y^o. 
24, and perhaps 442. 17. See Report, Proceedings S.F./v., August, 
1894, pp. 233 and 213. 



100 HALLUCINATIONS 

communications remind us so forcibly of the hallu- 
cinations of the epileptic and hystero-epileptic 
aura, that we can hardly resist the conclusion that 
they occurred in a semi-conscious state, possibly of 
very short duration, preceding a state of complete 
unconsciousness.^ 

The private opinion of the percipient of the lapse 
of time between the appearance of the hallucination 
and the loss of consciousness is absolutely irrelevant, 
since in such severe disturbances of consciousness 
gross errors in reckoning time are constantly made. 
The following accounts may be taken as typical. 

(Munich Collection, iv.) When my father died I was in 
Posen (Czernik bei Posen), and was three years old. I did not 
know him, and did not see him lying dead in his coffin. Thirteen 
years later, when I was sixteen, I went out of my paternal house 
in the snow. I cannot exactly fix the date — perhaps it was Christ- 
mas Eve — at eleven o'clock. Suddenly my father stood before 
me, in a black coat with shining buttons. The coat was a long 
one, reaching to the feet. He seemed taller than life, and wore a 
black cap. I tried to seize hold of him, and received a kind of 
electric shock. The dogs would not bark, and crept about my 
feet, whining with their tails between their legs. I fell down in 
a faint. Several minutes had passed between the dogs showing 
signs of excitement and my fainting. . . . There had previously 

^ Of the six cases of this kind given in the Report, there are three in 
which it is pretty clear that the loss of consciousness was not the 
" organic effect " but the cause of the hallucination. Thus one per- 
cipient in Australia, almost suffocated by the fumes of charcoal in his 
tent, on going outside to escape them saw a vision of his mother and 
then lost consciousness ; a second saw an apparition of his father, 
fainted, and reports that "a severe nervous illness dated from that 
evening"; and in a third case a state of nervous agitation is clearly 
indicated. Case 728. 16 (p. 309), points to a similar explana- 
tion, if we consider the striking amnesia of the lady, clearly the 
principal percipient. Her fiajice's hallucination would appear to be 
the secondary one, caused by the words which she screamed and the 
shock of seeing her faint away. 



AND ILLUSIONS. lOI 

been three taps on the window when we were speaking of my 
father. I alone heard the knocks and went out because of 
them. I opened the door, the whining dogs pressed close about 
me ; I started and fell down. I did not recognise my father, 
but I described him, and my conjecture was confirmed. The 
dogs refused to be driven out again. 

(Munich Collection, xxxix. b.) On New Year's Eve, 1885- 
86, in consequence of something I had read, at exactly twelve 
o'clock I took two lighted candles, one in each hand, and alone, 
fully awake, feeling rather sceptical and not at all excited,^ 

^ That the percipient was " not at all excited" is extremely unlikely, 
if only for the reason that not six months before, on the occasion of her 
father's death, she had experienced a "veridical" hallucination, of 
which, at least, she seems to have spoken pretty often with her family, 
for she adds in her narrative, "My relatives never experienced 
anything of the kind. . . . My mother assures me that a clock 
stopped exactly at the moment when death occurred." Besides, in the 
communication relating to this hallucination the false reckoning of time 
at least indicates a state of dream-consciousness. She writes (Munich 
Collection, xxxix. a) : — " At the time when my father was very seriously 
ill, and was lying in a room on the ground-floor, I went upstairs to my 
room on the second floor to bed one evening (8th July, 1885), at about 
nine o'clock, accompanied by the nurse. The latter left the room with 
the request that I would lie still. She had hardly left the room when 
I had a feeling as though the bed-clothes were being pulled olf. This 
happened twice. I was wide awake, and suddenly saw my father 
sitting in his wheeled chair, as he generally did, in a room, but 
apparently some distance oft". I closed my eyes from fright, and the 
picture vanished. I lay awake much disturbed, and connected this 
experience with my father's illness. After a short time, about a 
quarter of an hour, I opened my eyes. Suddenly I saw a white mist 
like a shadow pass before them. I screamed aloud, sprang out of bed, 
and, scantily clad as I was, hurried anxiously downstairs, to see how 
my father was. At the foot of the stairs the Sister of Mercy met me, 
and told me he had just passed away. My father was eighty-one, and 
much enfeebled by age ; he had been lying seriously ill for some time, 
and had been wandering in his mind for eight days. Suddenly, to the 
Sister's astonishment, he called out my name in a clear strong voice. 
This was ten minutes before his death, just at the time I had the 
vision." Let the reader try to imagine the state of mind of any one 
keeping the eyes shut for ten to fifteen minutes in a state of anxiety 
and terror, and he will know what to think of the " short time." 



102 HALLUCINATIONS 

having first locked the doors of my room, I went and stood in 
front of the looking-glass. Suddenly I saw in the mirror the 
form of a tall, haggard-looking man, who approached me with 
audible footsteps. I fell down in a faint, and was ill for several 
days. When I came out of the faint the lights had gone out. 

Further, through their common dependence on 
external stimuH, the content of waking hallucinations 
often bears a resemblance to that of dreams. Thus 
the following account, 417. 17 (Report, pp. 202 et 
seq.), recalls the dream of a dental operation quoted 
above: — 

Vers 5 heures du matin j^ai vu I'apparition suivante : — Eveille 
apres un sommeil sans reves, j'eprouvais une terreur panique 
et une stupeur complete sans pouvoir bouger, ni proferer une 
parole. ... II prit de sa main droite ma main gauche, et y en- 
foncant ses ongles, ce qui me causa une douleur aigue, dit a 
voix basse. . . , Je ne me suis plus endormi et pendant plusieurs 
jours apres cette apparition j'eprouvais [this is the main point] 
des douleurs neuralgiques et des contractions dans ma main 
gauche. . . . Des apparitions semblables, mais moins distinctes 
me sont deja arrivees plusieurs fois . . . 1880, 1884, 1886, et 18S9. 
Dans tous ces cas les apparitions n'etaient precedees d'aucune 
maladie, mais elles amenaient a leur suite des indispositions 
physiques plus ou moins marquees. Je ne puis pas dire que 
I'etat de conscience dans lequel je les ai eprouvees fut tout-a- 
fait normal. 

And the other cases given In the Report, pp. 203- 
205, also show this resemblance, while those accounts 
in which the Illusory Interpretations of noises, tactile 
impressions, etc., seem to make up the content of the 
hallucinations, remind us forcibly of "nerve-stimulus 
dreams." Such an analogy is of course no proof, but 
taken In connection with all the other traces and 
Indications, It serves to help us to a comprehension of 
the hallucinatory state of consciousness. 

Why it is not ahvays possible to prove Dissociation. 



AND ILLUSIONS. IO3 

— xAlthough in these and similar ways a disturbance 
of consciousness more or less profound is indicated by 
the accompanying circumstances in a great number 
of these cases, there remain many narratives in which 
there are no direct indications of the kind, and such 
disturbance can only be assumed by a certain 
straining of the facts. Must we then suppose, all 
considerations to the contrary notwithstanding, that 
in these cases the assurance of the percipient that he 
was fully awake at the time is not based on self- 
deception ? Are we, that is, to judge these narratives 
by a different standard from those others in which, as 
we have already seen, similar assurances, given with 
the same firm conviction on the part of the narrator, 
proved to be mistaken ? 

In this connection it is important to remember that 
the narratives are in many cases very meagre, and are 
occupied mainly with the content of the hallucinations 
rather than with the state of consciousness which 
accompanied them. Less attention was paid to this 
latter circumstance, both in the questions put and in 
subsequent tabulation of the answers. Experiences 
known to be dreams were excluded from the first by 
the form of the main question; and if the experience 
could really be counted as a " waking hallucination " 
the attention was naturally directed mainly to its 
form and content, and to such points as the exclusion 
of errors {e.g.^ the mistaking of real objects and per- 
sons, illusions), the corroboration of other witnesses, 
the coincidence of the experiences with other events 
(death or illness), and such-like. These considerations 
sufficiently explain the want of evidence for a state 
of dissociation. When we come to consider the series 
of twenty-seven coincidental cases, which are nearly 



104 HALLUCINATIONS 

all fully described and carefully examined, we shall 
find that all but seven narratives contain unrristak- 
able indications of the presence of a state of dream- 
consciousness. 

The difficulty of distinguishing the hallucinatory 
experience from the facts of real life must also be 
taken into account. Hallucinations tend to take their 
place in the memory alongside of real events, and to 
become indistinguishably merged with them. This 
is illustrated by Bernheim's^ well-known experiment; 
a subject was given a waking suggestion that a cer- 
tain fictitious narrative had been told him by a fellow 
patient; whereupon this delusion became associated 
with a genuine experience, and the subject maintained 
in proof of what he said that he had heard the story 
when his room-mate came back from the town the 
evening before bringing him an Easter-egg. 

Thirdly, the accompanying circumstances tend to 
fade, and the memory remains preoccupied with the 
more absorbing interest of the astonishing pheno- 
menon itself. If it is often difficult after a short lapse 
of time to remember the accompanying circumstances, 
even in matters of ordinary perception, and where the 
attention was fully alert,- how much more after several 
years have passed? Now, of the seven accounts already 
referred to, which make no mention of circumstances 
indicating a state of dream-consciousness, six refer to 
occurrences which had happened more than nine years 
previously, and the experience is of such a kind that 
the picture preserved in the memory has been con- 
stantly modified and touched up, so as to differ widely 

1 Bernheim, Dc la Suggestion (2nd edit.), chap. ix. 
^ Compare Hodgson, "The Possibilities of Mal-observation and Lapse 
of Memory," Proceed, S.P.R., 1886-87, pp. 381 et seq. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 105 

from the actual facts, if indeed it were ever a faithful 
representation of facts. Thus frequently, as in the 
case of the clergyman (p. 93), the account of the 
hallucination is misleading, because the time-relations 
are incorrectly remembered, and events which were 
really simultaneous become successive in the 
memory. 

To illustrate this by an example : Suppose the 
hallucination to have been only a visual one, for 
instance, the figure of a woman clad in white stand- 
ing in front of me to the right. Her position suggests 
that I have seen her glide past me from left to right, 
and then the impression that I must have seen her 
first on the left will appear to have been preceded by 
the sound of a woman's voice, causing me to turn my 
head in that direction. The hallucination is in reality 
a visual perception — a-white-figure-coming-from-the 
left-first - seen - there - by - me - on - hearing-a-sound. I n 
the memory, however, this "complex" is split up into 
elements which are localised separately in time, and 
becomes changed into something like the following : — 
" I was standing alone in the room when I heard 
my name called from the left. It was a woman's 
voice, and I turned round in surprise. What was 
my astonishment when I saw" — and so on. The 

account of the apparition of Lieutenant Chr , after 

he had been killed in a duel, was probably a case of 
this kind, where the preliminary tactile hallucination 
at least seems likely to have been an illusion of 
memory. 

How widely this kind of memory illusion operates 
it is of course difficult to say ; in my opinion far too 
little allowance is made for it. This is borne out by 
observations made by careful witnesses. A dream is 



I05 HALLUCINATIONS 

soon forgotten unless it be mentally recapitulated and 
noted, or told to some one. If this is done the dream 
may indeed be remembered and told for years, but 
still careful self-observation reveals that it is not so 
much the dream images as the memory images fixed 
immediately after waking which are recalled. 

In studying these narratives we must bear all this 
in mind, and we must remember further that the 
narrators are not always of a critical turn of mind. 

The frequent recital of an interesting occurrence 
tends to imprint a distinct picture of it on the mind, 
and the vividness of the mental image serves further 
to confirm the percipient's conviction of having been 
fully awake at the time — a delusion common with 
persons in a drowsy, half-asleep condition. It is not, 
th^n, much to be wondered at if gradually all sub- 
sidiary detail fades away, until finally there remain in 
the memory only two points of cardinal importance — 
the hallucination itself, and the conviction of having 
been fully awake. For my part, I am inclined to 
wonder less at the rarity of suspicious circumstances 
in a series of such accounts, than that, all adverse 
influences notwithstanding, so many and such clear 
indications of dissociation of consciousness still re- 
main. 

Even the cases which do not directly support my 
view may, by the following analysis, as I still hope 
to show, be brought into harmony with it.^ For in 
general, the more recent the case, the less improbable 
does it appear from the narrative itself that the phe- 
nomena recorded were not hallucinations, but either 
illusions or objective sensory perceptions mistakenly 
supposed to be subjective. 

^ Compare Report, p. 66. 



AND ILLUSIONS. TO/ 

Realistic Appai-itions of Living Persons. 

Within the last three months . \^^ Doubtful cases, 8") 

„ previous nine months .j"^ ,, ,, 6/ "^ 

Over one year, but not over five years 62 ,, ,, 13 

,, five years „ ,, ten ,, 60 ,, „ 8 

The Report explains this faUing-off by assuming 
that the *' doubtful" cases make less impression and 
are soon forgotten ; but I see no grounds for such an 
assumption, since the percipients in these cases, no 
less than in the others, were convinced of the genuine- 
ness of their experiences. To me it seems the truer ex- 
planation that in the more recent cases the accounts 
are more detailed ; in the older ones all accompany- 
ing circumstances which might throw doubt on the 
genuineness of the hallucination have disappeared,^ 
such as, e.g., the state of the light and the physical 
surroundings, or any indications of a state of dream- 
consciousness on the part of the percipient. 

Hallucinations classified according to the sense affected. 
— In passing on to another point, we must consider the 
share of various senses in the hallucinations. Accord- 
ing to Table II. d. they are reckoned as follows : — 

Hallucinations of a single sense . . . , 1890 



Visual 
Auditory . 
Tactile 



Hallucinations simultaneously affecting several senses 271 



Visual and auditory 
Visual and tactile . 
Visual and olfactory 
Auditory and tactile 
Visual, auditory, and tactile 
All four senses 



II 14 
629 
147 



181 

38 

I 

21 

29 

I 



1 Note in this connection that of the 12 cases of visual hallucinations, 
none more than a fortnight old, given on p. 7 of the Report, 7 are 
regarded as doubtful. 



Io8 HALLUCINATIONS 

The Less Start/ing Hallucinations are soon forgotten. 
— These figures seem to me, however, to show not so 
much that our hallucinations visit us most in visual 
pictorial form, but rather that the less striking sensory 
perceptions are easily overlooked, or if recognised as 
delusions, are soon forgotten; w^hile the remarkable 
and striking ones, and especially the visual phantasms, 
remain longer in the memory. This view is supported 
also by the fact that among rudimentary halluci- 
nations (not fully developed, lights, vague objects, and 
sounds) the visual preponderate, simply because the 
great mass of obscure and partially projected halluci- 
nations of the other senses fade from the memory 
sooner and more completely. This is shown still 
more clearly by a comparison of the hallucinations 
reported as occurring within the last ten years with 
those remembered from the time previous to that 
period. (Tables V. a, VI. a, VI I.) 

Visual hallucinations within the last ten years . 458 
,, ,, of more than ten years ago. 486 

Auditory hallucinations within the last ten years . 247 
„ „ more than ten years ago 

(rather more than half) . . . •^37 
Tactile hallucinations within the last ten years . 97 
„ „ more than ten years ago 

(less than half) .... -41 

We find further confirmation of this view in the fact, 
arrived at from the figures given in the Report, that the 
hallucinations recorded for the last year amounted, in 
the case of the visual experiences, to 18.9 per cent, of 
the whole number recorded for the last ten years, and 
in the case of tactile and auditory hallucinations 
respectively to 21.9 and 29.1 per cent. We find the 
same characteristic in the auditory hallucinations 
recorded in Table VI. a. 



ANT) ILLUSIONS. IO9 

Of the less striking cases, in which the narrator 
heard only his name called, or only indistinct voices, 
148 are reported as occurring within the last ten years, 
and only 53 within the previous period. On the other 
hand, almost as many of the more striking auditory 
hallucinations, in which other words or sentences were 
heard, are recorded as occurring in the earlier period, 
as the 69 in the last ten years. Again, when the 
voice was recognised as that of a living or of a dead 
person, the relative numbers (164 new cases to 97 
old) indicate that the experience is more readily 
remembered than when the voice was not recognised 

(83 : 40). 

Since, as we shall see later, there are good grounds 
for supposing that simple, non-complicated hallucina- 
tions are more frequent than those which are fully 
developed and distinctly projected, but that, as is 
natural, and as the tables show, they are scarcely 
noted and soon slip from the memory, we may con- 
clude that "waking hallucinations" in sane persons 
are much more frequent phenomena than appears 
from the tables. Even should the percentage of 
affirmative answ^ers on a more searching analysis 
be further lowered, still it is to be noted that the 
result refers only to the remembered experiences. It 
would be ridiculous to reckon the number of dreams 
by the number remembered,^ but it would be scarcely 
less misleading to apply the same method of calcula- 
tion to waking hallucinations. 

1 Let the reader try to remember his dreams of more than a year ago. 
Unless exceptionally well practised in calling to mind such experiences 
he will hardly be in a position to remember any great number of them 
clearly. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS IN FALLACIOUS 
PERCEPTION. 

Early Attempts at Explanation — The Centrifugal Psychic 
Theories — Objections — The Centi-ifugal Seiisorial 
Theories — The Coiiception iniderlying all Centrifugal 
Theoj^ies — Arguments against this Conceptioii — Centri- 
petal Iheories — Identity of the Sensory a7id Ideaiiotial 
Ce7itres — Theories of Pelmaji and Ka?idinsky — False 
Perceptioti a Phe?wn2eno7i co?idiiioned by disturbed 
Association — Mey?tert — Jaines — Expla?iatio?i suggested 
by the Author — Its Advantages — Schematic Presenta- 
tio7i of the Physiological Process iii False Perceptio7i — 
Various Objections 7net. 

The first attempts to explain the physiological 
process in false perception were very vague and 
general. It was clear that to account for the more 
complex hallucinations — i.e.^ those affecting several 
senses — the morbid condition was to be sought 
outside the sense organs. No doubt Joh. Miiller's^ 
doctrine of the specific energies of the nerves made 
it possible to explain how subjective sensory percep- 
tions might appear as objective, and when it was 
once assumed that subjective sensations were the 
result of inadequate stimuli, the same explanation 
readily suggested itself in the case of hallucination ; 
but it was urged against this view that while rudi- 

^ Joh. Miiller, Ueber phantast. Gesichfserscheinujigen, 1826; Zur 
vergleich. Physiol, des Gesichtssinns, 1836. For a short abstract see 
Schiile, Handbuch d. Geisteskraiikheiten, 1878, pp. it^6 et seq. 



HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. Ill 

mentary phenomena, such as sparks, flashes, colours, 
singing in the ears, etc., may originate in this way, 
inadequate stimuH can never result in "complex 
images, arranged in orderly perspective," or words, 
though these play so great a part in hallucinations. 
If, for instance, in the subjective dream-image of a 
tree only a corresponding subjective excitation of the 
sensory nerve were necessary, then, as Neumann^ has 
pointed out, a portion of the optic fibres would have to 
be stimulated in such a way that their arrangement 
should exactly correspond to the image of a tree, or to 
the image of the space not occupied by the tree (a 
light tree on a dark, a dark tree on a light ground). 
If we consider the great number of possible combina- 
tions, among the myriad fibres spread over the 
retinal surface (lOO primitive fibres to the square 
line), such a result seems highly problematical. In 
the same way the formation of an articulate word 
would be barely probable, that of a sentence practi- 
cally impossible.^ 

Hence the search in this direction was soon 
abandoned. The older writers Indeed confine them- 
selves for the most part to vague generalities,^ with 

^ Neumann, Lehrbitch der Psychiatrie, § 142, 143. 

■^ Leubuscher, Ueber die Eiitsfehnng der Sinnestcmschtingeir, 1S52, p. 
29, Compare Griesinger, op. cii., pp. 87 <?/ seq. 

^ Thus Bottex, op. cit., p. 12, believes that hallucinations, like 
dreams, are the result of an irritation of several parts of the brain, now 
of one and now of another, which are momentarily not under the con- 
trol of the will. J. B. Friedrich, " Einige \Yorte ilber den psycholog. 
Werth der Sinnestauschungen," Fr. Arch. f. Physiol., 1834, vol. ii., 
maintains that hallucinations depend on an abnormal state of the 
sensorium which arrests the freedom of the will and the power of 
judgment. Brierre de Boismont, op. cit., chap. 17, points out reasons 
which tell a priori against the dependence of fallacious perception on 
specific anatomical disturbances, and quotes Lelut, Calmeil, and Leuret 
in support of his view. 



112 HALLUCINATIONS 

two distinguished exceptions, Erasmus Darwin and 
Foville, who attribute a semi-sensorial character to 
the morbid affection, which they locate partly within 
and partly outside the sense organs, and express the 
view that not only the nerve tract between the organ 
and the brain is affected, but that the more com- 
plicated hallucinations of several senses can be 
explained only by assuming the implication of those 
brain-centres at least in which the sensory nerves 
originate. Macario distinguishes various kinds of 
hallucinations and assigns them various sites.^ 

Although, as time went on, attention was directed 
more and more to this problem, no explanation has 
yet been offered which has met with general accept- 
ance, as the numerous attempts at a theory of 
hallucination sufficiently testify. In considering the 
most important of these attempts, in discussing the 
various views advanced and the arguments used to 
support them, we shall make ourselves acquainted 
with the leading facts, and thus be in a position to 
form an independent judgment. 

Two main points had to be considered in the 
elucidation of the problem: on the one hand the 
sensory character of the phenomenon, on the other 
the great part played by temperament, mental and 

1 Macario, in the Aidu Med. psych. ^ Nov. 1845, Jan. 1846, distin- 
guishes hallucinations as follows : firstly, external or sensorial hallucina- 
tions, which originate in the sensory nerve ; secondly, those which are 
ganglionic, resulting from lesions of the great sympathetic nerve {e.g., 
frequently in hypochondriacs) ; thirdly, those which are intuitive, or 
caused by "inner" vision (for instance, in ecstasy and hysteria); and 
lastly, sthenic hallucinations which arise from heightened sensibility, and 
should be regarded as a neurosis of the sensory nerves {e.g., the yisual 
hallucinations of watchmakers, auditory hallucinations in the case of 
cooks who spend a great part of their lives in hot kitchens). 



AND ILLUSIONS. II 3 

emotional bias, education, superstition, the spirit of 
the times, etc., in determining what the hallucinatory- 
object should be, and investing it with form and 
colour. Supposing the ideational centres to be locally 
separated from the sensory centres, it was natural to 
ascribe the imaginative factor in fallacious perception 
to the higher elements of the cerebral cortex, and to 
relegate the sensory part to those cells where, in 
popular parlance, incoming " impressions are trans- 
formed into sensations." As to the locality and extent 
of these centres, and indeed of most others, there is 
a conflict of vlews.^ However, the first question to 
answer was not where are these centres situated, but 
what is it which, in hallucination, where no normal 
stimulus is present, starts in these centres the process 
of which we become conscious as a sense-perception. 

Centrifugal Psychic Theories. — Man}' writers as- 
cribed, and many still ascribe, the initial impulse to 
the ideational centres. On this view, either the 
activity of these centres must be increased beyond 
the normal to admit of their giving rise to an effective 
stimulus, or we must postulate a higher degree of 
irritability for the ''inner sensory areas," which would 
lend exceptional effectiveness to ideational stimuli 
in ordinary circumstances inadequate. 

The chief justification for this view is the fact that 
sensory hallucinations occur even when the sen- 
sorium (assumed to be sub-cortical) is wholly de- 
stroyed. Again, the accounts of voluntarily-induced 

1 Luj'S, Fournier, and Ritti believe the process to occur chiefly in the 
optic thalami ; Schroder van der Kolk, Meynert, and Kandinsky would 
place the centres lower down — that of vision, for instance, in the 
corpora quadrigemina ; Hitzig, Ferrier, Munk, and others locate them 
in the cortex itself. 

8 



I 14 HALLUCINATIONS 

hallucinations/ the fact that many patients are 
conscious of their imagination being the source of 
their sensory delusions, the decrease of hallucina- 
tions during increasing mental weakness, and their 
almost entire absence in cases of idiocy, seem to point 
in the same direction. Further, the influence of memory 
and experience in determining the character of the 
sensory delusions is cited in support of this view, and 
also the fact that the sense of hearing is specially 
liable to hallucinations — the sense, that is, which 
plays a more important part than any other in our 
psychical life, since we think -in words and express 
our thoughts in words.- 

In a certain sense we may even reckon Joh. Miiller^ 
among the exponents of this theory, since he assumed 
the existence in the brain of an Organ for the pro- 
duction of imaginary images (the " Phantasticon"), 
and believed it to control the innermost springs of 
vision. So also Moller,'^ who considers hallucinations 
to result from the elaboration in the mind of a single 
more or less persistent recollection, which afterwards 

^ Compare Goethe's power to call up the hallucination of an un- 
folding flower. Brierre de Boismont, op. ciL, mentions the case of an 
artist who after one sitting was able to go on painting the portrait of his 
sitter by the aid of the hallucinatory image which he could call up at 
will. Griesinger cites the case of an insane person who heard voices, 
and who found that he could put any words he liked into the mouth of 
the imaginary beings who conversed with him (Holland, Chapter on 
3Ie?ifal Physiol., p. 52); and Sandras, Ann. Med. psych. (1855), p. 
542, records his own hallucinations, which rendered his thoughts 
audible to him and answered his questions, but always according to his 
wishes. For further examples see below. 

^ Von Krafft-Ebing, Die Sinnesdeiz7'ien {Er]ar\gen, 1864). 

^ Joh. Milller, Phantast. Gesichtserscheimingen, § 138. 

^ MoUer, ^;////;-^/^/. Beitr'dge zztr Erfahrting der psych. K?-ankheite)i 
(1837), pp. 507 ei seq. 



AND ILLUSIONS. II 5 

penetrates into the organs of sight and hearing; and 
Falret, who speaks of a ''lesion de I'imagination."^ 
Griesinger is led to the conclusion that it is ideas 
which initiate and guide the sensory activities, mainly 
because certain individuals can voluntarily call up 
hallucinations, because, that is to say, vivid mental 
images deliberately conjured up and dwelt upon are 
often recognised as the exciting cause of sensory 
delusions. 

Griesinger's deduction is shortly as follows": — 
As in normal sensory activity the effect produced by real 
external stimuli on the nervous system is, in so-called " eccen- 
tric phenomena," referred back to the part of the periphery 
usually excited, so a similar projection is manifested by ideas 
which owe their origin only to sensations. In this latter case, 
however, the process does not extend to the nervous surface 
and thence outwards, but only to the region of the exciting 
cause— ?>., the sensorium.^ It is apparently on this eccentric 
projection of ideas that their constant reinforcement by sensory 
images depends, and to the same cause is doubtless also due 
that faint subsidiary hallucination in the central sense organ 
which accompanies all thought, to which indeed thought owes 
its clearness and colour, those stores of sensory imagery in 
which we all to some extent share. It supplies the foundation 
for all those psychical phenomena which are assigned to the 
imagination, so that all imaginative processes may be said to 

^ Falret, op, cit., "En parlant des lesions de I'imaginalion nous ne 
voulons dire qu'une chose, asavoir: que rhallucination se rattache a une 
modification cerebrale analogue a celle qui dans I'etat normal accom- 
pagne Taction de I'imagination." Hallucination, he adds, is dis- 
tinguished from other morbid activities of the brain, which also have 
their analogies in normal experience, by the want of control which 
invariably appears when the imagination is abnormally active, and 
further by the involuntary nature of the phenomena and the sudden, 
disconnected manner of their appearing. 

^ Griesinger, op. ci't., pp. 29 and 91. 

^ Kahlbaum, "Die Sinnesdelirien," AUg. Zeitschr.f. Psych., xxiii., 
describes this process as " Reperceplion." 



Il6 • HALLUCINATIONS 

consist merely in more or less lively reverberations in the 
sensorium. Hallucination differs only m degree from this 
normal activity of the imagination. In the former process, the 
intensity with which the projected ideas act on the sensory 
centre causes something to take place there which normally 
occurs only as a result of external excitation — viz., an act 
of sensation.^ 

Following Griesinger's theon^. Von Krafft-Ebing " 
writes: "Hallucination is the result of an excitation 
of the central apparatus of a sensory nerve by an 
adequate ideational stimulus sufficient to give the 
force of a sense-impression to the answering excita- 
tion which is projected outwards." Hoffmann ^ says: — 
" Representative images occasionally manifest them- 
selves so energetically that they may even penetrate 
into the perceptive sphere and arouse it to activity. 
When a representative image in the brain acts upon 
the central filaments of the sensory nerves it is 
eccentrically projected, and results in a hallucination." 

Kahlbaum* belongs also to this school, for besides 
extra-cerebral phenomena depending on processes in 
the periphery and the sense-nerves {PJicrnacismen), 
and perception-hallucinations which occur either as 
stable, as erethic, or as ftmctional phenomena, and are 
produced, according to him, in the affected ganglia 
either through extensive changes (disturbances of 
circulation, for instance) involving chronic stimulation, 

^ Compare the statement of this view by Gurney and Myers, "A 
Theory of Apparitions," Proceedings of the S.F.R., vol. ii., 1883-84, 
pp. 168, 169. 

2 Krafft-Ebing, op. df., p. ii ; compare p. 8; also Lehrlmch 
(1879), i. p. 92. 

^ Hoffmann, Die Physiol, der Sinneshallticination., pp. 19 and 23. 

^ Kahlbaum, op. cit. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 11/ 

or through minor changes which become effective 
only because of the functional activity of the images 
{Phantoriiieit) — in addition to all these kinds of 
hallucinations he considers that there are others due 
to a rise of centrifugal sensory activity {Phantas- 
mien). With those he would class fallacies of one 
sense originated by a normal effect produced in 
another sense, as, for instance, when an insane person 
thinks he is being "stitched in" or "embroidered in" 
when he sees people sewing, or on catching sight of a 
long pole feels himself being drawn out lengthwise.^ 
In explanation, Kahlbaum assumes an increase of 
centrifugal irritability in a particular sense which is 
aroused into activity through the general excitation 
of the consciousness resulting from the first centri- 
petal perceptional process (on the analogy of reflex 
movements he calls these reflex hallucinations). 
Lastly, he adds another class, viz., hallucinations 
of mem.ory [P hantorhemien). 

Next, Kraepelin^ distinguishes {a) elementary sense 
deceptions peripherally conditioned, {U) perception 
phantasms which originate through inadequate 
stimuli (changes in the circulation, poisons, etc.) in 
the centres of perception (hypnagogic hallucinations in 

^ Most cases of this kind are indeed rather to be regarded as reflex 
insane ideas. The following case of Janet's (" L'anesthesie Hysterique " 
in the Arch, de Neurologie, 1892, No. 69) is, however, a genuine 
reflex or "apperception " hallucination. " When I show you the colour 
blue you will hear bells ringing," Professor Janet said to Isabella, a 
hysterical subject blind on the left side. Then when her right eye 
(the normal one) had been blindfolded, various coloured wools were 
held before her left eye. At first she said everything was dark ; but as 
soon as a piece of blue wool was held up she cried, " Oh, I hear bells." 
INIany hypnotic and post-hypnotic hallucinations d cch'eaiice might be 
referred to this class. 

2 Kraepelin, Fsjchialrie, pp. 70-S5. 



Il8 HALLUCINATIONS 

the sane, and in the insane fixed monotonous hallucina- 
tions, generally independent of the train of thought; 
Kahlbaum's ''stable" hallucinations); lastly (c), 
memory images of special vividness. He explains these 
"apperception" hallucinations much as Griesinger 
explains them, and groups with them Baillarger's 
"psychical" hallucinations, the "pseudo-hallucina- 
tions " of Hagen, and also the hallucinatory reverbera- 
tion called " double thinking." For it is easy to 
explain such a continuous procession of sensory 
fallacies following the train of thought step by step, 
on the assumption of reperception, and of a heightened 
irritability of the inner sensory tracts. Alongside 
"apperception hallucinations" he places "apperception 
illusions " (in the sane the illusions caused by strong 
emotion, expectation, etc. ; and in the insane, besides 
these, reflex hallucinations). 

One of the principal exponents of this view is H, 
Taine,^ who explains hallucinations as arising when 
the inner images are deprived of their usual " re- 
ductives" {signes reducteurs), and thus appear as 
sensible realities. I quote the following from his 
brilliant exposition of the theory: — 

" In ordinary cases a disturbance of the nerves produces this 
action, but if it is otherwise produced it will arise without the 
intervention of the nerves, and we shall have a true sensation, 
that of a green table, or of the sound of a violin, without any 
table or violin having acted on our eyes or ears. Thus setting 
aside the medium of the nerves, we find two cases in which the 
centres of sensation act. First, having been set in action by 
the nerve, they may persist in this action spontaneously, and 
repeat it of themselves after the nerve has ceased to act. This 
is notably the case with illusions following on the prolonged 
use of the microscope, when the micrographist resting his eyes 

^ Taine, De L InUUigetice, vol. i., book ii., chap. i. 



AND ILLUSIONS. II9 

on his table or paper sees aboHt a foot off small grey figures 
which persist, vanish, and reappear, continually growing paler 
and feebler. Secondly, the centres of sensation may act 
through a reflected shock, when pure mental images arouse 
their activity. Usually it is the sensation which provokes the 
image, and the transmitted action of the sensorium which is 
repeated in the cerebral lobes or hemispheres : here, on the 
contrary, the image excites the sensation repeated in the 
centres of sensation. This is probably the case in hypnagogic 
and psycho-sensorial hallucinations.^ 

" If I may be permitted a homely metaphor, let us call the 
conducting nerve a bell-rope, attached to a large bell, the 
centre of sensation ; when the rope is pulled the bell rings ; 
here we have a sensation. This bell, thanks to an imperfectly 
understood mechanism, communicates by various threads, the 
fibres of the optic thalami and the corpora striata, with a 
system of little bells, which make up the hemispheres, and 
whose mutually excitable tinklings exactly repeat its sounds 
with their pitch and tone. These tinklings are images. When 
the bell rings it sets the tinklings a-going, and when its ringing 
is over the tinklings continue, growing weaker and dying away, 
but may increase in volume and regain all their first energy 
when a favourable circumstance permits the persisting sound 
of one or two of the little bells to cause all the others to vibrate 
in unison, . . . 

" In hallucinations of the microscope the large bell has been 
so powerfully and constantly set vibrating in one direction that 
its mechanism continues to act even when the cord is hanging 
motionless. In dreams and hypnagogic hallucinations the cord 
is relaxed ; it no longer acts, the constant demands of the 
waking hours has used up its power of responding ; external 
objects pull in vain, they no longer cause the bells to ring. 
But, on the other hand, the little bells, whose appeals have been 
repressed while we were awake, and whose pullings have been 
annulled by the more energetic pulling of the bell-rope, regain 
all their power, ring louder and pull more effectually. Their 

^ By "psycho-sensorial" hallucinations Baillarger means false per- 
ceptions with a pronounced sensory character, while he designates as 
"psychical" the so-called soundless voices, for instance. Binet has 
suggested for the first group the apter term, cerehro-sensorial. 



120 HALLUCINATIONS 

movements excite corresponding vibrations in the large bell. 
Thus the life of man is divided into two portions — the waking 
state, in which the large bell responds to the cord, and sleep, 
wherein it responds to the little bells. In morbid hallucina- 
tions the bell-rope still acts, but its effort is overcome by the 
greater power of the little bells ; and various causes, a flow of 
blood, inflammation of the brain, haschisch — all circumstances 
indeed which render the hemispheres more active — tend to 
produce these phenomena. The appeals of the little bells, 
which in the normal state are more feeble than those of the 
cord, have become stronger, and the ordinary equilibrium is 
upset, because one of the functions has assumed an ascendency 
to which it is not entitled." 

Among other authors who express themselves to 
the same effect are Esqulrol,^ Brierre de Boismont,^ 
Neumann,^ Reil,* E. Pohl,^ R. Leubuscher,*" Schroeder 
van der Kolk,^ Schaller,^ Emminghaus,^ L. Meyer,^^ 
Wijsman,^^ Friedmann/^ and many others. As their 
presentations of the theory agree for the most part 
with those already quoted, and differ mainly in the 
arrangement of the evidence, and in the different 
localities which they assign to the ideational centres, 

^ Esquirol, op. cit. 

^ Brierre de Boismont, Des halhicinations. 

^ Neumann, Lehrhich der Psychiatrie, § 201 et seq. 

^ Reil, Rhapsodien, 

^ Pohl, Die Melancholie iiach deni neucsten Standpunkt der Physi' 
ologie. 

^ Leubuscher, Ueher die Entstehung der Sinneiiduschmigen. 

^ Schroeder van der Kolk, Pathologic and Therapie der Geisteskrank- 
heiten (1863). 

^ Schaller, Die Halluciiiation (1867; Diss.). 

^ Emminghaus, Allg. Psychopathologie. 

■"^ L. Meyer (Hamburg), Ueber den Charakter der Hallucination bei 
Geisteskranken . 

11 Wijsman, Getieesk Tijdschr. voor NederL Ind.^ xxiv. %"]., 244 
(1884). 

^^ Friedmann, Ueber den Wahn (1894), ii. p. 35, Note* 



AND ILLUSIONS. 121 

it is not necessary to consider them in detail, and I 
shall now turn at once to the criticisms of the theory 
and to the views to which these objections lead us. 

Argujnents against the Psychic Theories. — The 
following is a brief summary of the chief objec- 
tions urged against the theory we have just been 
considering, which regards hallucinations as evoked 
in consequence of exceptionally vivid ideational 
images penetrating into the region of sense, or, 
in terms of physiology, as the result of a current of 
centrifugal energy from the cells of the cortex exciting 
the basal ganglia into activity. 

I. However vivid and energetic an ideational image 
may be, it can never receive the stamp of sensory 
reality. Schiilei cites Fechner's- experiments, and 
concludes that ideas of sensation can never rise to the 
level of sensation itself, that the want of the feeling of 
sensory affection leaves a gap which no psychic in- 
tention can bridge over. Kandinsky^ insists that "a 
whole gulf" separates hallucinations, as well as 
normal sensory perceptions, from even the liveliest 
ideas. Among others,* Meynert has perhaps expressed 
himself most emphatically on this point,^ 



^ Schiile, op. ciL, p. 140, 

^ Fechner, Elemente der Psychophysik, ii. pp. 469 et seq. 

^ Vict. Kandinsky, Kritische tind klinisdie Betrachtung im Gebiet 
der Sinnestiiuschtingen {l^%<j), pp. l'^^ et seq. 

- Strieker, " Ueber Sinnestauschungen," Wien. Med. Blatter^ 1S78, 
p. 133, quotes the utterance of Hume that " the poet, even with the 
most glowing colours of his craft, cannot so depict a scene that his 
description should be taken for a real landscape. The liveliest thoughts 
do not reach to the dimmest impressions." 

^ Th. Meynert, " Ueber die Gefilhle " in the Saniinhtng von popular- 
wissenschaftlichen- Vorirdgen iiber den Bau und die Leistung des 
Gehirns, pp. 44 et seq. 



122 HALLUCINATIONS 

''The mnemonic image of the most terrible burn is not to be 
compared in intensity, as regards its effect on the skin, with the 
faintest touch of a feather. The mental picture of the sun's 
bright disc has less to do with an impression of light than the 
least conceivable fraction of the glow-worm's faint radiance. 
The ear-splitting roar of a cannon as a mere image in the 
memory has less power to affect the sense than the immeasurably 
mJnute sound of a hair falling upon water. And though these 
images in the memory are caused in the first instance by sensory 
impressions, they have nevertheless as little in common with 
such impressions as an algebraic sign with the object for which 
it stands." 

2. It is difficult to refer to ideational excitation 
visions which mock at all experience, the vision, for 
instance, of a blue dog, but it is easy to connect such an 
appearance with an illusory perception of a subjective 
impression of blue light. This view findsfurther support 
in the partiality which hallucinations seem to display 
for the primary colours, blue, red, and yellow (Hagen). 

3. If an energetic ideational stimulus could arouse 
a corresponding activity in the sensory centres, hallu- 
cinations, and especially voluntary hallucinations, 
would be much more frequent phenomena of sane life 
than they are (Hagen). 

Centrifugal Sensorial Theories. — ^In order to escape 
these difficulties, Hagen ^ refers the seat of hallucina- 
tion to the subcortical sensory centres. 

It is true that the seat of the excitation may be in the external 
sense organs or in the nerve path from the organ to the brain 
{e.g., when flashes of light are seen in diseases of the retina, 
or auditory hallucinations experienced in diseases of the ear-), 

^ Hagen, Die Siiinestduschuugeii in Bezug atif Psychologie, Heil- 
kiindetuid Rechtspflege (1837); also the article " Zur Theorie der Hallu- 
cinationen," Allg. Zeitschr.f, Psych., xxv. (1868), in which he develops 
and to some extent modifies his views. 

- Koppe, " Gehorstorungen u. Psychosen, " Allg. Zeitschr.f. Psych., 
xxiv. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 1 23 

but It would be going too far to explain all hallucinations 
through physical affections of the sensory outposts. For, in the 
first place, no abnormality can be discovered in the majority of 
such cases ; and next, even where such abnormality, and a con- 
sequent weakening of sensibility, is present, hallucinations are 
rarely found ; thirdly, fallacies of perception may occur when the 
sensory nerves have been destroyed; and fourthly, a strong 
argument against this view is the intimate connection of hallu- 
cinations with psychoses and neuroses. In most cases, there- 
fore, the seat of the hallucinatory process is to be sought in the 
sensorium, which is in a highly excited state, " so that stimuli 
playing upon it give rise to an exceptionally energetic 
functional manifestation in the efferent nerves proceeding 
from it, a manifestation which, as a rule, is wholly divorced 
from the control of the will." In a nerve leading to a 
muscle this is called cramp. ^'' HallucinatioJi is cramp of 
the sensory nerves.^'' The same effect, it is true, may also be 
produced by any stimulating substance in the sensorium, but 
such a cause is not easy to prove, and it is safer to assume a 
state of increased excitability, not in the sense of hypersesthesia, 
but of a nervous congestion {Turgor), a tension of the nerve 
organ tending to relieve itself by centrifugal discharge. In 
support of this view Hagen cites the tendency of hallucinations to 
vanish on closing the eyes or darkening the room, the occurrence 
of elementary as also of unilateral hallucinations, and specially 
the frequency of visions, voices, etc., in epilepsy, and all states 
characterised by great convulsibility — that is to say, by a tend- 
ency of the nerve centres to centrifugal discharge, — and 
generally in diseases of which "cramp" is a possible symptom. 
The changes thus taking place in the peripheral organ or the 
sensoriun> n)ay either be interpreted correctly or misinterpreted, 
and thus transformed into illusions. - It is often reported, for 
instance, that rudimentary sensations of light or sound appear 
first, and that the hallucinatory forms and words are only de- 
veloped from them later. On the other hand, it sometimes 
happens that the imagination plays a part in the process from 
the beginning, some dominant image in the mind entering into 
and transforming the hallucinatory product. Such a process 
may be conceived as analogous to Romberg's " co-ordinated 
cramp." The impulse, motor in the latter case, is here idea- 
tional, and just as the psychic intention can in the one case give 



124 HALLUCINATIONS 

rise to a muscular spasm, so in the other the ideational activity 
may cause a cramp of the sensory nerves. But it is not so much 
the idea in the mind as the heightened convulsibility of the sub- 
cortical centres which is the real cause of the hallucination.^ 

Hagen's view is adopted, amongst others, by 
Schiile,^ who has further elaborated it. 

If, he argues, in cases in which hallucinations occur after blind- 
ness and atrophy of the optic nerve of many years standing 
(Rudolphi), or with softening of the thalami (Esquirol), we assume 
that the co-operation, anatomical and physiological, of the "sense" 
is essential, we must suppose that the sensory tract in all its rami- 
fications is involved with the cortical sphere in a pathological 
reaction. It is improbable, however, that the whole of the 
nerve path is implicated, and if we assume an intellectualising 
of the perceptions as they ascend the degree of sensory quality 
in a hallucination may be taken as a functional expression of the 
distance from the periphery of the nerve concerned. " The 
timbre of the haUucinatio7i is the auscultation product of its vwre 
central or more peripheral nature^ An irradiation which ex- 
tends as far as the peripheral organ attains to full sensory 
expression. *' The more central the stimulus the more inward 
and intellectual the tone." The pathological process may be 
conceived as a condition of heightened irritability with a specific 
morbid function : two causes may be assigned for this heightened 
irritability — {a) a weakening of the cortical inhibition and con- 
sequent increased independence of the sensory centres; {b) direct 
heightening of the irritability, generally resulting from some 
disturbance of assimilation. The specific nature of the sensory 
affection is to be regarded as cramp (Hagen^). 

^ In completing our historical survey it may be worth while to note 
that Grohmann (whom Hagen quotes) supposes a disposition to visual 
hallucinations in abnormal slates of the venous blood, and to auditory 
hallucinations in abnormal states of the arterial blood. He also thinks 
that heart disease predisposes to visual hallucinations. 

^ Schiile, op. cit., pp. 136-148. 

^ Be it noted, however, that Hagen's comparison of hallucination 
with cramp is misleading, if only for this reason : in the motor nerves 
the functional activity proceeds in a normal direction, while the pro- 
cess supposed to lake place in the sensory nerves is reversed. 



AND ILLUSIONS, 12$ 

Fundamental Conceptions underlying all the Centri- 
fugal Theories. — Before proceeding further it would 
be well to consider how these various writers were 
led to suppose a centrifugal process in hallucina- 
tion, and to adopt a hypothesis which, especially 
at first, seems directly opposed to all physiological 
theories. 

1. Since hallucinations in the psychological view 
were images of the memory or imagination which 
had attained to sensory vividness, and since the 
centres of ideation were now always conceived as 
the higher centres, it was necessary to assume 
a refluent impulse from the cortex to the sen- 
sorium, nor indeed were other indications of such 
a process wanting, for, as Griesinger had already 
pointed out, all thinking, all imagining, is accom- 
panied by faint sensory echoes. 

2. Hagen and the exponents of the sensorial theory 
were also led to suppose a centrifugal discharge, not, 
it is true, on the grounds just stated, but through the 
theory of "eccentric projection," then generally 
accepted and held to explain why the hallucinatory 
image is located in the external world. 

3. A great number of cases were adduced which 
it seemed impossible to explain except on the 
hypothesis that the retina was also involved in the 
hallucination. Many writers (Griesinger,^ Krafft- 
Eblng,^ Schlile, Desplne,^ and Tamburini *) go so far 
as to assume in the case of a full-fledged hallucination 
a centrifugal current reaching to the peripheral organ. 

'^ Griesinger, op. cit., p. 90. 

^ Krafft-Ebing, Die Simiesdelirien., p, 1 1. 

^ Despine, Etude scientifiqiie siir le somnambitlisme, 

■* Tamburini in Revue scientif. {1881), p. 139, 



126 HALLUCINATIONS 

Sergi^ goes a step further and assumes in every 
sensory perception a refluent wave. Lombroso and 
Ottolenghi have adopted his extreme view.^ The 
resuhs of Monakow's researches seem to furnish an 
anatomical basis for this theory. His description 
of the optical nerve tract is as follows^: — 

" From each optical centre there proceeds a system of fibres, 
and in each centre a similar system terminates, and the various 
systems of projection-fibres are miited through the system of 
the intermediate cells. Both in the primary and secondary 
divisions of the optical tract two systems of fibres run parallel 
to one another in opposite directions, and the systems of brain 
cells and intermediate cells constantly alternate." These filament 
systems, he proceeds, are so constructed that the coarser fibres 
of the optic nerve spring from the large multipolar cells of the 
retina and break up to form a network in the external geniculate 
body ; the finer filaments arise in the superficial grey matter of 
the anterior corpora quadrigemina, and end in the retina; the 
axis-cylinder prolongations from the majority of the ganglionic 
cells in the pulvinar and the external geniculate body extend as 
visual projection fibres into the cortex of the occipital lobes, 
where they terminate for the most part in the nerve network of 
the fifth layer and become indirectly connected with the inter- 
mediate cells. On the other hand, the great pyramidal cells of 
the third cortical layer send their axis-cylinder prolongations 
into the region of the primary optical centres, where they spread 
out in a network. Between the primary and the secondary 
projection systems intermediate cells occur in the cortex and in 
the substantia gelatinosa of the primary centres. 

Such a structure would explain another difficulty 
which meets us in the theories of hallucination we have 
just been considering. It would render plausible the 
conception of a centripetal current flowing alongside 
the centrifugal stream in the same channel at the 



'fc>' 



^ Sergi, Psychologie physiologicpte (i888), pp. 99, 189. 
~ In Reznte philosophiqite, xxix. p. ^o. 
^ Monakow, Arch, fiir Fsych. , xx. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 12/ 

same time, through which the co-operation of the 
subcortical gangHa and of the peripheral organ is 
announced in the cortex. 

Nevertheless all the facts urged in support of this 
hypothesis admit of another explanation. To begin 
with, the psychological conception lying at the root 
of the whole theory has been already considered and 
rejected ; while, as regards the presumption required 
to establish it, that the subcortical centres participate 
in all ideational activity, Tigges^ points to the corol- 
lary that an injury to the former would involve an 
injury to the ideational process, and shows that such 
is not the case, since in subcortical sensorial aphasia 
due to disturbances of conduction between the tem- 
poral lobes and the centres in the medulla oblongata, 
though word-deafness occurs, the acoustic imagination 
remains intact and there is no loss of spontaneous 
speech. 

Secondly, the " eccentric projection " theory rests, 
as James has already pointed out,^ on " the confused 
assumption that bodily processes which cause a sensa- 
tion must also be its seat. Sensations have no seat 
in this sense," he continues, " they become seats for 
each other, as fast as experience associates them 
together; but that violates no primitive seat possessed 
by any one of them. And though our sensations 
cannot then so analyse and talk of themselves, yet at 
their very first appearance quite as much as at any 
later date are they cognisant of all those qualities 
w^hich we end by extracting and conceiving under 

^ Tigges, " Zur Theorie d. Hallucination," Allg. Zeitschr. f. Psych. ^ 
xlviii., vol. 4. His argument does not seem to me of much value, 
however. 

2 James, op. cit.^ ii, pp. 31 et seq. 



128 HALLUCINATIONS 

the names of objectivity^ exteriority, and extent. It is 
surely subjectivity and interiorlty which are the 
notions latest acquired by the human mind." 

Lastly, certain cases where the hallucinations move 
in accordance with the movements of the eye are 
often quoted as affording strong proof of a centrifugal 
current,^ and also those cases where the appearances 
are unilateral, that is to say, where they always occur 
in the same half of the visual field. Griesinger has 
mentioned among other examples the case of a man 
who always saw a black goat at his left side. Some 
of these phenomena may be due to scotoma, etc., but 
as a rule there is no reason for supposing that they 
are not centrally conditioned. Seguin^ noted such 
appearances immediately before the occurrence of 
hemianopsy. This is perhaps best explained (see 
Chapter V.) as a disturbance of the nerve tract which, 
though at first not severe enough to bring about 
hemianopsy, was yet sufficient to cause irritation of 
the visual centre. 

The fact that hallucinatory percepts are sometimes 
followed by apparent after-images is also cited in 
proof of retinal action. Gruithuisen^ gives the follow- 
ing experience of his own :— 

"I dreamed I was showing a lady the beautiful violet colour 
produced by laying fluorspar on glowing coal. The experiment 
seemed to succeed so well that my eyes were blinded as though 
by a ray of sunlight. Thereupon I awoke, and found that I had a 
yellow spot in my eye. This spot gradually became violet-black. 

^ Among other writers, Wundt cites these appearances, Grtindznge 
d. physiol. Psycho logic, ii. p. 356. 

^ Quoted by Paterson, "The Homonymous Hallucinations," re- 
printed from the N'ew York JMedical Journal . 

^ Gruithuisen, Beitrdge zitr PJiysiognosie und Heanfogno^ie, p. 256. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 129 

On opening my eyes I saw it over against the window. It was 
darker than the other parts of the eye, and moved with the eye's 
movements over the objects in the room, hke other illusions 
seen in the waking state." ^ 

A similar case is that of the Hon. Mrs. Drurnmond.- 

" I was dreaming of being in a drawing-room furnished with 
a variety of knick-knacks in glass and china, when my attention 
appeared to be arrested by a large green vase of particularly 
graceful shape. I felt myself gazing intently at this object, when 
I awoke very suddenly and completely, 

*' I occupied a few seconds in looking about me, collecting the 
letters which had been brought in, when a slight uneasiness in 
my eyes made me close them, I then saw the vase at which I 
had been staring in my dream appear within the closed eyelids 
in red, the complementary colour of green, exactly as it would 
have done had I looked as long at a real object and then shut 
my eyes." 

These cases are, on the whole, borne out by the 
accounts of their own visual images given by Meyer° 
and Fer6.* Less convincing is the evidence furnished 
by certain hypnotic experiments which yielded 



1 The account is not quite clear, and seems to indicate that the per- 
cipient was awake for some time before he opened his eyes. One is 
almost tempted to assume that, on first drowsily half unclosing, his 
eyes encountered a strong light stimulus which he supposed to be 
an after-image, a phenomenon very familiar to him, that in the dream 
the sequence of events was reversed (see above), and that the supposed 
after-image was an actual perception of light which produced a true after- 
irtiage. Be that as it may, there is a noteworthy agreement between 
Gruithuisen's experience and the following case, for both percipients 
report that they wakened suddenly on experiencing a visual impression, 
the one through a glare of light, the other, as she expresses it, 
*' suddenly, while gazing intently." 

- Report, p. 145. 

^ G. Herm. Meyer, Untersuchungen neber d. Physiol, d. NeTven- 
faser (1843), pp. 238-241. 

^ Ch. Fere, Rev. philosoph.^ xx. p, 364. 

9 



130 HALLUCINATIONS 

apparent negative after-images of doubtful genuine- 
ness.^ 

But granting that in such cases the hallucinatory 
colours really do bring negative after-images in their 
train, it does not necessarily follow that the retina is 
involved in the physiological process.^ Even Hering 
leaves it an open question whether the action takes 
place in the retina or in the brain, and Michael 
Foster, as quoted in the Report, says, " We have no 
right to suppose that the exhaustion takes place in 
the retinal structure only, it may occur in the central 
cerebral structures during the development of visual 
impulses into sensations, and indeed the chief part of 
it is probably of cerebral origin."^ 

Thus we see that these facts, even if we accept 
them, are very far from proving the theory of 
a refluent current, and a further series of pheno- 
mena often quoted in its support, which we shall 
discuss later,* — the frequent disappearance of hallu- 
cinations on closing the eyes or stopping the ears, the 
doubling of the hallucinatory image through a prism, 
its becoming coloured if seen through coloured glass, 
the appearance of complementary colours in crystal 
visions, the persistence of dream-images in the waking 
state, and so forth, — has really no bearing upon the 
argument. 

4. We should be all the more chary of assuming a 

^ Binet, Le magneiisme animal (1887), p. 188 ; W. James and 
Carnochan, Proceed, of the Amer. S.P.R., p. 98; Borderland (Jan. 
1894), p. 225. 

^ Compare Bernheim, De la Suggestion^ pp. 102-112 ; also compare 
below, Chapter VI. 

^ Foster, Physiology (5th edition), p. 1266. 

* See below, Chapter VI., and also the note on James's experiments 
in Chapter V. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 13I 

descending current in ascending nerve tracts since 
such a hypothesis is inconsistent with generally 
accepted physiological theories. 

The possibility of such a process is not indeed to be rejected 
a priori. Though it was at first supposed that a nerve fibre 
could only convey a current in one direction, Du Bois-Reymond 
pointed out that it was not easy to conceive of a mechanism 
which would allow of a current passing in one direction only, 
and he succeeded in demonstrating that stimulation of a nerve 
at any part of its course produces negative variation at both its 
ends. Various observers, Schwann, Bidder, Gluge, Vulpian, 
have endeavoured to obtain experimental evidence of this iden- 
tity of function by grafting together motor and sensory fibres ; 
but their results are contradictory and ambiguous. Bert's 
experiments are more satisfactory. He grafted the end of a 
rat's tail into the middle of its back, and after the wound had 
healed he cut the tail off at the root, and showed that it was 
still sensitive — that is to say, that the nerves conveyed stimuli 
in a reversed direction. Kiihne's experiments on the centripetal 
conductibility of the motor fibres also yielded positive results.^ 

But even if we attribute such a power of reversed 
conductibility to the nerves it is difficult to see how 
their activity could produce any appreciable effect, 
"since the nerve apparatus to which the refluent cur- 
rent would flow is so formed that it could not function- 
ally respond to such a stimulus, supposing it reached 
it" (Hermann). Andeven if it could so respond, in order 
to explain hallucinations on this theory we should be 
forced to assume not a mere affection of the external 
organ, but a stimulus applied over a certain definite 
area of the retina of the same shape as the image 
seen; "and it is difficult to suppose that such an effect 

^ This short sketch is taken from the account in Hermann's Hand- 
buck d. Physiol, d. Nervensystetns, vol. ii., part i., pp. 9- 14, where other 
evidence is also to be found. 



132 HALLUCINATIONS 

could be produced by a downward impulse from the 
brain, in the absence of any special mechanism for 
directing the current to any particular part of the 
retina." ^ 

Centripetal Theories. — Having seen sufficient reason 
for rejecting all these centrifugal theories of hallucina- 
tion, we now pass to consider some of the many 
attempts which have been made to explain the pheno- 
mena on the assumption of a reverse, that is to say, 
of a centripetal process. Most of the writers who 
support this view seem more or less alive to its bear- 
ing on Esquirol's distinction between hallucination 
and illusion, but so bred into the bone is this time- 
honoured distinction that they do not at first so much 
as attempt to discover whether there are really any 
hallucinations in Esquirol's sense at all. They simply 
take them as proved, and proceed to set up new 
categories. Schlager,^ for instance, distinguishes not 
only between hallucinations and illusions, but creates 
another class, abnormal sensations, strictly so called, 
which he endeavours to explain, speaking of olfactory 
cases, through polypoid growths in the mucous mem- 
brane of the nose, through concussion of the brain, 
apoplectic attacks, etc., that is to say, through inade- 
quate stimuli. Whilst he was able to observe numbers 
of these phenomena, he could not succeed in meeting 
with any genuine hallucinations at all. Andr. Verga^ 
classes these abnormal sensations with illusions, con- 

^ Report, p. 139. See, on the other hand, the quotation previously 
given from Monakow's description of the anatomical structure of the 
optical tract. 

■^ L. Schlager, " Ueber Illusionen im Bereich des Geruchssinnes, 
etc.," Wiener Zeitschr., N. F. I. 19. 20(1858). 

2 A. Verga, Gazz. Lomb. (1857), 22. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 133 

trasting them, as " subjective," with " objective " 
illusions caused by physical processes in healthy 
persons, and supposes them to arise in the body either 
organically or pathologically. He distinguishes them 
as "sensorial," the result of defect or disease of the 
sense organs; "ganglionic," sensations associated with 
hysteria and hypochondria, and which, though arising 
from nerve stimulation, can be perceived without any 
reference to the part affected; and " intellectuaV the 
fallacies common to undeveloped intelligences, or 
occurring in states of anxiety and confusion of mind. 
Along with these he retains true hallucinations, which 
he describes as being obviously due to a morbid state 
of the imaginative faculty, in extreme cerebral excite- 
ment, as opposed to illusions, which he attributes to 
enfeebled power of judgment associated with frequent 
lowering of the cerebral activity. Lazarus^ considers 
that in hallucination the sensory nerves are stimu- 
lated throughout their course to the centre by internal 
processes, but he creates a new class, " visions," which 
he explains on the psychical theory. 

According to Jolly,^ the cause of false perception is 
to be found for the most part in hypersesthesia of 
the sensory paths concerned, a theory of which he 
obtained experimental verification by the reaction of 
the acoustic nerve under galvanic stimulation in 
mental cases associated with auditory hallucinations. 
Strieker's^ view is very similar. 

TJie Identity of the Centres of Sensory Perception 
and the Reproductive Centres. — It is clear, however, 

^ Lazarus, Zur Lehre von den Sinnestdtischungen (1867). 
2 Fr. Jolly, " Beitrage zur Theorie der Hallucination," Arch, filr 
Psych., iv. (1874). 

2 Strieker, " Ueber Sinnestauschungen," IVien. ined. Bldtier (187S). 



134 HALLUCINATIONS 

that the whole controversy as to whether hallucina- 
tion arises in the ideational or in the sensory centres, 
and whether the process travels centripetally or 
centrifugally, becomes meaningless when once we 
have seen adequate grounds for concluding that the 
centres of sensation and imagination are not locally 
separated, but occupy the same part of the brain, 
and that the difference in character between sensory 
perception and ideational reproduction corresponds 
only to a different degree of excitement in the 
same cells. Such in fact would seem to be the 
case. 

Thus it appears that the subcortical ganglia, 
frequently identified as the centres of elementary 
sensation, should rather be regarded as the organs 
for reflex movement of the eye-muscles, for, as 
Longet, Flourens, and Schiff^ have already pointed 
out, stimulation of the corpora quadragemina is 
followed by movement of the iris, and, according 
to Munk, when the visual centres, which he locates 
in mammals in the occipital lobes, are completely 
extirpated only the reaction of the pupil remains, 
and the animals experimented upon become stone 
blind.^ Then again, the pupil reaction remains 
intact, its centre in the basal ganglia being uninjured, 
in unilateral or bilateral hemianopsia resulting from 
lesion of the anterior lobes, but it does not appear 
that sensations of darkness and light are still ex- 
perienced in the eliminated part of the visual field, 
as we should expect them to be if the subcortical 
centres were indeed the seat of primitive light sen- 

^ Schiff, Lehrh, d. Physiologie. 

- Contrary results, those of Schrader for instance, perhaps admit of 
the simple explanation that the removal was not quite complete. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 135 

sations. The sufferers neither avoid obstacles nor 
flinch from threatening movements and gestures. 

Various pathological cases have been quoted to 
prove that within the occipital cortex one part is 
connected with sensation and another with ideation.^ 
They are better explained, however, as James^ ex- 
plains them, by disturbances of conduction between 
the occipital lobes and other parts of the brain.^ On 

^ Munk, " Sehsphare und Raumvorstellung," Internationale Beitrdge 
zur zvissenscha/tl. Medic, Festschr. fiir Virchow (1891), holds that the 
ganglionic cells which bring about the perception of the constantly 
changing retinal images cannot at the same time be concerned with the 
reproduction of memory images, and that, besides elements of percep- 
tion, there are ideational elements spread over the whole visual 
area. "We may suppose," he continues, "that the perceptive and 
ideational elements are situated in different layers in the cortex, but so 
close together that the experimenter cannot injure the one without 
injuring the other." If the gaze is prolonged or intent, the more 
transitory excitation of the perceptive elements as they return to rest 
is communicated to the ideational elements, where it produces certain 
more persistent material changes. 

^ W. James, Principles of fsychology^ ii. p. "^t^. 

•^ Ibid., i. pp. 41-52. "All the medical authors speak of mental 
blindness as though it must consist in the loss of visual images from the 
memory. It seems to me, however, that this is a psychological mis- 
apprehension. A man whose power of visual imagination has decayed 
(no unusual phenomenon in its lighter grades) is not mentally blind in 
the least, for he recognises perfectly all that he sees. On the other 
hand, he may be mentally blind with his optical imagination well 
preserved; as in the interesting case published by Willbrand in 1887. 
In the still more interesting case of mental blindness recently pub- 
lished by Lissauer, though the patient made the most ludicrous 
mistakes, calling for instance a clothes brush a pair of spectacles . . . 
he seemed, according to the reporter, to have his mental images fairly 
well preserved. It is in fact the momentary loss of our «^«-optical 
images which makes us mentally blind, just as it is that of our nan- 
auditory images which makes us mentally deaf. I am mentally deaf if, 
hearing ^ bell, I can't recall how it looks; and mentally blind if, seeing 
it, I can't recall its sonnd or its name." The fact that in most of 
such cases an impairment of optical imagination (besides mental blind- 



136 HALLUCINATIONS 

the other hand, direct evidence for the identity of the 
ideational elements with those of sensory perception 
is furnished by severe cases of hemianopsia, where the 
patient loses his visual images simultaneously with 
his sensibility to light, and that so completely that he 
does not even know what ails him. " To perceive 
that one is blind of the right half of the field of view 
one must have an idea of that part of the field's 
possible existence. But the defect in these patients 
has to be revealed to them by the doctor, they them- 
selves not knowing that there is something wrong 
with their eyes. What we have no idea of we cannot 
miss; and their failure definitely to miss this great 
region out of their sight seems due to the fact that 
their very idea and memory of it is lost along with 
the sensation. A man blind of his eyes merely sees 
darkness. A man blind of his visual brain-centres 
can no more see darkness out of the parts of his 
retina which are connected with the brain-lesion than 
he can see out of the skin of his back. He cannot 
see at all in that part of the field, and he cannot 
think of the light which he ought to be feeling there, 

ness) lakes place is easily explained by supposing that not only the 
connecting tracts are cut off" or destroyed, but that the visual area itself 
is affected. As a matter of fact, in all cases of mental blindness where 
there has been a post-mortem examination, disturbances in the occipital 
lobes have been found. For literature see Friedr. Miiller, Ein 
Beitrag zur Kennt7iiss der Seeleiiblindheit (Marburg, 1892) ; compare 
also the cases reported by A. Pick in the Arch, fur Psych., xxiii. 3, 
where a certain degree of deafness was associated with mental deafness. 
Flechsig, who thinks he can prove that the association does not occur 
through direct connection between the separate sensory areas, but 
indirectly through "association centres," places psychic blindness, 
aphasia, etc., on the same side, and even professes to localise the 
several kinds of disturbed association, all of which he refers to various 
parts of his "left posterior association centre." 



AND ILLUSIONS. 137 

for the very notion of that particular tJiere is cut out 
of his mind."^ 

Pelman's and Kandinsky s Localisation Theories. — ■ 
Even when the identity of the sensory and repro- 
ductive centres is agreed upon, there is yet room for 
differences of opinion concerning the nature of the 
hallucinatory process ; but before we proceed to con- 
sider these it may be as well to note the localisation 
theories of some writers who, not content with dis- 
tributing the perceptive processes associated with 
hallucination between two classes of brain-centres, 
have, by drawing up complicated schemes, still further 
confused the question. Thus Pelman^ holds that the 
sensory stimulus becomes perception in the sub- 
cortical centres, conscious perception [apperception] 
in those of the cortex, and conception and judgment 
in the frontal lobes. When the normal activity of 
the frontal lobes is suspended the cortical region 
attains to greater independence, and hallucination 
arises as conscious perception. It is recognised as 
something strange, but for lack of the critical faculty, 
not as something morbid. Kandinsky's scheme is 

- W. James, op. cit.^ ii. p. 73; also Einet in the Rev. phiios.., xxvi. 
p. 481 ; and Dufour, in the Revue Med. de la Suisse Romande, 18S9, 
No. 8, cited in the Neurologisches Cenlralblalt, 1890, p. 48. Patients 
like those described by James are in the same case as persons born 
blind, who have never had any optical imagination at all. Strieker, 
Wiener Med. Blatter (1S78), p. 83, writes as follows : — "A man fifty 
years of age, who had been born blind, told me he had no idea of 
darkness. In reply to my questions he said that he had heard folk 
speak of darkness and light, and he often wondered about it, but was 
unable to conceive it, or form any idea of it whatever. When I asked 
him if he could not even imagine something different in front of his 
eyes from the back of his head, he replied that it was inconceivable to 
him." 

" Pelman, Zwangsvorstellungen u. ihie Behaiidlung. 



13S HALLUCINATIONS 

still more Involved. Though his writings^ are other- 
wise distinguished by critical acumen in dealing with 
the various hypotheses, he describes no less than five 
different centres as concerned in the hallucinatory 
process : the subcortical centre of perception, 
the sensory centre in the cortex (for appercep- 
tion), the centre of abstract (unconscious, or semi- 
conscious) ideation, the motor cortical centres of 
speech, and the centre of fully conscious thought^ 
which is also the organ of " preapperception." 

Grashey^ rightly combats such strained theories of 
brain localisation, and declares that "it is a great 
mistake to busy oneself about brain-centres which 
have not been proved to exist, and that theories so 
founded are more of the nature of circumlocutions 
than of true explanations." We may therefore 
abandon as useless further inquiry into these and 
similar attempts. 

False Perception a PJienomenon conditioned by 
Disturbed Association. — Meynert takes a decided 
step forward, for, while he distinguishes between 
sensory and ideational areas in the cerebral cortex, 
he points out that hallucinations are not a result of 
heightened cortical excitement, that they do not 
occur during periods of clear thought but at times 
when the higher functions are relaxed."^ 

Speaking of the cortex,* he says: — "It cannot 'hallucinate' — 
that is to say, it cannot reproduce sensations of light, colour, 

^ Kandinsky, Kritische u. klinische Betrachttuigen im Gebiet d. 
Sinnestduschwigen {\%Z^)', Arch. f. Psych. (1881). 

^ Grashey, " Ueber Hallucinationen," Munch, vied. Wochenschr, 
(1892), Nos. 8 and 9. 

^ Compare above, pp. 71 et seq. 

* Th. Meynert, " Das Zusammenwirken der Gehirntheile," a 
lecture delivered before the International Congress at Berlin, 1890; 



AND ILLUSIONS. 139 

sound, or smell in a sensory manner. A hallucination is 
always an inference which arises from the excitation of a 
subcortical station, and which the cortex interprets in accord- 
ance with the ruling thoughts, emotions, and opinions of the 
moment. If the cortex aimed at giving an object sensory 
embodiment it would not succeed through heightening of its 
own activity. For this would inhibit the excitation of the 
external corpus geniculatum or of the retina, as well as the 
subcortical contribution of a feeling of innervation, which the 
cortex translates as spatial extension. The excitation of the 
organ of association (the cortex) is at its height when purely 
occupied with conclusions and the work of comparison and 
judgment, but the perceptive power is then feeble. It is a 
mistake to describe a man who is absorbed in concentrated 
thought as ' dreamy ' or ' distrait^^ though contemporaneous 
impressions escape him. Such is not the condition in which 
deceptive phantasms make their appearance. During intense 
cortical excitement the irritability of the sensory organs and 
their centres in the subcortical regions is suppressed. It is 
with the approach of sleep that the exhausted thinking power 
dies away, and that the excitability of the cortex is lowered, 
and it is during sleep that phantasms appear. Why do the 
subcortical centres not sleep as well ? . - . 

" Having learned that when the cortical elements are in a state 
of tension the activity of the eel! colonies in the lower brain 
is proportionately feeble, and vice versa., we have next to note 
that not all of the myriad cortical elements capable of conscious- 
ness are awake at the same time. As Fechner expresses it, 
there is always a surplus in partial sleep, and only those which 
are awake or ' alert ' at the moment are represented in the 
consciousness. Like the assimilative and respiratory functions 
of an animal when hibernating, the nutritive activities of the 
sleeping part of the cortex are lowered. We call the activity of 
the brain cells their state of excitability. Virchow has shown 
that the epithelium cells of the kidney swell when stimulated ; 
the muscle cell swells, and similarly in the nerve cell the mole- 

Sainmliing von fopiil'ar-ivissenschaftlichen Vortrageti, pp. 219 <?/ seq. ; 
" Ueber Fortschritte im Verstandnisse krankhafter psychischer Gehirn- 
zustande (1878); "Von den Hallucinationen," Wiener med. Blatter 
(1878), No. 9. 



140 HALLUCINATIONS 

cular activity of assimilation must be associated with a heightened 
functional activity, during which, according to Fechner, the 
excitement of the cortical elements oversteps the threshold of 
consciousness. In the highest brain activity of all, such as the 
delicate play of association, in which out of large groups of 
elements a certain number only are alert, and by the excitation 
of the association filaments arouse other element-groups in 
remote parts of the brain to function simultaneously or in an 
unbroken sequence, the assimilative power is enabled to select 
the appropriate elements only through the specialised absorp- 
tive energy of the cell units. These delicate operations of 
selection and grouping in the nutritive processes of the cortex 
must be distinguished from the mere flooding of the cortical 
tracts with the stream of blood by the action of the heart. The 
alert cells supply themselves with nutriment, taking it up by 
endosmosis from the pervious walls of the capillaries. This 
delicate capillary action does not extend, however, to the great 
blood-sea in the heart, and the larger branches of the blood- 
vessels must be pumped full by the action of the heart. From 
each of the three great arteries of the cortex short vessels 
proceed to the base of the brain. The cortical and sub- 
cortical blood-vessels are collateral, and if the same quantity of 
blood enters the great artery, the more there flows to the base 
the less goes into the cortex. But the cortex, in the act of 
hard thinking, becomes a powerful suction pump and draws off 
from the cell colonies of the corpus geniculatum externum and 
other basal centres the stimulus supplied by a full flow of blood. 
If, however, the cortical elements are only half awake or 
exhausted, as when the individual is drowsy or inattentive, the 
molecular attraction absorbs little out of the common blood- 
supply through the branch running up to the cortex, and the 
vessels supplying the base of the brain, and which branch off 
lower down, receive a larger share." ^ 

^ This theory that the nerve elements of the cortex recuperate 
themselves through molecular attraction has been propounded by 
Virchow and further developed by Wundt. The best evidence for it 
is to be found in the results of Meynert, Heubner, and Buret, who 
show that owing to the long and winding course of the arteries the 
blood-supply in the brain is at low pressure and would be insufficient 
to reach the cortical cell colonies unless we credit them with the power 



AND ILLUSIONS. I4I 

Thus, according to Meynert, hallucination may be 
regarded as an inference drawn by the organ of 
association during lowered activity of the hemispheres 
from a message conveyed to it by the excitation of 
the sensory tracts; in a word, it "depends on the 
mutual relations quoad excitability between the frontal 
lobes and the subcortical centres," with which the 
sensory nerves are associated. While Jolly empha- 
sises the actual hyperaesthesia of the specific sensory 
nerves, Meynert considers their heightened activity 
due to the remission of the inhibitory function of 
the frontal lobes. 

But Meynert's service consists not so much in the 
development of his special theory of hallucination, 
which we are forced to reject if only because of 
the function which he attributes to the subcortical 
ganglia, but because, in referring all sensory fallacies 
to the lessened excitability of the higher cortical 
centres (" the organ of association," as he calls it), 
he shows that they are subject to a general law. 
When we translate this law from his terms into our 
own we find that we have arrived at the same 
conclusion which we saw reason to draw from the 
facts considered in Chapters I. and IL, viz. : that 
hallucination is a phenomenon co7tditioned by disturbed 
association. 

Jaines's Theory. — W. James adopts this view, that 
the same cortical elements are concerned in sense 

of molecular attraction. Further support for the theory that hallucina- 
tions arise subcortically is furnished by the results of Meynert's experi- 
ments in weighing the brains of insane subjects : " Naturexperimente 
am Gehirn," Jahrb. f. Psych. ^ x., vols. 2 and 3; ** Ueber Fortschritte 
im Verstandniss der krankhaften psychischen Gehirnzustande " (1878), 
Wiener jned. Blaiier^ 1878, No. 9. 



142 HALLUCINATIONS 

perception and ideation, and makes it the starting- 
point of his own theory of hallucination, which is to 
the following effect: — If the centres are one and the 
same, then the degree of intensity in the process must 
differ according as the currents flow in from the 
periphery or from neighbouring cortical regions. 
Mlinsterberg^ finds the sufficient cause for these 
differences of reaction in the adaptation of the 
cerebral mechanism to the external world, for if we 
could not distinguish between reality and fantasy it 
would be impossible for our actions to be adjusted to 
the environment. The discontinuity between the 
two kinds of processes must mean that when the 
greatest ideational intensity has been reached some 
resistance is encountered which only a new form of 
energy can overcome. If the current from the 
periphery furnishes the requisite energy the result- 
ing process assumes for our consciousness a sen- 
sory character. We may suppose that this process 
consists in a new and more violent explosion 
of the neural matter occurring at a lower level 
than normally, and we may take it that the re- 
sistance to be overcome consists in two factors : 
first, the intrinsic molecular cohesion of the cells, a 
cohesion which a sudden inrush of energy from the 
periphery Is able to tear apart, but which is proof 
against the feebler currents flowing in through the 
association-paths. The latter might indeed effect 
the same result If they could accumulate in the nerve 
elements. But — and here we have the second 
factor in the resistance — this is generally impossible 
because of the free communication of the cells with 

^ Mlinsterberg, Die Willenshandhing (1888), pp. 129-140. 



AND ILLUSIONS. I43 

each other through the association-paths, in con- 
sequence of which the incoming cortical current 
flows out again, waking the next ideas. The tension 
in the cells thus never rises to the higher explosion- 
point If^ hoivever, from any cause the outflow is 
blocked zvJiolly or in part, the inflowing nerve currents 
accumulate and reach the maximal explosion-point, the 
process of perception takes place and the result is a 
hallucination. 

This felicitous explanation unites in itself many- 
advantages. The view of hallucination as depending 
on restricted or disturbed association is in full agree- 
ment with the facts discussed above on pp. 71 et seq. ;i 
and with the law, known to hold good generally,^ that 
the intensity of a state of consciousness is in inverse 
proportion to its power of exciting a new state. Its 
resemblance to Hughlings Jackson's view of epilepsy 

1 Moreau, Du Haschisch, etc., represents insanity as a special state of 
being. The dream-state, he says, is its complete physiological or 
normal expression. In discussing waking hallucinations, too, he notes 
the disturbance of consciousness which accompanies them in a more or 
less marked degree. 

2 James, op. cit., ii. p. 124. "It is the halting-places of our 
thought which are occupied with distinct images. Most of the words 
we utter have no time to awaken images at all, they simply awaken 
the following words. But when the sentence stops, an image dwells 
for a while before the mental eye." This accounts for the vivid- 
ness of the images which haunt our falling asleep (when dissociation 
of consciousness is setting in), and which sometimes appear as com- 
plete hallucinations (hypnagogic hallucinations). Compare Maury's 
description in Le Sommeil et les Kives ; Taine, De Vijitelligence, 
i. p. 50. New sensations not yet associated (such as a flannel bandage 
round the body or the gap of a lost tooth) are more intensely felt 
than when one has "got used" to them. The dissociation of the 
dream-state also accounts for our absurd misinterpretations and 
exaggerations of the sense-impressions which reach us during sleep. 
See above, pp. 53 et seq. 



144 HALLUCINATIONS 

permits us in a simple manner to explain, on similar 
principles, these phenomena, which Hagen had already 
attempted, but without conspicuous success, to bring 
into line. 

Nevertheless, it seems to me simpler, so long at 
least as the action of afferent currents from the 
periphery is not absolutely excluded, and therefore 
so long as such action may be inferred, to attribute 
the sensory character of false perception to this 
cause. In so doing we shall, without losing the 
advantages of James's^ theory, observe more closely 
the law of parsimony by reducing fallacious percep- 
tions to one type, Esquirol's illusions. As we pursue 
our inquiry we shall come to see that all false percep- 
tion is an anomalous reaction of the brain to sensory 
stimuli, and the hallucinatory process only a special 
form of that process which accompanies all objective 
perception. Thus we shall restore two long separated 
provinces to the dominion of the same fundamental 
law. 

Schematic Presentation of the Physiological Process 
in False Perception. — When a stimulus from the 
periphery is conducted to the cortex it excites in the 
place first affected, A^ a process, a^ which tends to 
irradiate thence on all sides. The irradiation natur- 
ally takes place in the direction of least resistance, 
and what this open path shall be is decided by three 
principal considerations. First of all it will be the 
path to the element, or rather to the closely con- 
nected element-group [M + N + O + .. . . ] which has 
been most frequently and actively associated with A, 

1 The instances given by Prof. James, op. cit.^ p. 99, would be easy 
to explain on this theory also. 



AND ILLUSIONS. I45 

"either simultaneously or in unbroken sequence."^ 
Thus a directly stimulated element and an indirectly 
stimulated element-group are aroused to activity at 
the same time, and the sum of the processes a + 
\_m -^ n ■\- -v . . ,] arising from the disintegration of 
the neural matter represents a cerebral state which 
is accompanied by a psychical fact — a perception. 

In the next place, however, it is to be noted that 
the stimuli penetrate into the cortex, not singly, but 
several at once. A number of directly stimulated 
elements, A, B, C, D, . . . are aroused into activity; 
a number of processes, a, I?, c, d, . . . take place in 
varying degrees of intensity. Each of these processes 
irradiates in the direction of least resistance to cer- 
tain groups [M + N+0+ . . . ], [R+S + T+ . . , ], 
[0 + P+Q + R . . . ]. Some of the primary processes, 

^ Miinsterberg, Beitr'age zur experimentellen Psychologies i. p. 129. 
" Now, if two sensations are in consciousness simultaneously, the 
physiological inference is that two locally-separated ganglion-complexes 
in the brain are in a state of excitation at the same time, and it is 
fully in agreement with the rest of our neuro-physiological and 
anatomical science to conclude that in such simultaneous excitation 
in two parts the process discharges into the conducting path which 
unites them. This path, whose two end stations are affected, serves in 
a certain measure to equalise the two excitations, and in whatever way 
we choose to represent the molecular process of the neural activity, 
it is evident from any standpoint that two simultaneously excited 
regions bring their connecting paths into a state of excitement with 
them. Thus not only does there remain behind a functional disposi- 
tion of the ganglia themselves to respond more easily to a repetition of 
the same stimulus, but a functional disposition of the association-path 
to carry more easily than all the other outgoing paths the excita- 
tion of one end station to another which was formerly excited with 
it — or, to put it shortly, when one of these two ganglion-complexes 
is active the process will be passed on by this connecting path (which 
brain physiology supposes to consist in certain nerve filaments, 
therefore called association-filaments) to the other cortical region." 
For a fuller account see W. James, op. cit.^ ii. pp. 5S0 et seq. 

10 



146 HALLUCINATIONS 

b and r, are but feeble and set free only a slight dis- 
charge in the groups which they arouse. Some 
elements are members, not of one, but of several 
element-groups {N^ O, R), and in them the ex- 
plosion is most violent; but through these common 
members, as well as through direct connecting paths, 
the level of tension in the various groups is partially 
equalised. In short, the resulting brain-state is 
extremely complex, and constitutes (together with 
the perception which accompanies it) the reaction of 
the brain to the sum of the sensory stimuli — in a 
fully waking state to the sum of all the stimuli — 
acting on the periphery and thence conducted to the 
cortex. That in this simultaneous action of several 
stimuli the path of least resistance for the irradiation 
from A or B may, and frequently does change, can 
easily be understood. For instance, the path might 
lead, as described above, to [M+N+ . . .], but the 
resistance in the path from A to [R + S-i-N+ 7". . . ] 
might be very little higher, and this group being also 
closely connected with B, which is stimulated at the 
same time as A, it is possible under certain conditions 
that group [M+ N+ O . . . ] might be entirely dis- 
posed of, and the discharge of the processes a and I? 
both reach only the elements [R + S + N+ T . , ,]. 

Thirdly, the resistance which the process a meets 
with in its efforts to discharge in the various associa- 
tion-paths depends on the cerebro-static condition which 
obtains at the moment of its occurrence. Some of the 
elements are exhausted, in others the former excitations 
still reverberate more or less, and in yet others through 
summation of stimuli, still unconscious, a high degree 
of tension has been reached, which only awaits a slight 
impulse to overstep the threshold of consciousness. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 147 

Normally, however, such an impulse is not forth- 
coming. The sensational level is only reached when 
from some physiological or pathological cause dis- 
sociation — the characteristic state underlying all 
sensory delusions — is present. If, for instance, 
through exhaustion of the element-groups usually 
associated with A, or through other obstructions, 
the paths normally open to the irradiation 
of the process a are closed, and if on the other 
hand a certain close-knit group of elements is in a 
state of high tension, then when A is stimulated, a, 
being able to discharge only in the direction of the 
least resistance, will be forced to discharge towards this 
group which has perhaps never before been affected 
by it. Now supposing that the tension in this group 
is so high that the slightest impulse brings about the 
explosion, and that the path to it is wide open, then 
the current flowing towards the first affected element, 
A, cannot accumulate there. That is to say, the 
process a will only take place feebly, and the 
resulting brain-state in its totality will be almost^ 

* With regard to this "ahnost" I would call the reader's attention 
to an observation made by several authors chiefly concerning dream - 
phenomena. The dream-figures frequently show, in spite of a resem- 
blance to the person dreamt of complete in every other detail, a more 
or less striking difference in particular features — for instance, in a familiar 
face an enormous nose will appear. It is rarely, however, that the 
contrast between the liberated element-groups and the sensation which 
plays the part of the liberating stimulus is so great as in Kraepelin's 
experience, " Ueber Erinnerungstauschung," Arch, fiir Psych. ^ xviii., 
vol. i. p. 235. He dreamed in November 1884 of one of his most 
intimate friends, who was in reality a short man with a black beard, 
but appeared in the dream tall and slight, with a small moustache. 
The difference between the dream image and the memory image could 
hardly have been more complete, yet it did not affect the dream con- 
sciousness at all. 



14S PIALLUCINATIONS 

exactly the same as if the element-group in question 
were alone active, as if it had been started not by 
process a but by an irradiation, let us say, of process 
n^ which usually starts the activity in this particular 
element-group. The psychical concomitant of this 
process is therefore a sensory perception, which yet 
lacks the special sensory stimulus normally associated 
with it, — in other words, it is a perception without 
objective basis, a hallucination. 

But dissociation, or rather the exhaustion of the 
neural elements by which it is conditioned, acts also 
in another way. If the excitability of the neural 
elements is lowered, a great number of the stimuli 
flowing in to the cortex are not powerful enough to 
start the corresponding processes ^, c^ d, and so forth. 
The process a^ which alone emerges, no doubt succeeds 
in discharging towar^ds an element-group and arousing 
it, but the resulting cerebral state taken as a whole is 
not the same as the state that would have been 
produced if other processes which have now dropped 
out (^, c, d, etc.) had contributed to the result. Some of 
its constituent parts, it is true, are present, but many 
of the usual " interference waves " are wanting. The 
psychical concomitant of this brain-state is a percep- 
tion such as a, or the sensory process started by a, 
can evoke. But it misrepresents the sensation for 
which it stands because it is incomplete, and lacks 
the correction and adjustment which the dormant 
elements in consciousness could alone have supplied. 
It is, in a word, an ilhision. 

Since the view here expressed, in so much as it 
supposes all false perception to originate in the action 
of sensory stimuli, reduces halkicination and illusion 
to one category, it is clear that the processes 



AND ILLUSIONS. I49 

just described by these names do not correspond 
with Esquirol's definition.^ / Jiave distiugidshed as 
" illusions " tJie pheitomena zvhich result from the sup- 
pression of certain processes^ and as " halhicinations " 
those which are caused by a7t act of forced association ; 
and I have indicated that both processes are con- 
ditioned in the first place by the dissociative state. 
Where the contrary is not expressly stated I shall 
henceforward use these terms in the sense just 
ascribed to them. 

It is to be observed, however, that the two processes 
seldom or never take place separately. No hard and 
fast line can be drawn between them, though, gene- 
rally, either the plus or minus quality predominates, 
and the phenomena can be classed as "hallucinations" 
or "illusions" accordingly. 

Some Objections refuted. — This attempt of mine 
to reduce all false perception to a single physiological 
type — Esquirol's illusions — may seem to have been 
disposed of beforehand by James in his criticism of 
Binet's^ point-de-repere theory, but I shall endeavour 
to show^ that the facts which led James to assume 
central initiation in a few cases at least are not really 
incompatible with the view of false perception as 
illusion in the old sense. Be it noted, however, that 

^ I reiterate this here, although it is self-evident enough, because in 
the notices and criticisms of the German edition of this work my stand- 
point has been so often misunderstood. The objection has been raised, 
for instance, that the phenomena commonly called "apperception 
illusions" (see p. 118) cannot be regarded as " Ausfall-Ergebniss." 
Certainly not, and that is just why I have classed them not as illusions 
but as hallucinations, in my sense of the term. 

^ Binet in the Rev. Pkilos., xviii. (1884); Binet and Fere, Magjiet- 
isme Animal . 

^ Compare below, Chapter VII. 



150 HALLUCINATIONS 

if his negative results do not militate against Binet's 
theory, the experiments of the latter do as little to 
establish it. Both views seem to be founded on the 
same misconception of the nature of the facts. That 
hallucinations may be doubled by a prism, enlarged 
by a magnifying-glass, and reflected by a mirror, no 
more proves their peripheral origin than their failure 
to respond to such tests disproves it 

Of course, by refusing to accept central initiation 
we must not be understood to deny the possibility of 
sensory deception originating in a pathological con- 
dition of some part of the central organ, but we 
should then regard the resulting phenomenon, to 
avail ourselves once more of Esquirol's definition, as 
an illusory interpretation of the morbid stimulus. 
The majority of hallucinations are highly complex 
phenomena, and require for their production the 
co-operation of many widely separated element- 
groups. "They do not correspond to the appear- 
ance of a simple memory such as we suppose to be 
deposited in these centres."^ For a pathological 
stimulus to appear in consciousness as a full-fledged 
hallucination it must first irradiate from the morbid 
groups by the association-paths (as indicated in the 
scheme given above), and arouse the activity of the 
various elements required for its manifestation. Such 
a conception as Grashey's, of an independent activity 
of the sensory cells, without communication through 
the association-paths — a kind of " self-explosion " or 

1 Mendel, " Der gegenwartige Stand der Lehre von der Halluc," 
Berliner Klin. Wochenschr. (1890), p. 614. We should otherwise be 
obliged to revert to the crude view that each separate cell contains a 
certain sense perception, however complicated that sense perception 
may be. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 151 

"molecular concussion" (Ferrier) and consequent 
renascence of the sensation — is quite chimerical. It 
may moreover be met by Neumann's contention, quoted 
on page 1 1 1, viz. : that among the incalculable number 
of possible element-combinations the contingency of 
any familiar combination (that corresponding to an 
object, for instance) turning up would be too remote 
to merit consideration. 



CHAPTER V. 

FACTORS OF FALLACIOUS PERCEPTION. 

The dissociated State — Defiitition — Pathological and Physio- 
logical Causes — Varieties of Dissociatio7i — Action of 
Dissociatio7t — The Stimuli — Post-inorteui Reports — 
Excitatio7i of the various Senses — Cramef's Theory. 

Of the separate factors which are concerned in the 
production of fallacious perception, the state which 
we have found to be essential for its occurrence, 
and which we have called dissociation, is the most 
important, and has the first claim on our atten- 
tion. 

By dissociation is here understood that state in 
which the nerve stimulus no longer flows through the 
channels determined by habit, and by the co-opera- 
tion of simultaneous stimuli, because inhibitions, or 
obstructions, whether from pathological or physio- 
logical causes, have been set up in the normal 
association-paths, or obstructions which normally 
exist in other connecting tracts have been weakened 
or altogether abolished. 

Pathological Causes of Dissociation. — We can only 
glance here briefly at the pathological causes which 
may give rise to dissociation, and refer the reader to 
Chapter II., where the various morbid states which 
bring hallucinations in their train have already been 
described. Further inquiry into the causes which 



HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. I 53 

p-Ive rise to these states does not come within the 
scope of the present work.^ 

Physiological Causes of Dissociation. — One of the 
chief physiological causes of dissociation is the ob- 
struction caused by the exhaustion of the elements 
themselves, for instance, in normal sleep ; whether we 
explain this exhaustion with Pflliger^ as directly due 
to the great expenditure of energy in the waking state, 
with its resulting destruction of nerve tissue, or with 
Preyer^ as due to the readily oxidisable products of 
fatigue (lactic acid) reducing the amount of the 
respiratory oxygen of the blood available for the 
Sfansflionic cells, or with Rosenbaum* as a result of 
the nervous substance becoming watery in conse- 
quence of a swelling up of the nerve cells. Patho- 
logical exhaustion acts in the same way, e.g. 
in anaemia, or other disturbances of nutrition, morbid 
contraction of the arteries, atheromatous processes, 
poisons, etc. 

In psychical concentration a reverse process brings 
about the same result. The tension in certain selected 
element-groups is heightened and their irritability 
increased. But this takes place at the expense of the 

^ The prevalent practice of referring hallucinations to the disease 
itself instead of to the mental disturbance induced by it has filled patho- 
logical manuals with examples drawn from affections of a more or less 
opposite character, which have come to be regarded as themselves 
causes of fallacious perception, for instance, hyperaemia and anaemia of 
the brain and its membranes, qualitative changes of the blood, as in 
cases of poisoning, diseases of the heart, abdomen and lungs, long 
exposure to heat and cold, the breathing of rarified air or noxious gases, 
extreme pain, etc. 

- Pflliger, Pfliig. Arch.f. d. ges. Physiol. ^ x., pp. 658 et seq. {1875). 

3 Preyer, Ueber die Ursacke des Schlafes [Stniig. 1877); compare his 
Art. "Schlaf" in Eulenburg's Real-Encyklopddie, 2nd ed., Bnd. xvii. 

4 E. Rosenbaum., WaTiDii inilssen wir scldafen (Diss. Berl. 1892). 



154 HALLUCINATIONS 

non-selected elements whose irritability maybe thereby 
reduced to a minimum, causing a state of dissociation 
or splitting off to ensue — a state which we may 
regard with Wundt^ as arising out of neurodynamic 
and vasomotor processes, " according to the general 
principle which holds good for any system of elements 
where a struggle for equilibrium is going on, that 
whenever an expenditure of energy occurs at one 
point there will be an increased flow to that point 
from all the neighbouring parts having a higher 
tension." That is to say, the consumption of energy 
caused by fixed attention compels an inflow to 
counterbalance the waste, and this is expressed in 
a lowered irritability of the elements yielding the 
supply. 

A fact has been observed which aptly illustrates 
and supports this view of one-sided fixed attention as 
dissociation — not indeed as a general breaking up, 
but as a "splintering" or splitting off, — the fact, 
namely, that two separate complexes may be subject 
at the same time to different illusions, and each 
be unaware of what is impressing or occupying 
the other. It is somewhat remarkable that the 
following interesting case given by Gurney has 
received no further notice : — ^ 

P 11 (in the hypnotic trance) was told several times, 

" It has left off snowing," and then when woke and set to the 
planchette^ he was made to read aloud. The writing which 
appeared was, " It has If eft sn ," and while this was pro- 

1 Wundt, Hypnotismus und Suggestion, p. 58. 

'-' Gurney, " Peculiarities of Certain Post-hypnotic States," Proceed, of 
the S.P.R.^ vol. iv., 1886-87, pp. 319 et seq. 

•^ An instrument adapted to automatic writing, a small board sup» 
ported on three feet, one of which is a pencil. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 155 

ceeding the reading was bad and stumbling. When the 
writing stopped the reading became appreciably more correct 
and fluent. Re-hypnotisation afforded a glimpse of the condi- 
tion in which the secondary intelligence had found itself. 
Asked what he had been doing, the " subject" replied, " Trying 
to write ' It has left off snowing.' " Asked if he had been reading, 
he said, " Reading ! No, I haven't been reading," and added, 
"something seemed to disturb me." " How was that ?" " Some- 
thing seemed to keep moving about in front of me, so I got 
back into bed again." " Didn't Mr. Gurney hold a book and 
make you read aloud?" "No, somebody kept moving about. 
I didn't like the looks of them. Kept wandering to and fro. 
Horrible, awful ! I thought to myself, ' I'll get into bed.' It 
looked so savage — quite unnerved me," etc., etc. 

The experiment was repeated. The " subject" was told, " It 
has begun snowing again." The writing was now an almost 
illegible scrawl of It begun snowing. Meanwhile he was 
reading about Humpty-Dumpty, slowly and with omission of 
words, but with clear comprehension and decided amusement. 
On being re-hypnotised, he was again completely unaware of 
the reading, and gave the same description of the way that he 
was disturbed in writing. . . . 

It was curious to observe how the act of writing sometimes 

seemed to affect P U's power of articulation; the difficulty 

seemed to be of a distinctly physical sort, and he himself several 
times remarked that it seemed to "draw" the right side of his 
mouth, without affecting his comprehension of what he read. It 
seems just possible that this may be connected with the proximity 
of the cerebral centres of speech and of movement of the right 
arm (see Le Magnitisine Animal^ by MM. Binet and Fere, 
p. 250). At the same time the difficulty undoubtedly seemed to 
be less when the acts accomplished were of a semi-mechanical 
kind; as when he had to write the numbers from 100 back- 
wards, and simultaneously count the numbers from i forwards, 
and vice versa. 

This case shows clearly how the illusion is brought 
about. The sensory impression mounts from the eye 
to the cortex and there arouses the elements selected 
by attention. The perception of reading which 



156 HALLUCINATIONS 

engaged the entire interest of P 11 took place in 

the normal consciousness. Faint echoes of the process 
penetrated to the complexes concerned in the sub- 
conscious writing, and there set agoing a process 
characterised by the want of the group then being 
used in the other complex to convey the conscious- 
ness of the visual impression. In consequence of 
the uneasy feeling caused by the simultaneous ob- 
struction of both activities the sub-conscious sensory 
delusion assumed a distressing character, as described 
by the subject. The process was reversed in the 
movements of the right hand which gave rise 
to corresponding processes in the subliminal com- 
plex, faint echoes of which succeeded in pene- 
trating through almost impassable channels of 
association and produced in their turn in the 
complex used in the normal consciousness effects 
proving that in this complex the groups necessary 
for the correct interpretation of the stimulus were 
altogether absent. The process was ascribed to the 
activity of the elements working in this complex, and 
thus referred to the corner of the mouth and sensibly 
perceived as twitching and quivering of the right 
corner of the mouth.^ 

There is still another way in which a state of dis- 
sociation may be brought about. It may, as we have 
already seen, be due to the exclusion of external 
sensory stimuli, and this absence of external excita- 
tion acts in two ways — first directly, and secondly, by 
turning the attention inwards, on what at other times 

^ On another occasion only the sub-conscious sensory delusion could 

be demonstrated. P 11, on being re-hypnotised after writing, did 

not remember to have been reading, though he did recall that his mouth 
had moved up and down as in eating. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 157 

are but dimly perceived and little noted sensations 
having their source in the organism itself, and thus 
loosening and breaking up the complex. 

Besides the individual experience which we have 
all had of this fact, there are special experiments 
which tend to prove that the exclusion of external 
stimuli favours the occurrence of fallacious perception.^ 
Baillarger maintains^ that in the insane deaf auditory 
hallucinations are nearly always present, and Gutsch^ 
observed them almost exclusively in mental dis- 
turbance due to solitary confinement. Hypnagogic 
hallucinations, dreams, and the tendency to see 
ghosts and visions in the dark also point to the same 
cause. In the insane it is frequently found that 
there is a respite from visions and voices during the 
day followed by violent attacks at night. Conversely, 
in many patients the perceptive power of the hallu- 

^ Bielski, op. cif., seeks to explain this by supposing that other 
centres normally inhibit the reproductive activity of the ideational 
centres, and that as these inhibiting centres act continuously like the 
vagus nerve centres which inhibit the heart, they must be in a tonic 
condition. As a matter of fact, Langendorff seems to have succeeded 
in proving that this tonic condition is maintained principally through 
external stimuli, especially those of sight and hearing : a frog which 
had been made blind and deaf croaked straight on like the brainless 
frog in Goltz's experiment. It would thus appear that the inhibiting 
centres are started into activity through the excitation of the sensory 
centres. Jolly thinks that hypercesthesia of the visual organ would 
explain hallucinations occurring in the dark. When our eyes are used 
to the dark they are able to perceive smaller differences of illumination 
than in a strong light, and this hypercssthesia may, he thinks, suffice 
to create visions out of the slight excitation of the retina — the "self- 
light " of the retina, as it is called. 

^ Baillarger, Des hallucijiations. 

^ Gutsch, " Ueber Seelenstorungen in Einzelhaft," Allg. Zfschrff. f. 
Psych., xix. ; compare Koppe, loc. cii., p. 49; F. Siemens, Berl. Klin. 
Wochenschr., xx. 9 (1883), 



1 58 HALLUCINATIONS 

cinated sense is found to be lowered,^ which practically 
amounts to the same thing. 

Various Kinds of Dissociation. — It has been already- 
indicated (compare pp. 73, 74) that dissociation varies 
in kind or degree according to the nature of the cerebral 
change; thus it may be large or small element-groups 
that are split off, or, on the other hand, are in a state 
of heightened irritability; or again, the whole cerebral 
mechanism may be involved in the disturbance. 

The effect of this difference will naturally show 
itself in the sensory delusions. From the scheme 
given in the preceding chapter this can easily be 
applied in individual cases. A more detailed exposi- 
tion, however, would lead us too far, and I therefore 
turn at once to the effect of dissociation on our percep- 
tion of the stimuli which reach us while it is present. 

The Action of the Dissociative State. — The action of 
dissociation on the impressions received from the so- 
called external world has already been described ; it 
causes excitations which normally produce "correct" 
or objective sensory perceptions to be misinterpreted. 
But it also plays a very im.portant part through its 
action on the impressions which arise within the 
physical organism itself. These form so large and 
so constant a factor in our experience, and are so 
closely knit up together, that the elements concerned 
in thern discharge into each other with great ease, 
and the resulting state of consciousness is dim and 
undefined. But should a particular element from any 
cause be released from this compact system, its 
irradiation becomes impeded, in the same way that 
the irradiation of quite new and unfamiliar stimuli 

^ Sinogowitz, Die Gezsiessiofujig [i^/^t,), p. 297. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 159 

is impeded by the absence of well-worn connecting 
paths. Either it is completely blocked, or else it is 
rendered slow and difficult; and our consciousness of 
the resulting physiological or pathological irritation 
becomes proportionately intense — hence singing in 
the ears, ocular spectra, and other "elementary sen- 
sations."^ If, on the other hand, a practicable path 
can be found the irradiation will stream through it to 
new groups, and thus become the cause of sensory 
delusions. 

In mental alienation, for instance, the co-operation 
of a stimulus with the predisposing state is expressed 
in various ways. Thus in many such cases only 
subjective phenomena are remarked at first, and not 
until a later stage do apparitions or voices make their 
appearance.2 In the same way isolated hallucinations 
sometimes begin with subjective phenomena and then, 
as Miiller^ has shown, are presently replaced by the 
sight of a phantasma.^ But the need for a specific 
psychical state to prepare the way if a given stimulus 
is to result in hallucination is best shown when the 

1 No doubt hypochondriacal preoccupation with bodily processes often 
admits of this simple explanation. 

2 Compare Koppe, ''Gehorsstorungenund Psychosen,"^//^. Zeiischr. 
f. Psych., xiv. 

^ J. Miiller, Phantast. Gesichisersch., §§ 34-41. By the word//za«- 
iasma he understands subjective phenomena of sight and hearing — 
e.g., visions of buildings, plants, etc. — which arise suddenly, and un- 
connected with specks of light, in the completely dark visual field, in 
contradistinction to appearances which are gradually elaborated to 
complicated forms, the original speck of light in the eye remaining all 
the while to serve as 2i point de reph-e for the hallucinatory images. 

■* Bottex, Sur les hallnciiiations ; Ruf, Delirien, p. 7; Morel, Traite 
des maladies mentales, p. 318; Baillarger, Des hallucinations ; Max 
Simon, Lyon medical, xxxi. p. 439; especially in the abuse of quinine, 
ringing in the ears and undue sensitiveness to light occur first, and 
only later auditory delusions, less often visual images. 



l6o HALLUCINATIONS 

stimulus has been acting for some time, and only 
subjective sensations have been present, until after an 
emotional crisis, or some such disturbance, halluci- 
nations supervene. Graefe ^ gives a case in point 
where vivid (subjective) fiery spheres seen by a patient 
with pJitJiisis bulbi were transformed into full-fledged 
visual hallucinations after emotional disturbance. 
Similarly in the case of a lad, mentally sound, but 
with a perforation of the left ear, the result of a blow, 
typhus led to the development of hallucinations.^ 
The sensory deceptions which occur after eye-opera- 
tions (especially after the operation for cataract) belong 
to the same class. During the treatment in the dark 
room hallucinations are often observed in the patient.^ 
It is true they are generally described as delusions of 
delirium, although they appear without any change 
of pulse or temperature taking place. A special 
mental state may be presumed in these cases also, for 
we have to take into account not only the stimulation 
of the external organ, but the inanition resulting from 
a strict regimen (a certain proportion of the cases 
reported relate to inebriates), and also the fact that 
the patient's thoughts would naturally be fixed on 

^ Graefe, loc. cit. 

^Neurol. Ceniralblalf, 18S2 ; compare Centra''hla(t f. Nervenheil- 
kunde, etc., N. F. v. p. 57, f. 

^ Tavignot, Gaz. d. Hop. (1846); Heyfelder, " Ueber das Delirium 
nervosum nach Operationen und Verwundungen," Arch. f. phys. 
Neilk.^x. 3 (1851); Griesinger, op. cit., p. 89, Anm. ; Sichel, " Sur 
une espece du delire senil," Union med. (1863), No. i; Zehender, 
Klin. Monatsbldtt. f. Atigenheilk. (1863), p. 123; Lanne, Gaz. d. Hop. 
(1863), No. 57; Magna, Bullet, d. ther., Ixiv. (1863); Graefe and 
Saemisch, Handlnuh d. des. Aiigenheilk., Part iii., p. 309; Schmidt- 
Rimpler, Arch. f. Psych. (1879), ix. p. 233; Jolly, "Ueber Gesichs- 
ersch. in Folge von Verbrenn. d, Augen," Allg. Zeitschr.f. Psych., xl.; 
Stanisl. Blelski, Ueber Halhic. i?n Gebiete d. Gesichlsinnes {18S4). 



AND ILLUSIONS. l6l 

the results expected from the grave operation he had 
just undergone. Indeed, mental disturbance has not 
infrequently been observed after eye-operations.^ 

It is to be remarked further that Koppe^ found in 
cases of ear-disease among the insane, and where 
both conditions were therefore present, that auditory 
illusions and hallucinations invariably accompanied 
the subjective sounds, but failed to appear when one 
of the conditions was wanting. Thus the hallucina- 
tions may gradually disappear under purely local 
treatment of the local ailment, or they may cease 
when the patient's mental health improves, though 
the subjective images and sounds still persist.^ 

^ Bartisch noted nervous disturbance, and Dupuytren, Clin, chir., 
i- 55 (1^32)} has also described such resuhs; Locher-Zwingli in 
Zurich operated on a woman, who became insane (1834)'; G. Sous 
operated on a man, who became insane and sank from inanition (1864); 
compare Frankl-Hochwart, yix/^r/p. /! Psych., ix. i, 2, (1889); Anton 
Elschnig, Wiener med. Blatter, xi. 31 (1888); E. Mendel, "Das 
Delir. Hallucin.," Berl. Klin. Wochenschr. (1894), '^^' 29. On the 
other hand, R. Fabian, Ein Fall von Psychose nach Augenverletztmg 
(Dissert. 1893), attributes his case of epileptoid paroxysms of excite- 
ment to the strain and irritation of the iris, which because of its 
attachment to the cornea was hampered in its function whenever 
called upon to do extra work. 

2 Koppe, loc. cit. 

^ Graefe, Berl. Klin. Zeitschr. (1867); Flemming in his review of 
Ilagen's " Sinnestauschungen," SchnidCs Jahrbiicher, xvi. p. 364; 
Hagen, " Zur Theorie," etc., Allg. Zeitschr. f. Psych., xxv. p. 58; 
Fischer, "Ueber den Einfl. desgalvan. Stroms auf Gehorshall.," Arch. 
f. Psych., ix., observed in an insane patient vi^ith auditory hallucinations, 
not only the auditory hallucinations but also the subjective noises 
disappear under the influence of the galvanic current ; compare Fr. 
Fischer, " Ueber einige Veranderungen, welche Gehorshall. unter dem 
Einfl. des galv. Stroms erleiden," Arch. f. Psych., xviii. ; Erlenmeyer, 
Bericht iiber die Heilanstalt f. Nervenkranke (1877) ; Hedinger, 
Krankenbericht, etc., Stuttgart, 1880, obtained favourable results from 
the constant current in many subjective noises, and also in hallucina- 
tions, to which, however, he ascribes a central origin. 

II 



1 62 HALLUCINATIONS 

Busch^ observed that during galvanic treatment an 
auditory hallucination which was normally audible 
only on the left was strengthened on that side by 
the anode, and was rendered audible to the right ear 
as well, while the cathode abolished the auditory 
disturbance on the right and at least weakened it on 
the left. Chvosteck's- attempts to produce auditory 
hallucinations through the electric current yielded 
not merely elementary noises, but even complicated 
phenomena ; these last, however, occurred only when 
the patient had experienced spontaneous hallucina- 
tions quite recently — i.e,^ only when the indispensable 
condition favourable to the appearance of fallacious 
perception still obtained. 

The Stimuli. — This discussion has now led us to 
the second factor which co-operates in the production 
of fallacious perception, namely, the stimulus which 
starts it, and which may consist firstly in any of those 
objective sensory impressions which we have already 
considered in treating of the dream state. The 
dependence of hallucinations on external stimuli is 
well illustrated in the following often-quoted com- 
munication from a patient : — 

" Every tree which I approach, even m windless weather, 
seems to whisper and utter words and sentences. . . . The 
carts and carriages rattle and sound in a mysterious way and 
creak out anecdotes. . . . The swine grunt names and stories, 
and exclaim in surprise. The voices of the dogs, cocks, and 
hens seem to scold and reproach me, and even the geese cackle 
quotations."^ 

^ Busch, " Ein Fall von acuter primarer Verriicktheit," Arch. f. 
Psych., xi. 

^ Chvosteck, " Beitrage zur Theorie d. Hallucinationen," Jahrb. f. 
Psych., xi. 3. 

^ Allg. Ztschrft. f. Psych., xxxv. p. 696. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 163 

To this class belong also hallucinations occurring 
in clouding of the cornea or lens. Perhaps the case 
quoted by Griesinger of the man who always saw a 
black goat at his side may be taken as an example. 
In the same way eyelashes, tears, and such-like, 
may furnish the material for hallucinations. This is 
specially likely to occur, as has been often insisted, 
if there is any want of distinctness in the original 
impression. Myopia and other defects of vision 
which cause the sense-impression to be indistinct 
also predispose to fallacious perception. Zander 
reports that among 100 mental cases he had 8 
colour-blind patients, who all suffered from visual 
delusions; and Leubuscher's^ account of the patient 
who mistook himself for his mistress seems to point 
to the same explanation, for if he saw himself in a 
mirror he knew the face to be his own, but if he only 
saw his reflection dimly in the window-pane he took 
it for the image of his lady. 

The stimulus need not, however, be an objective 
sensory impression ; it may consist in pathological 
or physiological irritation of the sensory centres. 
In the normal state both processes, as we see, are 
recognised as so-called subjective sensations; but if 
dissociation obtains, they may become causes of false 
perception. 

The physiological sensory irritation may depend 
on changes such as metabolic processes in the centres 
themselves, and in the nerve tracts leading to them. 
The pathological irritation may depend on morbid 
processes, such as meningitis, which radiate from 
neighbouring parts of the brain ; at least the cases 

1 Op, cit. 



164 HALLUCINATIONS 

of sensory delusion in which external impressions 
fail to be perceived, either owing to peripheral 
disturbance or because the ascending current is 
broken off at some intermediate point, are most 
easily explained by supposing an irradiation pro- 
ceeding from the morbid part. Or, secondly, the 
pathological irritation may act from some given 
point in the course of the sensory path concerned; 
for instance, in a partly-atrophied nerve the seat of 
the excitation would be the point of transition from 
the morbid to the sound parts. Such cases might 
plausibly be explained by adopting H. E. Richter's view 
of hallucination as an instance of anomalous function- 
ing of the sensorial nervous system analogous to 
anaesthesia dolorosa, in which, though the peripheral 
stimulus cannot reach the central organ owing to 
the irritation of the sensory nerve at some inter- 
mediate point, the brain nevertheless receives im- 
pressions from the seat of the irritation. We are 
reminded in this connection of the unilateral hallu- 
cinations occurring in the prodromal stage of hysteria, 
of fallacious perceptions in enfeebled visual power 
{neuritis opt.), and of the fact observed by Politzer^ 
that many patients cannot hear objective sounds 
which resemble the illusory sounds from which they 
are suffering. 

Post-mortem Repo7'ts. — It should be noted that the 
brain autopsies on persons subject to hallucinations 

1 Politzer, " Uber subjective Gehors-Empfindung," Wiener med. 
IVochenschrift (1865), No. 94. "Thus many patients who are 
haunted by a subjective sound similar to the ticking of a watch report 
that they cannot tell by listening whether they really hear the ticking 
of a watch held to their ear." Hoppe, however, refers this to the 
difHculty commonly experienced in distinguishing between two allied 
sounds. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 165 

show very diverse results. Cases are known in which 
hallucinations occurred notwithstanding complete loss 
of the organ and atrophy of the optic nerves^ Thus 
Clouston found in visual hallucinations degeneration of 
the optic nerve extending to the corpora quadrigemina, 
and Schiile cites a case in which there was softening 
of the entire thalamus as far as the root of the corona 
radiata. Changes in the basal ganglia are very 
frequently found.^ Nevertheless even Luys,^ who 
would locate the process of hallucination in the 
optic thalami, admits that the disturbance frequently 
extends to the cortex. W. J. Mickle * reports as the 
result of a great number of necropsies that in cases of 
hallucination " thalamic disease plays a less impor- 
tant part than cortical." Still he found no connection 
between the morbid parts and Ferrier's centres. On 
the other hand, he found the latter affected without 



1 J. Miiller, Phanf. Erscheinungen^ 31-34 5 Michea reports cases 
of Marc. Donatus ; Calmeil describes a case of his own; Foville; 
Johnson, Med. chir.^ 220 (1836); Romberg, Nervenkrankheiten, 3rd 
ed., p. 133; Bergmann, Gblihiger Natiirfoncher-Vers. (1854), 
Psych. Corresp.y Bl. i. No^ 8, Beil. ; Bericht atis der Wiener Irren- 
Ansi. (1858); Forel, Der Hypnotisimis (2nd ed.), p. 55; Stenger, 
"Die cerebralen Sehstorungen der Paralytiker," Arch. f. Psych., xiv. 
(in total amaurosis and after paralytic attacks); Meschede, Allg. 
Zischrft. f. Psych., xxxiv. (auditory hallucinations with localised 
degeneration of the acustici). 

^ For instance, Flechsig {Neurol. CentrlbL, ix. 4) found in a case 
of marked auditory hallucinations the externally normal inferior corp. 
quad, impregnated in its outermost stratum, and partially in its inner 
one, with calcareous concretions. 

3 Gaz. d. Hop. (1880, Dec), p. 46. 

^ Joiirn. of Ment. Science (1881, Oct.), P- 382; Reinhard, ** Hirn- 
localisation," Arch. f. Psych,, xvii. and xviii., found hallucinations three 
times in sixteen cases of lesions of the occipital lobes, and certainly in 
one case photopsia. 



1 66 HALLUCINATIONS 

any indication of hallucination/ just as hallucinations 
have been observed where no corresponding changes 
in these parts could be discovered.^ Sander has 
noted that while in ordinary paralytic cases the 
dhanges are generally spread for the most part over 
the frontal lobes, when the paralysis is accompanied 
by hallucinations numerous and marked alterations 
are found in the otherwise little affected parts behind 
the posterior central convolution.^ He also observed 
disappearance of the white matter of the occipital lobes 
and dilatation, principally of the posterior horn of the 
lateral ventricle. He justly remarks, however, that 
the changes found in the necropsy ought not to 
be used directly to explain hallucinations appearing 
often long before death. The hallucinations belong 
not to the time of the destruction of the neural 
elements, but to the period of irritation, whether this 
arises from neighbouring morbid cells or from the 
processes preceding destruction of the cortical cells 
themselves — that is to say, they belong to the earlier 
period of delicate molecular changes, rather than to the 
later stage of grosser and more obvious disturbance. 
There is no lack of cases to show this. Accord- 
ing to Fr. Paterson,^ hemioptic hallucinations were 
observed by Seguin immediately before the appear- 
ance of hemiopia. Vetter reports a similar case.^ 

"^ Joii7-n. of Ment. Science^ p. 381 ; ibid. (1882, Jan.), p. 29. 

2 Sander, loc. cif., pp. 334, 335. 

3 Mendel, " Ueber den jitzigen Stand," etc., Berl. Klin. Wchschr. 
(1890), contirms these results from his own experience. 

^ Paterson, "The Homonymous Hemiopic Hallucination," reprinted 
from the Ne^u York Med. Jotirnal, 

^ Compare Tigges, "Zur Theorie der Hallucin.," y^//^. Zeiischr.f. 
Psych., xlviii., vol. iv. "Vetter communicates a case of hemianopsia 
sinistra bil. (in normal eye-practice) associated with visual hallucin- 



AND ILLUSIONS. 167 

H. Lehert^ states that hyperaesthesia of the sensory 
nerves occurs shortly before the power of feeUng is lost 
altogether, as a result of tumours within the skull, and 
P. Briquet refers to the same fact in his work (1853) on 
Peruvian bark and its preparations. Edinger had a 
patient, suffering from softening of both the posterior 
lobes, who saw a hallucinatory light-phenomenon 
just before he became blind.^ Winslow^ noted 
that just as the approach of mental disturbance is 
often indicated by morbid increase of physical as well 
as psychical sensibility, so apoplexies are preceded 
by hyperesthesia, especially of the optic nerve, and 
by visual hallucinations (deuteroscopia). He also 
observed that oppressive and frightful dreams pre- 
ceded, with marked regularity, tuberculous meningitis, 
and also first attacks of epilepsy; he noted, moreover, 
the occurrence of hallucinations in the state between 
sleep and waking long before the development of 
general paresis accompanied by insanity. From 
these facts he concluded that there are morbid 
processes at work in the brain long before the actual 
event. A. Tamburini, who sees in hallucination the 
product of a state of irritability of the affected 

ations which continued to appear obstinately on the left, on the blind 
part of the visual field ... he explains the hemianopsia by a tumour 
in the white substance of the left posterior lobe, and the hallucinations 
which occurred, although the cortex was cut off" from the basal ganglia, 
by a state of irritability in the cortex of this lobe." P^urther cases 
reported by Henschen, Pick, Hammond, Sepilli, and others are quoted 
by Tigges. See also Paterson, op. ciL, and the Neiirolog. CerJi-albl. 
(1892), No. II. 

^ Lehert, " Ueber Krebs und die mit Krebs verwechsellen Ge- 
schwiilste im Gehirn u. seinen Hohlen," V. Or' R.^s Arch., iii. 3 (1851). 

^ Winslow, On Obsaire Diseases of the Brahi, etc. (i860). 

^ Compare Schirmer, Suhj. Lecht. Eviphind. bei tolal^ Verl. d. 
Schvennog (Diss. Marburg, 1895). 



1 68 HALLUCINATIONS 

cortical centre/ also considers that the affection may 
be irritative^ and quotes cases from Ferrier, Pooley, 
Atkins, and Gowers, in which the changes of the 
corresponding cortical centres caused more or less 
complete loss of visual power. During the period of 
irritation, however, pronounced visual hallucinations 
were observed in these patients.^ 

Excitations of the Visual Sense. — Let us begin our 
study o^ the so-called subjective sensations with those 
affecting the sense of sight. Attention was early 
drawn to the physiological phenomena of this class. 
Every one can observe in his own experience the 
" light chaos " or " light dust," as the singular dis- 

^ Tamburini, Riv. sperim. di fi-eni atria e di med. leg.^ vi. i e 2 
freniatria, p. 126 (1S80). 

^ Compare Tamburini in Rev. scientifique^ xxviii. p. 141; and also 
the interesting case in the Neurol. CeJitralbl. (1889). A woman with 
acute paranoia halhuinatoria^ besides suffering from bilateral auditory 
hallucinations, was also subject to distinct left-sided ones; these dis- 
appeared, and a stable visual hallucination (on the left side) of a ** white 
dog leaping up " appeared, but was recognised by the patient as morbid 
and subjective. The visual power was not diminished. Renewal of 
epileptic attacks, from which the patient had suffered before the visual 
hallucinations disappeared ; fatal termination. Autopsy showed that in 
those parts where the membranes had become adherent to the cortex, 
connective tissue had developed at the expense of the nerve cells. In 
some preparations the cells were shown to have entirely disappeared 
(between the first temporosphenoidal and third fourth of the upper 
central convolution, all on the right side). The case is explained by 
assuming that irritative processes were set up in the affected parts of the 
cortex, which caused both the epileptic attacks and the unilateral hallu- 
cinations. With the destruction in the neural elements of the right 
hemisphere, through the development of connective tissue, the sensory 
phenomena of irritation disappeared. Similar descriptions are given by 
Gurney, "Hallucinations," Proceedings of the S. P. R. (1885); Tigges, 
•'Zur Theorie der Hall.," Allg. Zeitschr. f. Psych. ^ xlviii. p. 311; 
Luys, Gaz. des Hop. (1881), p. 276; Despine, Ann. mid. psych.., 6 
sen, vi. p. 375; Devay, Gaz. d. Paris (1851); Curtis, Lancet, ii. 
No. 24 (1841). 



AND ILLUSIONS. 169 

turbance is called which occurs in the visual field in 
an absolutely dark room. Filehne,^ relying on self- 
observations in chronic nicotin poisoning, has tried to 
prove that these appearances must be regarded as 
central in their origin, that is, as arising in the visual 
centres even behind the region affected by the nicotin. 
Generalising from these observations, he extends his 
hypothesis to after-images and to the sudden darken- 
ing of the visual field produced by prolonged gazing 
at a given point {Starrblindheif). It is to be re- 
marked that the feebler the light the sooner the 
effect is produced (although it occurs more rapidly in 
sunlight than in diffused daylight). During this 
after-blindness the "light chaos" is to be observed 
just as in an absolutely dark room, and while it still 
persists, if an object, the hand for instance, is brought 
into the line of vision, and is then at once withdrawn, 
a dark after-image, surrounded by a bright corona, 
will appear in the place which it momentarily occu- 
pied. The dark after-image disappears by degrees 
with the gradual fading of the " light dust." 

Purkinje has described black tree-like forms, which 
appeared when he had gazed at a light at a distance 
of six inches from the eye, and Sauvage saw the 
same when gazing at a brightly lighted wall. Muller 
explains the distinctness of these branching forms by 
supposing that the retina perceives itself. Newton, 
Eichel, and Elliot observed fiery rings, and Krieger^ 
seeks to refer these, as well as the pressure-phenomena, 
and indeed all phenomena lying outside the axis of 

^ Filehne, " Uber die Entstehung des Lichtstaubs, der Starrblindheit 
und der Nachbilder," Arch. f. Ophthahn., xxxi. 2, pp. 1-30. 

2 Krieger, "Ueber Licht und Farben-Sehen," Deutsche Klin. (1850), 
pp. 50-52. 



170 HALLUCINATIONS 

vision, to processes taking place within the compass 
of the optic nerve. Others, again, hold that all colour 
images have their origin in the retina ; Graefe^ saw 
such disappear after enucleation of the eyeball, and 
after division of the optic nerve. 

The pressure images, most simply induced by 
turning and gently pressing the eyeball towards 
the nose, are familiar phenomena. There are also 
the flying sparks which are seen during electric 
stimulation of the eye,^ as shown by Volta, and 
the sparks which follow from a violent blow on 
the forehead, etc. These last played a part in a 
criminal trial in the early part of this century. 
The plaintiff, who had been the victim of an assault 
in the dark, maintained that he recognised his assailant 
by the light of the sparks which flashed out of his own 
eyes when he received the blow ! An " expert " who 
was consulted upon the point admitted the possi- 
bility of the plaintiff's assertion. 

Hoppe, in particular, has devoted himself to the 
study of these entoptic phenomena, and has given a 
detailed account of them. He endeavours to class 
all visual hallucinations under this category.^ 

" Hallucinations, unreal perceptions due to a misinterpretation 
of sensations received from the mere excitation of the nerves 
conveying sensory impressions, require some material basis ; 
this is furnished by the very excitation of the sensory nerve, 
and the nature, condition, and product of this excitation. For 

^ Graefe, Berl. Klin. Wochenschr.^ iv. 31 (1S67). 

^ We may note here that Ferrier seeks to refer the eye-movements of 
animals, observed in electrical stimulation of the respective cortical 
regions, to such subjective light-sensations. 

^ J. Hoppe, "Der entoptische Inhalt des Auges und das entoptische 
Sehen," etc., Allg. Zeitschr, f. Psych. (1887); Erkfdrung der Sinnes- 
iatischtmgen^ etc. (4th edit., 1888). 



AND ILLUSIONS. I/I 

instance, a feeling of weight and pressure experienced in falling 
asleep may become the tactile hallucination of a cigar held 
between the fingers; this feeling between the fingers is not a 
mere feeling of pressure, however, but the * persisting after- 
image' of a cigar held between the fingers. These after-images, 
which differ from the phenomena usually so called only in that 
their origin is not remembered,^ are most easily explained, if we 
discard the unphysiological assumption of the brain interfering 
centrifugally with the sensory paths by postulating a peripheral 
sense-memory. They are to be regarded, especially when 
deahng with the visual sense, as 'explosion products' or meta- 
bolic products of the retina connected with its functional activity, 
if not as secretions, then as excretions. They are, so to speak, 
material images which arise, now suddenly, now gradually, move 
onwards and disappear, and which also may be influenced by 
movements of the eye."' They possess the power of " covering " 
other objects ; but often, when they are thin flakes, they are 
transparent. They appear in four forms, as brightness, dark- 
ness, colour, and light. The most powerful cause of entoptic 
phenomena is the yellow spot, the macula lufea itself; besides 
which the pupil and the blood-vessels play a part, chiefly as 
bearers of the colour-cloud surrounding them; moreover, the 
pulse of the central artery of the retina mfluences the movement 
as well as the sensory nerves of the muscles (muscular sense, 
etc.), the motor nerves, and the muscles themselves, "for the 
act of vision is nothing else but a grasping with the muscles of 
the eye." 

1 See the report of C. M. Bakewell, Proceed, of the S,P.R., 
vol. viii. pp. 450 et seq. His experiment consists in gazing fixedly at 
an object, and then putting out the light and shutting his eyes at the 
same moment. If the eyes are kept closed till sleep supervenes, and 
immediately on waking are directed to the white ceiling illuminated 
by the morning light, and at once closed again, a belated after-image is 
often called up of the object upon which the eyes were fixed before 
falling asleep. The fact that it is not always the after-image of the 
particular object selected for the experiment which appears, but some- 
times that of some brightly lighted object seen shortly before, seems to 
preclude the possibility of explaining the phenomena as due to a state 
of expectancy. The experiment has been confirmed by several other 
observers. Compare below, p. 173, Note i, 

' Compare the account, Munch. Sam?nL, xvi. 2, 6 (Appendix J.). 



1/2 HALLUCINATIONS 

This hallucination-matter, which is either hallucination itself 
or the raw material of hallucination, must, as it is something 
physical, occupy some place, and this place is assigned to it in 
the retina itself. Whether regarded as the material basis of 
hallucination or as hallucination itself, it is, whether the eyes are 
open or closed, located in the external world, and the hallucina- 
tory object is referred to a greater or less distance according to 
the accommodation of the eye, and will appear larger if the 
imaginary distance is greater. A few examples will perhaps best 
illustrate the part played by the various factors in hallucination. 

Examples: " Suddenly in the region of the pupil a well- 
formed but very dull yellow face appeared ; it was a luminous 
disc out of the macula liitea^ with a few dark streaks from 
which I formed the face. This dull yellow face, seen just at 
the beginning of [entoptic] vision (before falling asleep at half- 
past ten o'clock), indicates an over-excited state of the retina — 
perhaps the result of using a petroleum reading-lamp with a 
large burner." . . . "Thereupon I saw two persons clad in 
black in a very dark visual field. The one looked about him 
inquisitively, the other nodded (flashes of light)." ..." Then 
wherever I looked I saw a window (glass-like shimmer from 
the mac. luted).^^ ... "I could see the saw quite plainly. It 
worked opposite me, moving regularly backwards and forwards. 
I could see no one sawing, but at the further side a confused, 
dark mass and a shadowy hand. The saw worked across a 
black plank which lay upon a sawing-jack, and appeared before 
me as though 'sprung out of nothing'; nevertheless, it was 
only a sketch improvised from material provided at the moment. 
The visual field was fairly light, many long light rays streamed 
from my eyes and fell somewhat obliquely on the opaque black 
masses, and the saw itself was a shining compact sheaf of 
highly luminous rays, moved by the pulse beat, with a corre- 
sponding movement on the part of the muscles of the eye, by 
which the impression of moving figures is ordinarily conveyed. 
Then the saw and the rest of the light rays disappeared, but the 
sawing still continued; for though the pulse movement was 
lost, the eye muscles still kept up the sawing motion, and I 
convinced myself of it and stopped their movement. Nothing 
then remained of the vision but a dark patch upon which 
changing lines of light appeared." 



I 



AND ILLUSIONS. I73 

Although the attempt to refer all visual delusions 
to such persistent after-images may be carried too 
far, their importance, for instance, in the dream-state, 
and in the hallucinations of hypnosis and similar 
states, is not insignificant. They are generally over- 
looked in the waking state, because the attention of 
the sensory faculties is preoccupied with the external 
environment ; and yet William James is of opinion 
that we shall probably never be in a position fully to 
appreciate the importance of the part played by these 
after-images in the drama of our waking thought.^ 
How much more then may their importance increase 
when the interest in objective sensory impressions 
flags, or when their path to the sensorium is blocked ? 

Morbid processes, equally with the physiological 
subjective impressions which we have hitherto been 
considering, may be the exciting cause of hallucina- 
tion. The zigzag figure of migraine is a familiar 
instance. Scholz^ refers the visual hallucinations in 

^ W. James, op. cit., ii. pp. 83 ei seq. "Many years ago, after 
reading Maury's book, Le Somtneil et les Reves^Y began for the first 
time to observe those ideas which faintly flit through the mind at all 
times, words, visions, etc, disconnected with the main stream of 
thought, but discernible to an attention on the watch for them. A 
horse's head, a coil of rope, an anchor, are, for example, ideas which 
have come to me unsolicited whilst I have been writing these latter 
lines. They can often be explained by subtle links of association, 
often not at all. But I have not a few times been surprised, after 
noting some such idea, to find on shutting my eyes an after-image left 
on the retina by some bright or dark object recently looked at, and 
which had evidently suggested the idea. 'Evidently,' I say, because 
the general shape, size, and position of the object thought of and of 
after-image were the same, although the idea had details which the 
retinal image lacked." To entoptic processes are also to be referred 
those dream-images which persist for a time in the waking state until 
external stimuli enforce their prior claim to attention. 

2 Scholz, Berl. Klin. Wchschr., xiii. (1876). 



174 HALLUCINATIONS 

a case of mania associated with Bright's disease to 
changes in the retina produced by the kidney affection, 
and to the resulting entoptic phenomena. Savage^ 
reports two cases of visual delusions in optic neuritis, 
which resulted in the one case (contracted kidney) in 
weakening of the visual power, and in the other 
(due to syphilis) in entire loss of vision. Uhthoff's^ 
researches tend in the same direction, and point to 
optic neuritis as a condition favourable to fallacious 
perception in delirium tremens.^ Graefe observed sub- 
jective light sensations in phthisis bulbi.* Sinogowitz^ 
cites a case of Bright's^ where the patient suffered 
from visual hallucinations after apoplectic attacks, and 
where, in the post-mortem examination, a tumour half 
an inch in diameter and reaching to the surface, was 
discovered in the inferior corpus geniculatum. 

A pathological state of the sensory nerve tracts has 
often been found associated with hallucinations, and 
especially with tmilateral hallucinations, and in many 
cases these have ceased when the local lesion '' has 

^ G. H. Savage, y<??^;';z. of Alent. Science, xxvi. p. 245 (July 1880). 

- Uhthoff, *' Untersuchungen liber den Einfluss des chron. Alko- 
holismus auf das menschl. Seh-Organ," Arch.f, Ophthahn, , xxii., xxiii. 

3 Compare above, p. 42, Note 3. 

^ Graefe, Berl. Klin. Wochenschr., iv. 31 (1S67). 

^ Sinogowitz, op. cit., p. 257. 

6 Guy's Hosp. Rep. (1837). 

^ H. Higier cites, among others, a case of Buch's [Arch.f. Psych., 
1881) with auditory hallucinations of the left ear, which disappeared 
after the cure of otitis media of the same side ; a case of Ball's with 
inflammation of the middle ear and purulent discharge, where local 
treatment not only cured the physical ailment but also banished the 
unilateral hallucinations which had gradually become established; a 
case of Mabille's [Ann. vied, psych., 1 883), where unilateral auditory 
hallucinations (on the right) ceased on the removal of a sprouting grain 
of corn imbedded in the wax of the ear. Local excitation is also 
indicated in a case of Raggi's, quoted in the Neurol. Centralbl., 1884, 



AND ILLUSIONS. 1^5 

been cured. Such unilateral excitations, however, are 
not necessarily expressed by a unilateral hallucina- 
tion. Both eyes may share in the vision, just as the 
green after-image which follows from prolonged gazing 
with one eye at a red cross is not necessarily seen 
only by the one eye in subsequent binocular vision, 
and may even, when the eye used in looking at the 
cross is closed, appear in the visual field of the other 

p. 41. See also FUrer, " Ueljer d. Zustandekemmen von Gehorstau- 
schungen," Centralbl. f. Neyvenhltende^ N.F., v. (Febr.); Krafft-Ebing, 
*' Sinnesdelirien," p. 25; Souchon, " Ueber einseitige Hallucinationen " 
{Dissert, Berlin, 1890); Regis, VEncephale (1881), p. 46; M. Voisin, 
Bullet, d. Therap.^ xxxix. ; Despine, Psychologie Natu7-elle, ii. p. 29. 
Magnan {Arch, de Neiirologie, iSSj) P- 18) communicates three 
cases of double unilateral hallucinations, all occurring in paranoia 
patients. 

^ Beclard, Traiti elementaire de Physiologie ; Binet, Psychologie dji 
Paisonne?ne7it, p. 45; Delabarre, Anier. Jonrn. of Psychol. , ii. p. 326; 
Baillarger, Meffioire, etc., p. 460; compare Herth, KtinstphysioL, ii. 
pp. 464 et seq. In the *' Report" the fact which we have touched on 
above in the text is mentioned in connection with the experiments 
published by Mr. John Gorham in Brain (1881-82, vol. iv.), which 
have nothing to do with what we are considering here; for we are 
concerned with an after-image which, arising in one eye through 
monocular stimulation, seems to belong to the unexhausted eye 
(through which all other visual impressions are then received), because 
of the latter's activity, and because the attention is directed to 
it; while Gorham is occupied in showing that in monocular excitation 
simultaneous contrast colours are produced in the other eye. There 
are, however, two cases of unilateral hallucinations reported by Fere 
which may perhaps be brought into line with the foregoing fact, if it is 
assumed that the concentration of attention on one-half of the body may 
cause a hallucination to be unilateral. In one of these cases unilateral 
visual hallucinations appeared in connection with violent facial neuralgia 
accompanied by herpes zoster^ and in the other unilateral auditory hal- 
lucinations were associated with severe neuralgia of the trigeminus. 
Thus it might be supposed that the neuralgia first prepared the way for 
the hallucinatory state, and then influenced the localisation of the 
sensory delusions. 



1/6 HALLUCINATIONS 

Excitations of the Auditory Sense. — In the auditory- 
sense after-images, or rather after-impressions, are not 
often observed. Perhaps the prolonged buzzing which 
follows a loud report may be reckoned as such, and 
also the persistence with which the airs of certain 
songs and waltzes, etc., haunt the ear, but these 
phenomena are not really analogous to retinal after- 
images. For example, when we are haunted by a 
certain tune, especially if it has been started in 
the first instance by a real auditory sensation, it is 
perhaps a mere perception of objective sounds 
influenced by the persistent feeling of rhythm. On 
the other hand, the following experience of Preyer's^ 
is to be reckoned as a real after-impression. After 
he had been listening to one musical note for a con- 
siderable time a loud plashing sound supervened and 
continued for some minutes.^ 

Inadequate stimuli are a frequent cause of auditory 
sensations. The sound experienced if a finger is put 
into the ear,^ or if one rests the ear on the hand or 
lies upon it, are familiar instances; and A. Fick has 
drawn attention to the noise which is caused by an 
involuntary movement of the tensor tympani follow- 
ing on the contraction of the masticatory muscles 
when the lower is pressed against the upper jaw.^ 
The experimentally induced excitation of the audi- 
tory sense through galvanism may perhaps also be 

1 Preyer, " Uber die Grenzen der Tonwahrnehmung," Physiol. 
Abhndl. (Jena, 1876). 

^ Compare P. Jacobs, De atiditu fallaci (Diss. Bonn, 1832). 

^ Compare Helmholtz, VcThndlg. d. Natur-histor. Ver. z. Heidelb., 
V. pp. 153, 161. 

^ F. Fuchs also recalls this in his article in the N'etiro. CentralbL, xii. 
22, " Uber einen Fall, von subjectiven Gehors u. Gesichtsempfindun- 
gen; Selbstbeobachtung." 



AND ILLUSIONS. 177 

mentioned.^ The structure of the organ is, however, 
so complicated, and so little is known of what part 
the stimulation actually affects, that it is hard to say 
whether we are really here concerned with subjective 
sounds corresponding to the sounds directly pro- 
duced when the auditory nerve is called into play. 
Hoppe draws attention to the "clang "-producing 
action of the outer ear, and it is possible that this 
muscle may have played a part in such experiments 
through' feeble vibrations hardly possible to exclude. 
Syzianko 2 seeks to refer the sounds to the muscular 
contractions occurring under galvanism, and to the 
bubbles which are formed during galvanic action by 
the decomposition of water. Perhaps, also, sounds 
which are not normally noted are of importance, 
such as the resonance tone of the middle ear, which, 
according to Kieselbach,^ is always present, but just 
because of its continued resounding is not consciously 
perceived except when the nerve is specially excited, 
for instance, through electric stimulation, or when 
from internal causes it is placed in a state of 
hyperaesthesia. Internal causes of this kind appear 
to be indicated in the cases of mental disease 
with auditory hallucinations investigated by Jolly.* 
It should be added, however, that Meynert^ is 

^ Brenner, Arch. f. palliol. Anat.^ xxviii. i, 2; Schwartze, Ti'oeltsck 
Arch., i. 144; Jolly, Arch. f. Psych., iv.j Buccola, Rivist. dt frettiatria 
spej'imentale, xi. (1885). 

2 Syzianko at the seventh Congr. d. russ. Naturforsch u. Arzti., 
Odessa (1883). 

^ Kieselbach, '^ Ueber d. Galvanische Reizung d. Acusticus," Arch, 
f. Physiol. (1883); Dessoir, Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys. {Phys. Abth.)y 
1892, pp. 204-210. 

^ Jolly, Arch. /. Psych. , iv. 

^ Meynert, Wien, med. £/dUer {iSjS), No. 9. 

12 



178 HALLUCINATIONS 

convinced that these hallucinations have a different 
origin. 

According to Ehrhard/ subjective auditory sensa- 
tions occur (i) as pulsations ; these, however, are 
not, strictly speaking, "auditory," but organic sen- 
sations, for they depend on a heightened percep- 
tion of the pulse-beat of the internal carotid artery, 
and may be modified by pressure on the carotid or 
by the action of digitalis ; moreover, they are to 
be observed in deaf mutes, where stimulation of 
the acoustic nerve is excluded ; (2) from stimula- 
tion of the ramus vestibuli in catarrhs, abscesses, 
etc.,^ as sensations of noises (hummings, rushings, 
and buzzings) ; (3) from stimulation of the ramus 
cochleae,^ as sensations of "clangs" (musical tones, 
singing, etc.) ; and (4) as a combination of (2) 
and (3) from stimulation of both branches of the 
acoustic nerve.* Lucae^ does not think that definite 
auditory hallucinations should be referred to definite 
affections, and classifies them according as they are 
heightened or diminished by external sounds.^ 

1 Ehrhard, Bcrl. Klin. Wochenschr. (1867), No. 12. 

^ Plater and Mercurialis report cases in which these pulsations could 
be perceived as objective sounds by persons near the patient. 

^ Compare Moos, " Ueber das subjective Hiiren wirklicher musika- 
lische Tone," Virch. Arch.^ ix., Band 3, Folg. ; Czerny, ibid., Bd. xi. ; 
Schwartze, " Ueber subject. Gehorsempfindung," i/^r/. KHji. Wochen- 
schr. (1886). 

^ For a different classification see Itard, Traiie des maladies de 
Voreille ei de Va^tdiiion. 

^ Lucae, Zur Enisiehiing tind Behandhing d. subject. Gehdrse??ip- 
Jindnngen. 

^ A patient of Urbantschitsch's, to quote an example, experienced an 
increase of the subjective sounds v,hen he heard street noises, carts 
passing, and so on. Again, it has sometimes been noted tliat the 
auditory hallucinations only occur when faint objective sounds are 



I 



AND ILLUSIONS. 179 

In any case, even leaving out of account the cases 
where the sounds are supplied by the physical or- 
ganism itself,^ a morbid affection of the peripheral 
organ is not always necessary for the production of 
hallucinatory sounds. Their occurrence in many rail- 
way servants, for instance, is to be referred to subtler 
central disturbance.^ Of course what has been said 
above, in treating of subjective visual sensations, as to 
the irradiation of pathological stimuli, holds good for 
the auditory as well as for other senses. 

Excitations of the Olfactojy Sense. — That olfactory 
sensations may be induced by inadequate stimuli has 
not been absolutely demonstrated,^ but there is no 
reason to doubt such a possibility. Cases of sub- 
heard. Compare Ziehen, Psychiatrie, pp. 25 et seq. Lucae reports, 
on the other hand, that treatment by means of sounds (produced by 
tuning forks or other means) frequently results in a weakening or 
extinction of the subjective sounds. 

^ The pulsations mentioned above, the cracking sounds in yawning, 
in opening the Eustachian tube (Schmidekam, "Studien," Arb. d. 
Kieler physioL Instii.), sounds resulting from phlegm stopping the air 
passages (Hoppe, Erkldnaig der Siiinesidusch.)^ and so on. Quadri 
{T Osservatore med. di Napoli, 7 Settembre 1883) communicates a 
case where chronic noise in the left ear was traced to an upper tooth, 
which was extracted, although it appeared perfectly sound, whereupon 
the noises ceased. When the tooth was cut open, a small bony knob 
was found dangling from it which struck upon the inner wall of the 
tooth like the clapper of a bell, and so produced the sound. 

" Baginsky, Ueher Ohreuerkrankting bei Raihvay spme ; PoUnow 
and Schwabach, Die Gehdrstorimgen des Lokomotivpersonah, and 
others. 

^ The hypothesis maintained by Valentin, op. ciL, that subjective 
sensations of smell may be induced by pressing and suddenly letting 
go of the nostrils is denied by Frohlich, " Ueber einige Modificationen 
des Geruchsinnes," Sitzng.-Ber, d. Wien. Acad. Ma(h. vafiir-iviss. 
Klasse, iv. p. 322. Galvanism applied to the nose is also said to 
produce sensations of smell, but possibly such sensations are more of 
the nature of pricklings and tinglings. 



l80 HALLUCINATIONS 

jective olfactory sensations and hallucinations in 
disturbances of the nerve tracts are not infrequently 
reported. Morel ^ mentions olfactory hallucinations 
in a ease where an abscess was found in the corpus 
callosum. In a case of severe olfactory delusion,^ a 
fungoid growth of the dura mater, the size of a hazel 
nut, was found attached to the cribriform process and 
surrounded by the olfactory nerves. Lockemann ^ 
mentions a case of vague but not disagreeable 
olfactory delusions. The autopsy revealed a can- 
cerous growth only separated from the brain by 
masses of cellular tissue. It stretched as far as the 
trigonum olfactorium, and had quite destroyed the left 
olfactory tract; the right was untouched. Sander* 
speaks of epileptic attacks with subjective olfactory 
sensations, in destruction of the left olfactory tract 
by a tumour. Meschede^ mentions fully-developed 
olfactory hallucinations in pronounced degeneration 
of the olfactory bulb. Emilio Carbonieri ^ found, in 
a case of sensory delusions of the nasal organ, 
a tubercular body in the brain as big as a 
walnut. 

Excitations of the Muscular Sense, — Great import- 
ance is attributed by some authors to subjective 
sensations of the muscular sense. Cramer,^ for 
instance, seeks to refer a multitude of phenomena to 
this cause. 

^ Morel, Traite des Maladies Mentales. 
2 Bericht atis d. Wiener Irrenaust, 1858) p. 266. 
^ Lockemann, H'li. Pfs. Ztschrft. Hi. Reihe, xii. p. 340 (1861). 
^ Sander, Arch. f. Psych., iv. pp. 234 et seq. 
^ Meschede, Allg. Zeitschr. f. Psych.., xxxiv. p, 261. 
^ E. Carbonieri, Riv. din., xxiv. p. 657 (1885). 
'' A. Cramer, Die Hallucinaiionen i??i Muskelsinn bei Geisteskranhen 
u ihre klin. Bedeutung (1889). 



AND ILLUSIONS. i8l 

The course of Cramer's argument is as follows : — According 
to Meynert/ a large part, principally indeed the anterior 
part, of the cortex is the seat of motor ideas derived from 
a centripetal sensory tract (the path of the muscle sense), 
which receives its impressions in the muscles, and conducts by 
its specific energy the sensations of movement to the cerebral 
cortex, where they are translated into ideas of movement and 
stored up as such. It is thus possible to send forth motor 
impulses so accurately measured (antagonistic innervation: 
Rieger) that the required movement is effected at once with- 
out any further correction. In this way, that is in reliance on 
our muscle sense, we learn our native language by acquiring 
conceptions of the movements accompanying all changes in 
the equilibrium of the parts concerned in speech ; the same 
principle holds good for the other complicated movements of 
our body. How momentous then must be the hallucinatory 
stimulations of the muscular sense -tract through which our 
consciousness receives information of a movement which never 
took place ! Such a process is fraught with most importance 
when it occurs in connection with (i) the group of muscles 
concerned in locomotion (muscles of the trunk and the ex- 
tremities) ; (2) the muscles used in speech; (3) the group of eye 
muscles. 

I. When a morbid process leads to stimulation of any part 
of the muscular sense-tract, and thus to the corresponding 
muscle sense-hallucination, the stimulus will, if it be strong, 
pass over directly to the motor tract, and evoke the realisa- 
tion of the false motor idea which had intruded mto the 
consciousness, leading in some cases to involuntary acts, and 
in many to involuntary movements. If, on the other hand, 
the stimulus be weak, it will call forth motor impulses to 
neutralise the imaginary wrong position or the movement which 
had never actually been performed, thus leading to another 
class of involuntary actions and some involuntary ideas. 

1 Meynert, " Beitrage z. Theorie d. maniakal. Bewegungserschein- 
ungen/'^rf/^./. Psych. ^ ii. p. 639; Psychiatrie {\^%df),^. 132; compare 
Goltz, •' Verrichtungen des Gehirns," Arch, f. Anat. m. Physiol, von 
Reichert ti. Dubois- Reymond {i.^'jo); Hitzig, Untersiichiingen iiber das 
Gehirn. Meynert is also opposed here by Munk, who connects the 
feeling of innervation with the subcortical ganglia. 



1 82 HALLUCINATIONS 

2. We learn our native tongue as children, not only under 
the guidance of the ear, but also with the aid of the muscular 
sense; and in the same way later, when acquiring foreign 
languages, and especially in learning by rote, we avail our- 
selves more or less of the same method, articulating the words 
as we learn them, and thus acquiring as precise motor ideas 
as possible. Such motor ideas are all the more important, 
because thought itself may in general be considered as a kind 
of internal speech, although the possibility of thought without 
words must be admitted.^ When thinking articulately, how- 
ever, we send slight corresponding motor impulses to the 
parts concerned in speech, though we are usually unconscious 
of so doing.^ Now supposing the whole muscular sense-tract 
to be in a state of unstable equilibrium, the motor impulses 
which issue during such thinking in words, and of which we 
normally remain unconscious, will be intensified as motor 
sensations, just as if what was only thought had been actually 
articulated. The patient supposes all he thinks to be accom- 
panied by an inner voice, and often locates this voice in some 
part of the body where a morbid condition {e.g.^ pressure in the 
pericardiac region) happens to be present, or else he connects 
it with objective or subjective noises {e.g.^ with the special ear- 
sounds), and believes that it comes from without. When he 
reads he will hear the words repeated aloud after him (since the 
occurrence of motor ideas is always the secondary process in 
reading); but if he writes (in which case the ideas of speech- 
movements precede the ideas of writing movements, motor 
ideation being in this case the primary process), he seems to 
hear the words dictated to him (audible thinking). Secondly, 
if a part only of the whole centripetal tract which connects 
the organs of speech with the cortex is excited to hallucina- 
tion, then only a particular motor idea will result, which will 
be connected with the corresponding auditory idea, and thus 
obtrude itself on the consciousness as the idea of a word (involun- 
tary ideation). Lastly, should the stimulus be strong enough 
to extend into the motor region, a third phenomenon — involun- 

^ Preyer, Die Seek des Kindes, p. 259; Kussmaul, Die Storting der 
Sprache, p. 16; Stricher, *'Die Gedankenbildung der Aphasischen," 
Wien. med. Bidder, 1878, No. i. 

^ Strieker, Studien iiber die Sprachvorstellung (18S0), pp. 29 et seq^ 



AND ILLUSIONS. 1 83 

tary speaking — will be developed. With reference to Kahl- 
baum's explanation of involuntary speaking and the involuntary 
movements referred to above as " cramp," it is to be noted 
that co-ordinated movements can only take place under the 
guidance of motor ideas, whereas cramp is simply a motor 
phenomenon not governed by any idea; it consists merely of 
unco-ordinated movements, often of isolated twitchings. 

3 If the motor sense is really an important factor in the 
formation of exact ideas of space, a hypothesis denied by 
Hering,^ but maintained by other observers,"^ it is easy to see 
that the sensation of a movement which is not caused and 
accompanied by a real movement of the eye muscles in con- 
nection with the sensory images of the optic nerve, which are 
always present, necessarily leads to an erroneous perception of 
space, causing external objects which are at rest to seem in 
motion, and falsely representing the position and proportion of 
things. 

There is nothing to be urged against this last point 
of Cramer's, but it is not easy to accept his far-fetched 
explanation of the origin of involuntary ideas, and his 
explanation of auditory hallucinations is absolutely 
untenable; for the motor hallucinations which he 
quotes could have but one of two effects on 
the speech apparatus: either they must be strong 
enough to extend into the motor region, in which 
case involuntary speech, or logorrhoe, ensues ; or if 
they are feeble, the patient imagines that he articulates 
when he is not so doing. An auditory hallucination 
can never arise in this way. When the hallucinatory 
articulation is not associated or blended with sounds, 
that is to say, when the motor excitation is not ac- 
companied by excitation of the auditory sense, so far 

^ Hering, "Der Raumsinn u. die Bewegungen des Auges," in Herr- 
mann's Handlnich. der Physiol., vol. iii. , part i., p. 547. 

^ Wundt, Griindziige der phys. Psychol., ii. pp. 189 ct seq.; Funke, 
Lehrb. der Physiol., pp. 394 et seq. (6th edition, published by Grlln- 
hagen); Helmholz, Handbiich. d. phynol. Optik.^ p. 801. 



1^4 HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. 

from experiencing an auditory delusion, the patient, 
who believes he is speaking, must imagine that he is 
either deaf or dumb, since he perceives his (subjective) 
movements of articulation, but does not hear his own 
voice. If excitation of the muscular sense be ac- 
companied by subjective or objective excitation of 
the auditory sense, the perception can only be altered 
in so far that the patient then seems to hear himself 
speaking with his normal voice, or in strange and 
unfamiliar tones, when in reality he is silent. Thus 
the case presented to the observer would be that of a 
patient who did not answer questions because he 
imagined he had already done so. As a matter of 
fact, mutism is frequently observed in association 
with "audible thinking"; but this conjunction, how- 
ever brought about, certainly does not make for 
Cramer's hypothesis, which fails to explain even the 
auditory hallucinations. In visual hallucinations the 
patient has the sensation that he sees, in auditory 
hallucinations that he /lears; in hallucinations of the 
muscular sense he must, as Ziehen ^ has expressed 
it, " have the sensation that he is uttering a certain 
word." 

^ Ziehen, Psychiatric (1894), p. 23. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE CONTENT OF FALLACIOUS PERCEPTION. 

The Co7itent dependent (i) on Memory and Experie7ice — (2) 
On the Cofiditiotis which induce the Halluci7iated 
State — (3) On the Teinperament and Mental Enviro?i- 
vient of the I?tdividt(al — (4) On the Brain-state which 
obtains at the Moment {Exhaustio7t, Co7ice7ttratio7i^ 
E77iotio7is^ Subconscious Processes^ — (5) O71 the Se7isory 
Stimuli. — Explanatio7t of some Facts geno'ally i7iis- 
interpreted — (i) Certain phe7t07nena usually cited in 
support of retinal participation. — (2) Negative Hallu- 
cinatio7is — The Phe7t07nena and Nature of Rapport — 
Negative Halluci7iatio7is 7tot expiai7ied by diversion of 
atte7itio7i — Their true Nature. 

The content of a fallacious perception depends 
primarily on the past experience of the individual. 
Only what has passed in at the portals of sense can 
be reproduced. The neural elements which attain 
to activity may indeed be associated in the most 
unfamiliar and bizarre combinations, but they can 
be called into play only in the way to which they 
have been predisposed by former sensory stimuli. 
The so-called auditory hallucinations of deaf mutes, 
often adduced as an argument against this view, may 
in all cases probably be explained as heightened per- 
ception of the arterial pulsation — that is to say, as 
unwonted, but still objective, organic sensations. 
It is indeed conceivable that an auditory stimulus 



1 86 HALLUCINATIONS 

may be perceived, but not as an auditory perception, 
reaching the cortical cells by the aid of certain nerve- 
fibres which normally convey sensations of pain. 
At least Politzer' has furnished some evidence for 
such a view by demonstrating that in the acoustic 
nerve, side by side with the fibres which transmit 
impressions of sound, there are others which convey 
a specific sensibility of their own. We hear, 
too, of visual hallucinations in persons blind from 
childkood. But these accounts relate either to 
cases in which, though the blindness occurred at 
a very early age, visual impressions had been 
received previous to its occurrence, or else to those 
in which at least some sensibility to light and 
darkness remained. The case of the blind man 
mentioned on page 137, Note i, is typical of 
the state of those blind from birth. They have 
not even the ghost of an idea of light and 
darkness, and consequently have no visual hallucina- 
tions. 

What part of experience shall be reproduced in the 
hallucination is, however, determined by a combination 
of various circumstances. 

An important influence on the specific character of 
the false perception is generally attributed to the 
cause which brings about the underlying state. Thus 
hallucinations accompanying disease almost invari- 
ably assum.e distressing forms. They may, it is true, 
begin indifferently, or even be of an agreeable nature 
at the outset, but as the disease progresses and their 
content becomes profoundly modified by morbid 

^ A. I'olitzer, "Zur Theorie der Hypergesthesia Acustica," ^/r/^./ 

Ohie}ihei/k, v., sec. 206 (1869). 



AND ILLUSIONS. 187 

organic sensations, they tend to become more and 
more vexatious and intolerable to the victim. The 
same general tendency, pointing to the same explana- 
tion, is to be observed in the visions of ether-inhaling, 
opium-eating, etc., as the habit leads on to ever larger 
doses of the drug. Much has been written about the 
specific influence of certain poisons, such as haschisch 
or opium, on the content and emotional character 
of the visions associated with them, and no doubt 
they do, within certain limits, exercise such an 
influence, though to a less extent than was formerly 
supposed. Other causes may modify and counteract 
it, and this explains why the specific action of 
the narcotic does not in all cases account for the 
phenomena observed. To quote one example among 
many, Schrenck-Notzing,^ in his experiments with 
haschisch, obtained very dissimilar results. They 
do not indeed generally contradict the tendency of 
this narcotic to excite pleasant images, but never- 
theless in one of his six cases the very opposite of the 
usual effect was produced; the customary feeling of 
well-being was absent, and in its place came horrible 
sensations, nameless terrors, and the fear of mad- 
ness. Even music, which affected others pleasantly, 
aroused in this subject distressing memories. Of 
course the somatic effects of poisoning, the tendency 
to vomit, and so on, may have contributed to the 
result (compare Note 8, p. 44, on the subject of chloro- 
form delirium). This is indeed indicated by the 
feeling of ease which followed the act of vomiting. 
Nevertheless, the influence of organic sensations on 
the dream content was probably of secondary im- 

^ Schrenck-Notzing, "Die Bedeutung narcot. Mittel fiir den Hypno- 
tismus," Schriflen d. Ges. f. psych. Forsch.^ i. vol. I. 



1 88 HALLUCINATIONS 

portance, for we find this note appended to the 
description of the case : — " Tendency to neurasthenia 
with general hypochondriacal diathesis . . strongly 
marked pessimistic temperament of the narcotised 
subject in normal life." Thus we encounter another 
important factor neutralising the specific action of 
the drug. 

This is the influence of individual temperament. 
For just as the temperaments of the drunken are 
exhibited in their actions, this one: becoming talkative 
and boastful, and that one melancholy and silent, a 
third maudlin, a fourth tetchy and violent, so also are 
they reflected in the hallucinations which accompany 
this state.^ The ancient Arabs held that a man's char- 
acter could be learned from his dreams. They assigned 
visions of fire and light to the choleric temperament, 
serpents, scorpions, and darkness to the melancholy, 
rivers, seas, ice, and snow to the phlegmatic, gardens 
and meadows to the sanguine.^ Others have held 
that the phlegmatic temperament is little liable to 
sense deceptions, whilst the sanguine is specially prone 
to them. The lunatic of sanguine temperament, says 
Radestock, is puffed up and vain, his dreams are all of 
marble halls and flattering voices; the choleric patient 
suspects everywhere the plots of his enemies, and hears 
voices insulting him or urging him to deeds of violence, 
and whilst his hallucinations are more often auditory 
than visual, the contrary is the case with the melan- 

^ Radestock, op. cit., p. 209. " Not that temperament is transferred 
bodily into the dream-state, causing dreamers to be distinguished as 
choleric, melancholic, sanguine, and phlegmatic. In dreams we all 
belong more or less, as far as the emotions are concerned, to the san- 
guine class, but our ii.dividual temperament nevertheless decides the 
content of our visions." 

^ Pfafif, Das Trautnleben u. seine Deuittf ig {1S68), pp. 107 et seq. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 1 89 

cholic, and especially, as the name implies, with 
religious " visionaries."^ 

Again, it has often been remarked that the sensory 
deceptions vary in character with the imaginative 
power of the individual — for instance, that the hallu- 
cinations of unimaginative minds tend to be meagre 
and colourless. Differences of age and sex also exert 
an influence.2 

"The boy dreams otherwise than the youth. The dreams of 
the prime of life are very different from those of age, when life 
itself seems sometimes half a dream ; the young girl's dreams 
are unlike those of womanhood and wifehood. The bright hopes 
and ideal enthusiasms which belong to youth cast their glamour 
over its dreams too; while the serious labours of the man, his 
disciplined energy, are reflected in the dreams of maturity. 
Maidenly timidity and reserve, the devotion of the wife, the 
self-sacrificing love of the mother, often find their echo in 
dreams. All this becomes clear when we realise how great 
is the influence of sex and age on the intellectual and emotional 
life of the individual." ^ 

Then, again, the mental environment in which the 
individual lives and moves, his calling and associates, 
the belief and superstitions incident to his time and 
country, not only serve to determine the ease with 

^ Radestoclc, op. cit., p. 209; Hagen, Die Sitinestausch.^ pp. 139 et 
seq. Griesinger, op. cit. , p. 165, on the contrary, denies that the four cate- 
gories have been empirically proved, or that any weight should be 
attached to them in relation to insanity. 

- Radestock, op. cit.y p. 210. Speaking of the difference of the sex 
characteristics, ibtd.y pp. 203 ei seq., he says, " Burdach contrasts 
them as individuality and universality, Ulrici as activity and passivity, 
Beneke as power and sensibility, Hartmann as conscious and un- 
conscious power." W. von Humboldt holds that the masculine genius 
is characterised by analysis and creative activity, and the feminine by 
synthesis and conservatism. Compare Lotze, Mih'okos??i. (2nd edit.), 
pp. 380-388; Medici Psychol. y pp. 556-560; J. Bahnsen, Beitrdg aur 
Charakleroiogie, vol. ii. pp. 297 et seq, 

3 Spilta, op. cif., p. 302. 



190 HALLUCINATIONS 

which certain ideas are reproduced, but also influence 
the hallucinatory responsiveness of certain selected 
elements. Thus the sufferers in olden times were tor- 
mented by witches and tempted of the devil. Then 
electricity and magnetism, telephones, and other 
mechanical contrivances played a part, while nowa- 
days complaints even reach us of "telepathic in- 
fluence." In Plato's time the victim was haunted 
by interminable flute-playing;^ now he is afflicted 
by the constant ringing of bells. We might 
also instance "second sight," the similarity of the 
visions in one race or one family, the general 
resemblance of the ghosts which haunt old castles, 
of churchyard spectres, and of other local apparitions, 
besides epidemic visions. 

It sometimes happens, to quote another class of 
sensory deceptions which has been repeatedly brought 
to my notice, that when a mental process which 
usually occurs with great regularity is accidentally 
omitted, its place is supplied by a hallucination. 

Thus Herr von M told me that when taking 

his usual afternoon walk he used to see regularly on 
reaching a certain spot the head of the squadron 
returning from their daily exercise, and crossing the 
street at some little distance in front of him.^ One 
day when he had seen this as usual it occurred to 
him to wonder why the rest of the troops did not 
follow, and he soon discovered that the cavalry he 
had seen on this occasion were phantoms.^ 

^ Plato, Crito. 

^ This part of the communication was not meant as an explanation 
of the hallucination, but was merely given to fix the exact time of its 
occurrence. 

^ See Report, cases 19, 23 and 284. 23; and also the case quoted 
below in Chapter IX., where two sisters, in a state of expectancy, see 



AND ILLUSIONS. I91 

Again, it sometimes happens that a sensory im- 
pression is followed by a false perception whose 
content is not suggested by habit, but by some 
other circumstances, a state of anxiety or appre- 
hension for instance. The following case offers a 
good illustration : — ^ 

" Some years ago, a friend and I rode — he on a bicycle, I 
on a tricycle — on an unusually dark night in summer from 
Glendalough to Ratlidrum. It was drizzling rain, we had no 
lamps, and the road was overshadowed by trees on both sides, 
between which we could just see the sky-line. I was riding 
slowly and carefully some ten or twenty yards in advance, 
guiding myself by the sky-line, when my machine chanced to 
pass over a piece of tin or something else In the road that made 

hallucinatory figures. C. E, Seashore, " Measurements of Illusions and 
Hallucinations in Normal Life," Sttidies from the Yale Psychol. Labor- 
atory, iii. (1895), pp. 46 et seq., records the following experiment : — " A 
blue bead, spheroidal, the shortest diameter being 1.8 mm. and the 
longest 3.5 mm., was suspended by a fine black silk thread in front of 
the centre of a black surface surrounded by a white circular border, 
whose inside diameter measured 50 mm. By a concealed device the 
bead could be drawn away and replaced without the observer's notice. 
A tape line was stretched from the apparatus to a point 6.5 metres 
directly in front of it. The method employed was first to show the 
observer the bead in its position, then require him to go to the further 
end of the tape line and walk slowly up towards the apparatus until he 
could first see the bead distinctly. When he saw the bead he read off 
the distance from the apparatus on the tape line. I recorded the 
disiance while he went back to repeat the trial nineteen times in the 
same way. In the first ten trials the physical conditions were similar, 
but while he went back to start for the eleventh time I pulled a cord 
which slid the bead behind the frame. The observer, not knowing 
this, walked up as usual, and when he came to, or a little beyond, the 
point where he expected to see it, he generally did see it and read off 
the distances as before. ... As a rule, the nth, i6th, i8th, and 20th 
trials were made with the bead withdrawn. . . . About two-thirds of 
the persons I tried were hallucina'ed." 

■^ G. J. Strong, " On the Limits of Vision," The Philosophical 
Magazine, March 1894, quoted from the Report, p. 178. 



192 HALLUCINATIONS 

a great crash. Presently my companion came up, calling to me 
in great concern. He had seen through the gloom my machine 
upset and me flung from it." 

The Momentary Cerebral Relations. — With this 
example we pass from individual differences of 
temperament and circumstance to another element 
in the content of a hallucination, viz. : — to the 
brain-state which obtains at the time of its occur- 
rence. Here, generally speaking, two forces are to 
be reckoned with — first, a negative factor, the state 
of exhaustion of the over-strained elements ; second, 
a positive factor, the increase of tension, brought 
about by secondary, and for the most part un- 
conscious, processes of the sensory stimuli in these 
elements which, being relatively in a state of rest, are 
able to recuperate themselves. The exhaustion of 
the elements recently stimulated explains the familiar 
fact that the ideas with which our waking thought 
has just been occupied do not usually furnish forth 
our dreams. Either these ideas are submerged for 
the time or they serve only to suggest other associated 
ideas which appear as dream-images. 

On the other hand, attention, by increasing the 
tension of certain selected elements, has a most 
potent influence on the content of sensory deception. 
It enables us consciously and deliberately to con- 
struct new objects from the forms and colours 
actually present to our eyes. Thus we " find the cat" 
in a " puzzle picture," for instance. Johannes Miiller 
relates that when a child he used to busy himself by 
the hour making pictures from the cracks and stains 
in the wall of the opposite house. Other children 
love to fashion out of the clouds dragons, fish, 
ships, and such fantastic forms. In the same way, 



AND ILLUSIONS. 193 

country folk will point out to the passing traveller 
the likeness of some distinguished person in a jutting 
headland or rocky cliff. 

The selection of the elements to be aroused by 
the sensory stimuli may be brought about not only 
by the voluntary exercise of the imagination and the 
capricious interpretation of forms, etc., but involun- 
tarily by the emotions or mental condition of the 
moment. When darkness has attuned the mind to 
fears the benighted traveller suspects a robber in 
every tree stump. The lover at the trysting-place 
thinks every moment that he sees his mistress 
approaching or hears her step (Schiller's Erwar- 
tung). Passion is proverbially blind to all defects, 
and endows its object with ideal beauty. A child 
may seem " a little angel " in the parental eyes, 
though his plainness is a by-word among the neigh- 
bours. The inexperienced sportsman, in his over- 
zeal, hears in every rustling sound the stag's approach. 
The sad, the anxious, the suspicious, the wrathful, 
read scorn, threats, affronts, etc., in every action or 
gesture of those about them.^ These symptoms are 
of course most strongly marked in insanity, and are 
amongst its commonest phenomena. In mania, in 
many cases of excited dementia, and also in melan- 
cholia, mistakes of identity may often be observed, 
and the misinterpretation of some sound, word, or 
movement, in accordance with the dominant insane 
idea of the moment. 

The cases of crystal-vision quoted above make it 
sufficiently clear that the content of hallucination is 
often influenced by the activity of processes beneath 

^ See Appendix T., case ix. i8, from the Report of the Munich 
Collection. 

13 



194 HALLUCINATIONS 

the threshold of consciousness, that is to say, by sub- 
conscious ideas. A further example is furnished by 
the following case, in which an object was voluntarily 
called up, and appeared with a distinctness and detail 
which the conscious mental image could not possibly 
possess. 

" X., a medical man, noticed that when he rubbed his eyes on 
waking colour phenomena, chiefly red and golden yellow, ap- 
peared. As he idly watched them he began to try whether he 
could call up particular colours by thinking about them. He 
succeeded in doing so, but only after the appearance of other 
colours. He seemed to note, however, a certain regularity in 
the order in wdiich the colours appeared. Then it occurred to 
him to try whether he could make himself see an object as well. 
He chose for his experiment a microscopic preparation of the 
liver. He is quite convinced that his memory-image of this 
object was confused and vague; nevertheless, the preparation 
suddenly appeared before his eyes, as though seen through the 
microscope, all the markings distinctly visible, and the arteries, 
veins, and bile ducts beautifully coloured in red, blue, and 
greenish violet." ' 

To this class also belongs the kind of hallucination 
described by Griesinger, in which the patient hears 
agreeable words with one ear and disagreeable words 
with the other. 

^ See Report, 49. 5 and 402. 8 (pp. 142-144). In the first case 
the shock of the fall on the head, and no doubt also the feeling of 
terror accompanying the accident (the percipient was thrown from a 
dog-cart), called up the hallucination of an experience which had 
happened to the percipient as an infant, but from the knowledge of 
which she had always been carefully guarded. In the second case the 
apparition of a young farmer's wife, who had been killed many years 
before by the falling of a tree, was called up by hearing a great gale of 
wind, and by the presence in the house of a nurse having the same name 
as the victim of the accident. The percipient did not at first recognise 
the figure, not indeed until a week after. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 195 

" Magnan ^ cites several such cases. A patient with pro- 
nounced epilepsy and paranoia heard insulting voices on the 
right side. To this stage succeeded one of exaltation and self- 
esteem, and now encouraging and eulogistic voices presented 
themselves on the left. A devil took possession of his right ear, 
a good genius of his left, forming together a sort of Manicheeism 
which governed him. As the ideas of greatness increased the 
insulting voices on the right side desisted. An inebriate heard 
mockeries on the right, and consoling, reassuring words on the 
left. Two other cases also refer to dipsomaniacs with double 
auditory delusions, unpleasant on the left and pleasant on the 
right. In all four cases the ears were normal, and the acuteness 
of hearing the same on both sides. 

"Dumontpallier induced similar 'double unilateral' hallucin- 
ations in hypnotised hysterical subjects. For instance, he 
described an amusing scene, a village fair, to the patient's 
right ear, while some one barked like a dog at his left, where- 
upon the right side of the face smiled, while the left wore a 
startled expression." 

I do not think that these cases can be taken as 
evidence for the functional independence of each half 
of the brain, nor that we should be justified in con- 
cluding from them that one hemisphere was affected 
before the other. The natural opposition of right and 
left seems to me sufficient to explain the spontaneous 
cases. The right ear being already beset by mocking 
voices, the auditory hallucinations which accompanied 
the ideas of pride attached themselves perforce to the 
left ear, and mockeries on the right, flatteries on the 
left, expressed the inner antithesis. Of course sug- 
gestion sufficiently accounts for the hypnotic cases. 

The Sensory Stimuli. — Lastly, the sensory stimuli 
to which the hypnotised or narcotised subject is 
exposed, whether originating in the external world 
or in' the organism itself, exert an important influ- 

^ Magnan, Archives de Neurologie, vol. vi. p. 336. 



196 HALLUCINATIONS 

ence on the content of the hallucinations. They 
operate by suggestion, by calling their related 
element-groups into action. We have already, 
while considering the dream-state, met with a 
number of instances showlns; how the dream-content 
depends on the sensory stimuli, and similarly the 
action of these is to be observed in hypnotic and 
narcotised subjects, in cases of intoxication^ and 
spontaneous somnambulism, in many hysterical states,^ 
etc. The Report contains a chapter dealing with their 
influence on waking hallucinations, but it seems to 
me that in considering individual cases the committee 
may have overlooked, or at least underrated, this 
formative power of circumstances and surroundings. 
A careful distinction is drawn by the Nancy School 
between the effects of stimuli — between processes due 
to suggestion and self-suggestion — and the pre- 
requisite pathological or physiological condition of 
heightened suggestibility, which its researches have 
thus tended to elucidate. This it is which gives to 
the views of this school their great advantage over 
those of the Salpetriere, and gives them, moreover, a 
scientific value wider than the limits of hypnotism. 
For by emphasising this fundamental law, by showing 
the many sources of error In the introspective method, 
and assigning to self-observation a less important 
place, hypnotism has conferred a great benefit on 
psychological science in general. 

In illustration of the way in which sensory stimuli 

^ Von Schrenk-Notzing, Die Bedetit. Narc. Mitiel, etc. 

2 Compare Friedmann, Ueber den Wahn, pp. 38, 39. This case — to 
which Friedmann gives an obviously false explanation, viz., that it is 
the independent product of imaginative activity — is really the hallucin- 
atory expression of the "globus hystericus." 



AND ILLUSIONS. 197 

act suggestively on the content of false perception, it 
may not be amiss to quote here the well-known 
experience of Lazarus, which serves also to indicate 
the part played by after-images. 

" One very clear afternoon I was on the Kaltbad terrace at 
Rigi looking at the Waldbruder, a rock which stands out from 
the great wall of mountains crowned by the glaciers of the 
Titlis, Uri-Rothstock, etc. I was looking alternately with and 
without the telescope, trying, but in vain, to make out the 
Waldbruder with the naked eye, though I could see it quite 
plainly by the aid of the glass. After straining my eyes 
to no purpose, for a period of six to ten minutes, by gazing 
fixedly at the mountains, whose colouring changed with the 
various altitudes and declivities from violet and brown to 
blackish green, I gave up the attempt and turned away. At 
that moment I saw before me (I cannot recollect whether with 
eyes open or shut) the figure of an absent friend, like a corpse. 



" I asked myself how I had come to think of this particular 
friend. In a few seconds I regained the thread of thought which 
had been interrupted by my looking at the Waldbruder, and I 
soon found that a very natural association of ideas had called up 
my friend's image to my mind. His appearance was thus ex- 
plained, but why had he appeared as a corpse ? At this point I 
closed my eyes, either because they were tired, or in order to 
think the better, and at once the whole field of sight, over a 
considerable extent, became covered with the same corpse-like 
hue, a greenish yellow-grey. I saw at once that here was the 
key to the desired explanation, and tried to call to mind the 
forms of other persons. And as a matter of fact these also 
appeared like corpses, standing or sitting as I wished, all had a 
corpse-like tint. They did not all appear as sensible phantasms, 
however, and moreover, when I opened my eyes the hallucinatory 
figures either disappeared altogether or became very vague and 
dim. ... It is plain that here an inward reminiscence, arising 
in accordance with the laws of association, had combined with 
an optical after-image. That is to say, that an excessive stimu- 
lation of the periphery of the optic nerve had indirectly 



1 98 HALLUCINATIONS 

provoked a persistent subjective sensation of the complementary 
colourj which became incorporated with a memory-image." 

It is not necessary to describe here the preparatory 
suggestions — stimuH apph'ed to the sense of hearing, 
the muscle-sense, etc. — used in hypnotism to induce 
the cerebrostatic condition favourable to hallucination. 
Miinsterberg's^ experiments offer a good parallel. 
He called out a word to the subject, and then let him 
have a short glimpse of another word, illuminated 
only for .02 seconds, which had some inner connec- 
tion with the word called out In the course of the 
experiment some words were selected for illumina- 
tion which had no real connection with the meaning 
of the spoken word, but could by an easy misreading 
be changed into a word having such a connection. 
In 8 to 10 per cent, of the experiments a misreading, 
that is, a hallucination, was induced. For instance — 
word called, Verziueifliing (^^ft^y^-dAX)'^ word read, Trost 
(consolation) instead of Triest (Trieste). Word 
called, Nerventhdtigkeit ; read Miiskelfunctionen in- 
stead of Modulfitnctionen. Binet communicates a 
curious case. A friend of his, Dr. A., was walking 
along a Paris street, his mind full of an impending 
examination in botany, when he suddenly saw 
the words " Verbascum thapsus " inscribed on the 
glass door of a restaurant. After proceeding a 
few paces he turned back in astonishment and read 
the real inscription on the door, which was simply 
" bouillon." Now, the popular French nam.e for the 
plant Verbascum thapsus is " bouillon blanc." 

From my own experience I can also furnish an 
example of the formative influence of external 

1 INIunsterLerg, Beilrage ziir ExperimenteV.en Psychologie, vol. iv. 
(1892). 



AND ILLUSIONS. 1 99 

stimuli on the content of false perception. I was 
hurrying home one cold winter day, hungry and 
somewhat tired after my work. The snow was lying 
on the street. As I went along the right-hand pave- 
ment, a brown horse, led by an officer's groom, came 
towards me and passed me on the left without my 
particularly noting it. On turning the corner I 
started slightly, for at that moment a grey horse 
slipped with a clattering noise and swerved to the 
right close in front of me as if to recover itself. This 
was, however, a sensory delusion. In reality, a street 
boy had fallen with a loud clatter just in front of me 
on the frozen gutter. This noise, and the visual 
impressions of the horse I had just passed and 
of the snow-covered ground, had become, at the 
moment of my startled awaking out of a day- 
dream, blended together into the false perception 
described. 

Apparent Retinal Action accounted for by Sugges- 
tion. — Having now taken our bearings, let us turn our 
attention in the next place to a group of phenomena 
often quoted to support the view that the retina shares 
in the hallucinatory activity, as the result of a centri- 
fugal wave. Some of these cases yield interesting 
illustrations of the manner in which the content of 
false perceptions is formed. Such are the experi- 
ments of Parinaud, whose hypnotised subjects saw 
the colour suggested to them on one-half of a sheet 
of white paper divided by a line down the middle, 
but saw spontaneously the complementary colour 
on the other half of the sheet. Again, Lombroso^ 
reports that with a suggested spectrum seen 

1 Lombroso stated in his paper read to the Psychological Congress in 
Paris that he obtained this result in 96 per cent, of his cases. 



200 HALLUCINATIONS 

through suggested coloured glass he obtained the 
same results as if the spectrum and coloured glass 
had been actually present; and Fere and Binet 
found that where two hallucinatory colours were 
superimposed upon one another, they became 
blended like the corresponding rays of the spectrum. 
But even supposing all these experiments to rest 
on correct observation, they are yet very far from 
proving that the retina is involved. There is indeed 
no reason for supposing that the action is not purely 
cerebral. In any case it is evident that we are here 
dealing with the phenomena of suggestion and self- 
suggestion. This applies, of course^ to all cases where 
the phantasm is doubled by pressure on the eyeball,^ 
or by introducing the prism, or is mirrored in 
a reflecting surface — to all cases, in fact, where 
the hallucinatory phenomena behave as though 
amenable to optical laws.^ They all depend on 
artificially induced changes in the sum of the 
instreaming stimuli, through which changes in 
the relative tension in the centres, and thus corre- 

^ Brewster is frequently referred to as the discoverer of this fact, 
whereas he attempted to distinguish between a visual phantasm and an 
objective perception by maintaining that the former could not be doubled 
by pressure on the eyeball. 

2 Pick, Neurol. Centralbl. (1892), No. 11. Dancing figures seen 
through a lens were diminished in size, and assumed the colour of the 
medium through which they were seen. The cases noted in crystal- 
vision, where one crystal-picture shows a colour complementary to that 
of the preceding one, where, for instance, a lady in a blue gown is 
followed by a boy clad in orange colour, require a different explanation. 
In any case they depend on entoptic phenomena which furnish the 
starting-point of the visual deceptions, and act also as a factor in their 
content. A blue entoptic phenomenon becomes a lady in blue, a 
subsequent orange-coloured impression is seen as a boy, etc. But this 
second entoptic phenomenon which started the second hallucination is 
not the after-image of the first hallucination, but oiiispomi de reph-e. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 201 

sponding changes in perception, are brought about.^ 
Bernheim has succeeded in demonstrating in a series 
of experiments that all such phenomena are to be 
referred to central processes,^ and we can only marvel 
that their true explanation is still so commonly over- 
looked, and that they are still pressed into the service 
now of this theory and now of that. Sometimes even 
their occurrence is regarded as affording a crucial test 
in diagnosis. Thus Tigges, whose interesting article 
I have already quoted more than once, regards it as a 
proof that the retina is involved if double images are 
produced in insane cases by pressure on the eye and 
consequent divergence of the axes. In a note^ he 
himself adds, however, a case of A. Hoche's (bilateral 

1 This is very clearly shown in Brach's " Geschichte eines Phantasma 
Visionis," Med. Zeit., v. ver. f. H. in Pr. 

^ Bernheim, De la Suggestion, etc., pp. 102 et seq. These ex- 
periments are also of interest as illustrating the way in which the 
imagination seeks to adapt itself to changes of circumstance, whilst 
ignorant of the natural results of such changes, and how the first self- 
suggestion when firmly established becomes a dominant idea. In the 
case of Bernheim's first subject, L. C, the form of the question or some 
such circumstance seems to have suggested that the spinning of the 
colour-disc would produce a change in the hallucination, which she 
interpreted as its disappearance. So in experiments i, 2, the hal- 
lucination came to an end on each occasion she saw the white disc 
white. But these two experiments and one in the waking state sufficed 
to make her see the revolving disc white even when it was in reality 
blue. (Experiments 4-5.) The second subject evidently did not expect 
that the spinning of the disc would cause any change, for its effect on 
her was nil. In all the experiments recorded (1-3) she saw both colours 
unmixed. So, in the first instance, did the third subject, but she saw 
them blended when she had been commanded to do so. It is evident, 
however, from experiment 5 that this blending of the colours did not 
follow optical laws, but was the effect of association, since blue and 
orange appeared to the subject mingled "as in a sunset, — flame- 
colour." 

^ Loc. ciLf p. 317, note. 



202 HALLUCINATIONS 

hemianopsia inferior) in which the hallucination, 
although evidently conditioned centrally, was yet 
doubled, the images partly overlapping on side- 
ways pressure of the eyeball. 

Nor should much weight be attached to the state- 
ment frequently made, that the hallucinatory image is 
doubled by pressure, or by the prism, even when the 
subject has no idea of the expected result. For, as I 
have already pointed out, the cause of the altered 
perception in these cases is not a cerebrostatic change 
conditioned by expectation, but a change in the 
sum of the stimuli acting at the moment. 

This explains the observation of Philippo Lussana,^ 
that hallucinations are distorted which occur during 
the progressive darkening of the visual field in 
atropin poisoning — a good example of the way in 
which the distorted perception of objective im- 
pressions (resulting from the failure of co-ordination 
in the eye-muscles) is transferred to the hallucination. 
The wavering to and fro of the appearances in nys- 
tagmus may also be instanced, the distorted figures 
of fever delirium, the " gigantic " hallucinations of 
epileptics with macroptic vision, etc. 

Again, the implication of the external sense organ 
has been inferred from the fact that many hallucina- 
tions vanish when the eyes are closed;- and when the 
ears are stopped the haunting voices frequently cease. ^ 
But since these results may also be observed when 
peripheral excitation is excluded and central ex- 

1 Annal Univers (Giugno, 1S52). 

^ Reil, Rhapsodicn, p. 171; Griesinger, op. ciL, p. 90; Michea, op. 
cit., chap, ii.; Leubuscher, op. cit., p. 47 ; Brieire de Boismont, op. cit., 
p. 577; Allg. Zeit sell)', fiij' Psych. y xlvii. p. 52. 

^ Compare Pick, Neurol. Ceniraibl. (1892), No. ii. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 203 

citation clearly indicated, they can hardly be taken 
to prove the former.^ 

In seeking to explain the disappearance of the 
phenomena on closing the eyes, we must remember 
that no change has taken place either in the general 
state favourable to hallucination or. in the pathological 
stimulus. A continuation of the hallucination is 
therefore to be expected, and, as we shall see, does 
actually occur. But with the closing of the eyes a 
new cerebrostatic condition steps in, for with this act 
the perception of darkness is inevitably associated 
through long experience (in the same way as an 
enfeebled perception of sounds is associated with 
stopping of the ears). Excitation is therefore set 
up in the element-complex which usually acts in 
association with this perception, and from the peri- 
phery at least no contrary stimulus streams in. 
The tension in this complex may, therefore, under 
favourable circumstances, rise to such a height that 
the central excitation streams towards it, instead of 
to the groups usually affected, causes its discharge, 
and so sets up a new, a "negative" hallucination.'^ 

1 Tigges, loc. cii., quotes a case of Schiile's, where in severe con- 
gestion of the left hemisphere right-sided hallucinations disappeared on 
closing the eyes ; further cases of Sepilli, Tomaschewsky, Simono- 
witsch, and others. Compare Hammond, "Unilateral Hallucina- 
tions," Med. News (Phila., 1S85), pp. 6S7 e( seq. 

^ This view is further confirmed by the observations of Urban- 
tschitsch, and also ofWyss, of the Geneva Otological and Larj-ngological 
Institute, who succeeded, by means of hypnotism, in lessening, if not 
altogether abolishing, subjective noises associated with bilateral catarrh 
of the middle ear. Arn. Pieraccini, " Un fenomeno non ancora 
descritto," etc. [Riv. sperini. di fieii-'alria e di vied, leg., xviii. 2), 
concludes that the disappearance of the hallucination was due to 
suggestion in the case he describes. This patient, an imbecile with 
sexual perversions (onanistic), suffered from visual hallucinations, which 



204 HALLUCINATIONS 

As, however, I am convinced that the nature 
of these " negative hallucinations " has been 
generally misunderstood, I propose to devote 
some space to their consideration ; and since it 
is certain peculiarities in the way their content 
is built up which have led to these misconcep- 
tions, this seems the proper place to deal with 
them. 

TJie Negative Phenomena of Rapport. — One of the 
most striking phenomena of the hypnotic state, and 
one which early attracted the attention of observers, 
is what is called rapport. This consists, as is well 
known, in the establishment of a specific relation 
between the hypnotic subject and the hypnotist, or 
agent In its most strongly marked form the subject 
feels only the hypnotist's touch; only the hypnotist 
can move his cataleptic limbs, which remain otherwise 
stiff and inert ; he hears only the hypnotist's voice, 
and obeys only his commands. Do what they will 
the others present cannot get into relation with the 
hypnotised subject. He does not hear them, he does 
not even feel a needle thrust into his arm by one of 
them, nor the electric current if they apply it. In the 
hand of the agent the magnet can make the patient 
pass from one state into another ; in the hand of the 
bystanders it produces no effect whatever.^ The 
person in rapport with the subject will be heard by 
him even when he speaks so low that the bystanders 

disappeared if one of his eyes were closed, no matter ivhich. He was 
also amenable to suggestions given in the waking state. H. Higier, 
op. cit., aptly emphasises the influence of the psychical factor in 
modifying and suppressing the hallucinations. 

^ Krafft-Ebing, Eine Experimentelle Studie aiif dem Gehiet d. 
Hypnolismus^ pp. 29, 35, 37. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 20? 

cannot catch his words.^ On the other hand, the 
subject does not hear the hypnotist unless directly 
addressed by him, but as soon as the latter turns to 
him again the words penetrate to his consciousness, 
are understood and obeyed. This is the most pro-, 
nounced form oi rapport ("isolated" rapport, as it has 
been frequently described by the mesmerists). More 
careful observation, however, has shown that this 
form is the exception rather than the rule, at least in 
cases where leading suggestions are scrupulously 
avoided. Rapport occurs in different persons in 
various degrees, shading off from the "isolated" 
rapport just described on the one hand, through 
countless gradations of " special rapport " to a 
" general rapport" in which the commands of all and 
sundry are understood and obeyed ; and on the other 
hand, from "isolated" or exclusive rapport through 
" passive " hypnosis to sleep without rapport^ in which 
not even the commands or touches of the hypnotist 
penetrate to the subject's consciousness. No definite 
connection has been proved between the degree of 
7'apport and that of suggestibility. 

Now rapport has been frequently connected with 
certain phenomena known as "negative hallucinations," 
which consist in the non-perception of certain objec- 
tive sense-impressions. According to Moll,^ rapport 
may be regarded as a condition " in which the action 
of spontaneous attention is almost wholly in abeyance, 
while, on the other hand, reflex attention is abnor- 

1 F. W. Barrett, Proc. of the S.P.R., vol. i. p. 241. Frankly, the 
case he mentions is not free from objections; even the most elementary 
precautions seem to have been neglected. 

2 Moll, "Der Rapport in der Hypnose," Schriften d. Ges. f. psych. 
Forsch., parts iii. and iv. , p. 227. 



206 HALLUCINATIONS 

mally active. The subject who presents the phe- 
nomenon of true, exclusive rapport is not in a 
condition in which he can turn his attention freely 
to this or that person. It is wholly directed to the 
person who is able by means of some sensory impres- 
sion or other to insinuate himself into the subject's 
consciousness ; " hence the negative phenomena of 
rapport, considered by Moll and others as negative 
hallucinations.! 

There are, as Moll proceeds to point out, certain 
analogous phenomena in the normal state which are 
conditioned solely by the fact that the attention is 
concentrated on a certain point, generally deter- 
mined by individual interest. For instance, in 
any gathering of children where their mothers are 
also present it may be seen that each mother watches 
her own child and hardly remarks the other children 
at all. She hears every word her own child utters, 
but the prattle of the others does not reach her. 
Or, again, in states of excitement and emotional 
exaltation, consciousness becomes even more com- 
pletely possessed by one impression. The angry 
man, absorbed in his wrath, ignores what is going 
on around him, and turns a deaf ear to good advice. 
These, Moll considers, may also be regarded as 
negative hallucinations, and in elucidation of the 
negative hallucinations of hypnosis, he points in 
another place ^ to the success with which jugglers 
execute their card tricks, etc., by diverting the 
attention of the on-lookers. 

Wundt^ also inclines to this view; but whilst admit- 
ting the part played by diversion of attention, he 

^ Ibid., p. 225. 2 Moll, Hypnotism, p. 96. 

^ Wundt, Hypnotisimis ttnd Suggestion, pp. 64-66. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 20/ 

ascribes a large share in the production of negative 
hallucinations to a second factor, " the peculiar nature 
of the visual and auditory impressions in drowsy and 
somnambulic states; " for unless brought into promin- 
ence by special circumstances, such impressions tend 
to be perceived dimly and indistinctly, as though 
from a long way off. " Negative hallucinations," he 
continues, " occur generally as a result of the lowered 
sensibility of the sensorium aided by various positive 
factors, consisting partly in 'supplanting' hallucina- 
tions, partly in the diversion of attention into another 
channel, and partly in the simple automatic response 
to suggestions." 

This explanation appears to me fallacious, at least 
as far as concerns hypnosis, since it postulates an 
independent diminution of excitability in the sen- 
sorium. We are justified in assuming such a general 
diminution of sensibility in the organ as a result of 
intoxication, anaemia, or fatigue ; but in hypnosis, 
which, as Wundt expressly states, " does not originate 
in an exhausted state of the nervous system," there is 
no ground for a like assumption. Besides, Wundt 
himself elsewhere explains as a result of diversion of 
attention this diminished responsiveness to stimuli, 
which he here regards as the chief factor in the 
production of negative hallucinations, and beside 
which he here ascribes to diverted attention only a 
secondary part.^ 

^ Wundt, op. ci(., p. 62. " This diverted attention occurs most often 
when, as is generally the case, the suggestion is given by a particular 
person — i.e., by the hypnotist, who thus from the outset directs the 
sensibility of the subject to himself, to impressions emanating from 
him, and, m accordance with the principle of compensation, lowers in a 
corresponding degree his power of reacting to other stimuli. Thus the 
phenomena of rapport are explained, being, in fact, nothing more or 



208 HALLUCINATIONS 

Thus, in order to explain rapport and its negative 
phenomena, firm fixing of attention must be postu- 
lated — "tonic cramp of attention," as Stanley Hall 
calls it. In other words, rapport 2Jc\A all its symptoms 
may be referred to the different degrees of distinct- 
ness in the perception according as the elements which 
the stimuli encounter are in a state of heightened 
or lowered tension. If the stimuli encounter elements 
in a state of high tension the impressions are per- 
ceived hypersesthetically ; if, on the other hand, the 
elements affected are in a state of lowered excita- 
bility, owing to the diversion of attention and its 
" cramped " fixation on another point, they are 
unable to overstep the threshold of consciousness. 

The varieties of manifestation in rapport which 
Moll has pointed out in his monograph on the 
subject^ are most simply explained as dependent on 
self-suggestion. When a certain action is suggested 
to a group of hypnotised subjects in a manner which 
leaves some scope for individual modifications in 
carrying out the command, all manner of individual 
differences will be displayed. Suppose, for example, 
the hypnotist says, " You are limping with the left 
leg, my poor fellow ; just walk up and down the 
room for a minute and let me see what is wrong." 
The first subject will bend his leg inwards, a second 
will carry out the command with his foot at an 

less than the sum of the symptoms resulting from this attention directed 
to the hypnotist." If in certain hypnotic cases sensation is really 
feebler and less distinct, this is not to be regarded as a circumstance 
conditioning negative rapport phenomena, but as a weaker form of the 
rapport itself, in which the fixation of attention does not indeed cause 
the excitability of the other elements to sink to zero, but lowers it in a 
certain degree. 

^ Moll, Der Rapport, etc., pp. 51-66. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 209 

abnormal angle, a third will develop a stiff knee, a 
fourth will drag a broken leg. Each works out the 
idea independently. In a series of experiments 
instituted for another purpose I regularly introduced 
this experiment, and usually obtained varied repre- 
sentations like those just described. I was the more 
astonished when, on one occasion, among a group of 
village lads, the same type recurred over and over 
again. Only one subject showed a distinct diver- 
gence from the common type. Further inquiry 
revealed the fact that in the village to which all 
these lads belonged there lived a man with a mis- 
shapen foot who limped in the way which all the 
subjects had imitated ; all, that is, with the exception 
of a lad who had broken his leg in childhood, and was 
no doubt reproducing an experience of his own. 

And just as we find individual differences shown 
in these experiences, so we may assume that the 
degree in which the attention is fixed on the 
hypnotist varies with different subjects, and that a 
similar diversity obtains in the manner in which the 
subject carries out his conception of the rapport. 
So far, at least, rapport does not depend on the 
degree of suggestibility, for in certain cases very 
deep hypnosis, with responsiveness to all kinds 
of suggestions, that is to say with " general rapport,' 
occurs without any appearance of rapport pheno- 
mena.^ On the other hand, it must be admitted 
that, ccEteris paribus, in cases of complete exclusive 
rapport the suggestibility must also be greater. 

The negative symptoms associated with rapport 
are also found outside hypnosis in many other states. 

^ Moll, Der Rapport, etc. , p, 58. 

14 



2IO HALLUCINATIONS 

They are manifested, for instance, in the waking state, 
as a result of active or passive inattention. The 
scholar whose mind is preoccupied by some abstruse 
train of thought does not notice the heavy rain, and 
comes home, drenched to the skin, with his umbrella 
tucked under his arm. The pickpocket avails him- 
self of a similar state of absorption to steal the 
purse of the shop -gazing lady, no matter how well 
guarded her pocket. The chess-player, pondering 
his next move, does not hear when he is called, and 
the child playing in the street is deaf to the driver's 
warning shout and to the sound of the wheels that in 
a moment will pass over him. By means of a timely 
joke or calculated gesture the conjurer succeeds in 
diverting our attention from his sleight of hand. 
The pickpocket's accomplice hustles us with the 
same object. A friend once drew me into a dis- 
cussion in the railway station which proved so 
absorbing that I failed to hear the shouting and bell- 
ringing which announced the departure of my train.^ 
The obliviousness which causes a man to hunt all 
over the room for a book which he is holding 
under his arm forms a sort of connecting link 
with another class of negative phenomena parallel 
with the negative phenomena of rapport^ to wit, 
those states of emotion and excitement in which 
sensory stimuli often fail to reach the conscious- 
ness. I have already quoted one case of the kind 
from Moll; and such expressions as "blind passion," 
"blind zeal," are proverbial. Animial life also 
furnishes us with illustrations. Dogs in the fury 
of fight do not hear their master's call, and are 

■^ Compare Rells, Psychol, Skhzen. , p. 97. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 211 

Indifferent to the blows with which the bystanders 
seek to separate them. It is useless to whistle to 
the greyhound when he has scented a hare. He is 
not so much disobedient as deaf. The black cock 
in the breeding season falls an easy prey to the 
sportsman, and many a poor hare, blind and deaf 
with terror in the battue, runs right up to the 
guns. Ecstasy, where analgesia and anaesthesia are 
generally associated with pleasant hallucinations, 
offers further examples, and also melancholia attonita, 
which may be regarded as its emotional antithesis, 
seeing that it exhibits the same symptoms in con- 
nection with profound mental depression. Both in 
ecstasy and melancholia the analgesia may be so 
great that severe burns and other injuries do not 
reach the consciousness. ^ A melancholic, for in- 
stance, will dig his nails into his forehead or tear 
his fingers till they bleed, without feeling pain. 

But I need not further multiply instances. They all 
possess the same character — that is to say, they are 
spontaneously occurring non-perceptions of sensory 
impressions. We may explain them as a result of 
heightened tension of the brain elements in one place, 
and the consequent lowering of excitability in other 
regions. Consciousness is restricted, and sensory 
impressions which are not related to the special 
point upon which attention is riveted remain dis- 
sociated. 

Such is the line of argument adopted by those who 
relate negative hallucinations with rapport, and regard 
the latter as the sum of the former, and the former as 
a symptom of the latter. So far as concerns the 

^ See Radestodc, op. cit.^ p. 231 ; Savage, op. cit.^ p. 187. 



212 HALLUCINATIONS 

negative phenomena we have just been considering, 
and some others which we shall presently cite, there 
is nothing of weight to be urged against this view. 
It seems to me, however, that it is incorrect to regard 
them as negative hallucinations. When we examine 
the examples brought forward and seek for their 
true explanation, we are inevitably forced to con- 
clude that the processes concerned in them have 
absolutely no connection with hallucination. Even 
Wundt^ says: "Assuredly we are not justified in 
regarding these phenomena, as they are so often 
regarded, and as the name implies, as processes 
which are related to hallucinations.'' Very true, for 
we should then have to regard the raising of the 
liminal level of consciousness, however brought about, 
even if due to the lowered susceptibility of the 
sensorium in sleep, as a negative hallucination 
process. Nay, if we pushed this view to its logical 
conclusion, we should have to consider as a negative 
hallucination the non-perception of sensory impres- 
sions resulting from a blow on the head with a 
bludgeon. 

The mistake lies in supposing that the negative 
phenomena of rapport^ which we have just been 
considering, and true negative hallucinations, which, 
as we shall proceed to show, are something quite 
different, involve the same processes, merely because 
they produce practically the same subjective results 
— viz., the non-perception of sensory impressions. 

I have spoken hitherto only of the negative phe- 
nomena which occur spontaneously in hypnosis as a 
feature of rapport. There are others, however, due to 

^ Wundt, op. cii,, pp. 6^-66. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 213 

direct suggestion, and, again, others which accompany 
positive hallucinations. These last may perhaps be 
explained in the manner already described. It is 
at least a tenable assumption when a positive hal- 
lucination is associated with a negative one, when the 
object "covered" by the hallucinatory image is not 
seen, that owing to the fixation of attention on the 
positive sensory deception, all objective sensory 
excitations necessarily remain below the threshold of 
consciousness. To quote a case: suppose the sugges- 
tion is given that there is a green folding screen in 
the middle of the room, where in reality there is 
nothing, and that it is then found that the part of the 
wall hidden by the imaginary screen, the engravings 
hanging on it, the persons passing between it and the 
screen, and so forth, are no longer seen, whilst all other 
persons and objects in the room are perceived as long 
as they do not trench on the section of the visual 
field covered by the screen. In this case the non- 
perception may be explained quite simply as a 
diversion of attention, which is to say that in 
obedience, possibly even unconscious obedience, to a 
certain sign, which may be a visual impression or the 
muscular sensation accompanying a particular move- 
ment of the head and eyes, the subject's gaze is concen- 
trated on the place occupied by the imaginary screen, 
this being recognised by certain /^//^/j- de 7'epere. 

True Negative Hallucinations. — But this theory 
falls to the ground when we seek to explain by 
it the process which takes place when an object 
simply disappears. Suppose I show A., who is 
hypnotised, a wine-glass which is standing on the 
table before him, and tell him that it will vanish 
on a certain signal being given. / do not divert Ms 



214 HALLUCINATIONS 

attention from the glass ; on the contrary, I direct his 
attention to it, and in still higher degree, since he is 
hypnotised, than if I gave him the assurance in the 
waking state. In any case it would be very far 
fetched to suppose that A., on being told that the 
glass would disappear when I made a clicking sound 
with my nails, should understand and develop the 
suggestion in the sense that on the signal being given 
he was to notice everything else in the room, but not 
to notice the glass. The idea actually called forth by 
my words would be " the disappearance of this glass^ 

The brain process which accompanies the idea of 
the invisibility of the glass depends in each individual, 
and in each separate experiment, on the activity of 
ever-varying elements, some of which are excited by 
momentary sensory stimuli from the surroundings of 
the glass, whilst others become active through associ- 
ation, according to the past experience and mental 
habits of the subject. Since the co-operation of these 
latter factors has been rendered possible only by the 
action of positive influences, it may be said, though 
the expression is no doubt more popular than 
psychologically correct, that such a " negative " image 
is constituted from the combination of a number of 
" positive " images. The wide scope which the 
suggestion of a negative, hallucination leaves for 
individual development places it in the same cate- 
gory with the suggestions which are couched in 
vague terms, and given without details (as in the 
cases of suggested lameness quoted above). A nega- 
tive suggestion is, in fact, nothing but an extremely 
vague positive suggestion clothed in negative form. 
The suggestion, " This glass is no longer visible," is 
just as much a command to see something else as the 



AND ILLUSIONS. 21 5 

suggestion, " You cannot walk properly," is an invi- 
tation to represent some kind of lameness. As with 
any other vague suggestion, each subject will interpret 
the suggested negative hallucination in a character- 
istic manner. In one case the bare surface of the 
table, in another the uninterrupted pattern of the 
wall-paper; in a third, perhaps a curdling mist 
occupying the place of the glass supplies the chief 
feature of the negative hallucination — " the non- 
perception of this glass." In many subjects, how- 
ever, the response to the command does not take 
the form of. a hallucination at all, but of a conviction 
that they have been forbidden to look at the glass. 
I observed lately in a series of cases that upon the 
command, " You are not to see X.," the hypnotised 
subjects looked away from the person indicated. If 
told to look about them they obeyed, but always 
avoided looking point-blank at X., and would glance 
up or down whenever his figure was about to come 
into the field of vision.^ A state which Bernheim has 
proposed to call "psychic blindness"^ occurs in re- 
sponse to the vague suggestion " not to see," and is 
expressed in the most various ways, now by the hallu- 
cination of a curdling grey mist, and again perhaps by 
the reproduction of the effect caused by shutting the 
eyes or entering a dark room, and so on (see, above, the 
explanation of the disappearance of visual phantoms 
on closing the eyes, an act which suggests the dis- 
appearance of visual images). It is therefore clear 

' Only on a superficial view can such cases be attributed to oversight 
through inattention. Careful observation soon shows in the majority of 
cases that there is a positive, energetic averting of the gaze from X., or 
an anxious endeavour not to catch sight of him. 

^ (Not soul-blindness), Bernheim, De la Suggestion^ etc. 



2l6 HALLUCINATIONS 

that there is a fundamental distinction between the 
content of consciousness in a subject rendered 
"psychically blind " by a negative suggestion, and in 
one whose consciousness is diverted into a particular 
channel, who absorbed in an auditory hallucination, 
for instance, becomes insensible to impressions of 
light. In the latter case visual sensation forms 
no part of consciousness, but In the former a 
visual sensation, subjective, of course, and differing 
in different individuals, is included in the content of 
consciousness. " Psychic blindness," says Bernheim,^ 
whose term is here more correct than his theory, " is 
the blindness which comes through imagination. It 
is due to the destruction of the imao;e through 
psychical activity," and not, be it added, through 
diversion of psychical activity. 

It might of course be objected that the negative 
character of the hallucination is the mere result 
of the restriction of consciousness to the positive 
phenomena w^hich accompany it, that in the last 
resort non-perception itself is only the diversion of 
attention. Such would seem to be Wundt's^ view, 
since he says — 

" I think we must here assume that the idea that tactile sensa- 
tions will no longer be experienced has the effect of a positive 
diversion of the consciousness to other sensory impressions, if 
only to the acoustic images corresponding to the words, 'Your 
skin is no longer sensitive.' I find approximations to this in 
the normal state. There is a well-known psychical device for 
lessening the pain of an operation, the extraction of a tooth, for 
example, which consists either in fixing one's attention on some 
other object, or in holding firmly to the thought, ' I feel no pain.' 
In my opinion the process is in these two cases one and the 
same." 

■^ Bernheim, ibid. ^ Wundt, oJ>. ciL, p. 65. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 21/ 

In reality, however, this view is founded on a 
misconception. Of course it is possible by fixing 
the attention on one subject to drive all other 
impressions out of the mind. But the true negative 
hallucinations which we have just described cannot 
be thus explained; for the positive hallucination is 
itself the hallucinatory non-perception of the external 
object, aitd is in nowise to be regarded as something 
different from the negative hallucinationy as sometJiing 
accompanying it. The perception of a dark, formless 
mist, for instance, in the place of the glass, is for that 
particular subject the "non-perception," the "blind- 
ness." If a hypnotised subject is taken to a cross-road 
and there told not to go on, the negative idea of 
motion instilled into him will, it is true, be realised 
for the bystanders in a positive action ; but the 
standing still of A., B.'s turning to the right, C.'s 
wheeling to the left, D.'s marking time, and E.'s 
walking backwards, are not merely something which 
accompanies "the not going on," but are in fact "the 
not going on" itself For the same reason it is 
incorrect to speak of a positive sensory delusion as 
" combined " or " associated with " a negative one, 
though the expression is often used, and I have 
myself employed it before my own view had been 
fully developed. When the delusion that he is in 
a dungeon is suggested to a hypnotic subject, and 
all his sense-impressions are coloured by it, so that 
the papered wall of the room becomes for him a 
damp dungeon wall, then the perception "dungeon 
wall" is identical with the non-perception of the 
wall-paper; or, to turn to our former illustration, 
the perception of a green screen in a certain place, 
localised by cutaneous sensibility, eye accommoda- 



2l8 HALLUCINATIONS 

tion, etc., is one and the same with the non-perception 
of the persons passing behind it.^ 

Moll raises another objection. He points ^ to those 
negative hallucinations which vanish the moment the 
attention is drawn to the invisible object. 

" We can see clearly in such cases that the negative hallu- 
cination is caused by the diversion of the attention from the 
object, and that the direction of the attention to it is a counter- 
suggestion. I say to a subject, ' When you wake, X. will have 
gone away.' When he wakes, and is asked how many people 
are present, he says 'Two; you and L' I then point out X., 
and tell the subject to look at him. Thereupon he sees X., and 
the suggestion has lost its effect." 

In my opinion Moll himself gives the right explana- 
tion of the phenomenon in the words, " the direction of 
the attention is a counter-suggestion," At least I have 
never seen a case where X. became visible if every sug- 
gestion which might arouse the idea of seeing him again 
was carefully excluded. I invariably succeeded in 
turning the subject's attention to the place where X. 
stood without destroying the negative hallucination. 

We are therefore led to conclude from all these 

^ By demonstrating the impossibility of separating the positive and 
negative sides of a hallucination, the theory here briefly indicated 
disposes of Moll's contention that no valid objection can be urged 
against his view of the part played in negative hallucinations by 
diversion of attention. Of course non-perception through oversight 
may be induced by skilful suggestion, or by auto suggestive develop- 
ment of a command, for instance, if the subject concentrates his entire 
attention on the search for the vanished object; but this would be, 
like the efforts not to see X. in the case given above, only an individual 
interpretation of a vaguely expressed suggestion, which had not pro- 
duced a hallucination but an overmastering inclination, and the acting 
out of that inclination. If, however, a hallucination is produced, then, 
as we have stated above, diversion of attention can no longer be con- 
sidered as a specific element to which a part can be assigned or denied. 

^ Moll, Hypnotism (fourth English edition), p. 255. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 2ig 

considerations that negative hallucinations, in contra- 
distinction to the negative phenomena of rapport, 
which have a dissociative character, are conditioned 
by cerebrostatic enforced association — that is to say, 
that they are true hallucinations in every sense, and 
the only negative thing about them is the verbal form 
of the suggestion. 

Experiment confirms this conclusion. The anoma- 
lous results obtained in certain cases are not to be 
explained by diversion of attention, but force us to 
assume that the effect of the suggestion is to associate 
with a particular sensory impression the activity of 
certain element-groups which correspond to the idea 
of the non-perception of a certain object. W. James^ 
states that when the subject had been made blind to 
a certain pencil line by suggestion he would sometimes 
regain his sight of it when it was combined with 
other lines into a figure, a face, or some such object. 
The following case of my own forms a good counter- 
part to the experiment in which the coins taken out 
of an "invisible" purse^ proved also invisible to the 
subject, and serves to show how these anomalies of 
suggestion may be elucidated from the present 
standpoint. 

S— — , a village lad aged eighteen, was hypnotised by the 
Nancy method. His capacity for negative hallucinations was 
soon established, for upon suggestion several persons became 
invisible to him both during and after the hypnotic trance, even 
though their efforts to attract his attention were not of the 
mildest description, and although ordinarily these very indi- 
viduals possessed great authority over him. A Swedish match 

with a brown head was then shown to S , the white end 

having first been charred a little on one side. It was then 

•^ W. James, Princ, of Psych., ii. p. 608. 

^ Binet and Fere, Animal Magnelis/u, p. 308. 



220 HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. 

suggested that the match was lost, that he could not see It, and 
so on. The experiment proceeded in the usual way, with the 

result that S remained blind to the match when the point 

de repere was visible to him, but saw the match when the point 
de repere was hidden. 

In the middle of this experiment two matches were shown to 

S in such a way that he could only see the brown heads 

and a part of the white wood. According to the rule he should 
have seen two matches, but to the usual question, " How many 
matches do I now hold.?" he replied, " None." 

This experiment, as well as some others which 
followed it and yielded similar results (unfortunately 
symptoms of '' training " soon appeared in the case of 
S ), seems to contradict the rule. This contra- 
diction disappears, however, if we assume that S 

mistook the heads of the matches, that is to say, 
the brownish-black visual impression emanating from 
them, for the brownish-black /{?/;// de repere. But the 
most interesting thing is that he transferred the 
non-perception of one match to several, indifferently, 
whether one, two, or six matches were presented to 
him. It is noteworthy also that on the first occasion 
of the transference of the negative impression from 
one match to several the answer to the question was 
noticeably long in coming, a circumstance which 
manifestly depends on the fact that the non-perception 
in this case did not, as in the preceding instances, 
take place automatically, but was constructive in 
character.^ 

^ W. James, op. cit., ii. p. 607, gives another curious case where 
the person whom the subject was not to see still remained visible, but 
appeared as a stranger. It should be noted that just as the spon- 
taneous negative phenomena of rapport have been mistakenly classed 
with negative hallucinations, so the spontaneous amnesia of somnam* 
bulism has been confused with amnesia induced by suggestion. In 
reality the same kind of difference exists in both cases. 



CHAPTER VIL 

THE INITIATION OF FALLACIOUS PERCEPTION. 

The P7-oblem : How are Reflex HalluciJiaHons to be accoimted 
for? — (i) Syjicesthesia^ (2) Hallucinatio7is of Me??iory, as 
possible explanatio?is — Atithor^s attempt to explain them 
by distiiigidshing betwee7t the preparatory and the starting 
Factor — A New Co7tception of the Point de Repere. 

The Problem. — The dependence of hallucinations 
on sensory stimuli has been more or less indicated by- 
previous writers, especially in treating of dreams. 
But they have for the most part contented them- 
selves with referring the perception to some definite 
stimulus, and explaining the particular form of the 
dream by individual reaction. Consequently no 
serious attempt has been made to elucidate the 
problem with which I now propose to deal. How 
comes it, we must ask, that sensory stimulation of 
one sense may produce a hallucinatory response in 
another, that, for instance, the temperature sensation 
experienced by a sleeper when the bed-clothes slip 
off may give rise to a visual hallucination of icebergs 
and polar bears; or again, that a verbal suggestion 
given to a hypnotic subject may induce the tem- 
perature hallucination of touching red-hot iron ? 

Syncesthesia. — In the first place, we might answer 



222 HALLUCINATIONS 

this question by assuming that the effect of a stimuhis 
on one sense may, under certain conditions, penetrate 
into other sensory regions, reaching by some means 
or other beyond the elements first affected, and 
arousing aHen element-groups in a second sense. 

This view has received some experimental support, 
and has been adopted, among others, by Jolly on the 
strength of his own observations. Thus he found in 
one case that electrical stimulation of the fifth nerve 
produced not only subjective sounds, but full-fledged 
auditory hallucinations, which did not correspond to 
the opening and closing of the current, but appeared 
under all conditions in which pain was produced.^ 
Chvosteck,^ however, opposes this conclusion, and 
thinks the flow through the trigeminus less probable 
than that the auditory nerve was directly affected by 
the strength of the current. For though he obtained 
like results in a similar series of experiments, these 
only occurred under galvanism; other excitations — 
pricking, pinching, etc. — failed to produce any audi- 
tory sensations whatsoever.^ Again, Higier, op. cit., 
quotes a case of Hutchinson's where a totally blind 
patient experienced visual hallucinations as a result 
of irritation of the cornea due to inflammation. He 
also cites two cases of Fere's where visual hallucina- 
tions occurred, in the one case in association with 
neuralgia of the optic nerve, and in the other with 
neuralgia of the trigeminus. These cases, he thinks, 

^ Jolly, Arch. f. Psych., iv. 

^ Chvosteck, ya/^r(i?. y. Psych., xi. 3. 

^ Binet's experiments are also interesting, " Recherches sur les Altera- 
tions de la Conscience chez les Hysteriques," Rev. Phil., xxvii. p. 165. 
Ilemianaesthetic hysterics were secretly pricked with a needle on their 
insensitive region. The prick was not felt, but the subject saw at the 
same moment a light or dark spot. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 223 

must be explained in the way indicated. It seems to 
me, however, that the explanation of the last two 
cases suggested on page 175, Note i, covers the 
facts more easily and satisfactorily. So much as to 
the experimental evidence, which, it must be owned, 
is of a somewhat ambiguous character. It is, how- 
ever, upon the phenomenon of synaesthesia, to which 
much attention has recently been directed, that this 
theory chiefly depends for support. 

Synaesthesia, that is to say constant involuntary 
association of a certain image or (subjective) sensory 
impression with an actual sensation belonging to 
another sense, is observed in a variety of forms. 
Thus a particular taste may call up the image or 
sensation of a particular colour (taste-photism, taste- 
chromatism). There are also chromatisms of smell, 
temperature, muscular resistance, etc.; or again, the 
sight of a particular colour may be associated with 
the "subjective" perception of each definite musical 
sound or "clang" (light-phonism). The most con- 
spicuous member of the whole group of synsesthesiae 
is audition coloree^ or sound-seeing — that is to say, 
the peremptory association of a definite " subjective " 
colour sensation with the hearing of an actual sound. 
I therefore propose to consider it in some detail. 

The special colour sensations associated with par- 
ticular " clangs " always remain constant in the same 
individual, but the relation is purely individual and 
not referable to any general law. That is to say that 
whilst one person on hearing the vowel a always sees 
white, for another the colour invariably associated 
with this vowel may be light blue. O is often asso- 
ciated with black ; indeed, deep tones and vowel- 
sounds seem generally to be associated with dark. 



224 HALLUCINATIONS 

and sharp, high-sounding vowels with the Hghter 
colour sensations. The kind of sound which pro- 
duces these colour sensations also varies in different 
individuals. In one case they may be related to 
the vowel-sounds, in another to the timbre of the 
speaker's voice. In some cases the tones of various 
musical instruments are associated with definite 
colour sensations. The degree of externality with 
which the chromatisms appear also varies very 
much ; they may consist in the mere spontaneous 
mental association of a certain colour with a cer- 
tain sound, or they may occur as fully-developed 
objective sensations. I select the following interest- 
ing case from the account of his experiments given 
by Professor Gruber, of Jassy, at the London Inter- 
national Congress of Experimental Psychology. The 
subject was a Roumanian friend of Professor Gruber's, 
whom he describes as a man of exceptional endow- 
ments — a gifted scholar, antiquarian, etc. — with a 
mind peculiarly well qualified for the task of self- 
observation.i 

"Whilst I repeated the vowels slowly and distinctly my 
subject assumed an attitude of expectant atte7itio?i, and 
pictured them to himself in his own handwriting as I uttered 
them — a, bright white ; e, bright yellow ; /, bright blue ; <?, 
deep black ; z/, faded black ', and the two other vowel- 
sounds peculiar to the Roumanian language, a and z, brown 
and blackish-grey respectively. The same with the con- 
sonants, but on hearing these he perceived two colours, one 
belonging to the consonant itself and the other to the vowel 
which occurs In its name. For instance, on hearing F [e/] he 
saw the letter written in scarlet with a narrow band of orange 
colour on the left side . . . the orange colour was formed by 

•^ Intetnat. Congress of Experimental Psychology^ Second Session, 
London, 1892, pp. 10 et seq. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 225 

the blending of the bright yellow of the e with the scarlet of 
the /. If I reversed the pronunciation of the letter and called 
it ' fe,' then the orange-coloured streak appeared on the right 
side. I found it possible to isolate the special colour of the 
consonants. To accomplish this it was necessary that the 
subject should not hear the name-sound of the consonant, but 
should try to picture the written letter vividly and at the same 
time to suppress its sound-image. 

"The diphthongs, triphthongs, syllables, and substantives— 
that is to say, the ''phonetic chromatis7ns^ of spoken language — 
appeared as horizontal bands of colour consisting of vertical stripes. 
These stripes, or '■ amplitudes^ corresponded to the sound of the 
words. The diphthongs, of which the Roumanian language 
possesses twenty-three, exhibited very remarkable character- 
istics. We found that the bands corresponding to these 
diphthongs were all of the same length (70 millimetres), and 
also of the same height (35 mm.). Thus the form of the 
chromatism corresponding to a diphthong was proved to be 
that of a rectangle formed by two squares of 35 mm. placed 
side by side. (I shall explain immediately how we obtained 
these measurements.) The length of the stripes, or 'amplitudes,' 
on the other hand, was not the same for all diphthongs. 
According to the variations of the amplitudes we were able 
to distinguish five classes, and these classes corresponded to 
the five natural philological classes of diphthongs in the 
Roumanian language.^ I succeeded by objective measure- 
ments in establishing the following law in the case of this 
subject : while the le7tgth of the ainplittides varies according 
to the class to which the diphtho?tg belongs^ their sum remains 
constant. 

" The chromatisms which we found to correspond to numbers 
were not rectangles, but circles and ellipses. But first let me 
describe the objective method I employed to measure the 
various chromatisms. Let us take the example with which 
we started. The number dot (two) is for my subject a chroma- 

^ Ebers states that Lepsius, the Egyptologist, used his chromatisms 
as a guide in his philological inquiries, and Galton {Inqinries into 
Hiitnan Faculty) gives the case of a lady who found the colours 
associated with the letters a great help to her in spelling certain 
words. 

15 



226 HALLUCINATIONS 

tism of a pure bright yellow, deeper towards the middle, some- 
what fainter towards the edge, but clearly defined by a circular 
outline. My subject has the power of externalising his chroma- 
tisms ; he projects them, for instance, upon the opposite wall, 
at no matter what distance. I chose for our experiments a 
distance of three metres, which is that at which his vision is 
most distinct. I then cut out a disc of white paper, which I 
supposed to be about the same size as his chromatism of the 
number dot, and surrounded it with bright red. The subject 
then projected his chromatism into the white disc, but the 
disc proved to be smaller than his chromatism, for he saw a 
circle of orange caused by the superposition of its subjective 
yellow on the objective scarlet. I enlarged the disc. This 
time he saw a white ring between the objective scarlet and the 
subjective yellow. The paper disc was now too large, so we 
continued experimenting till we got the edges of the chroma- 
tism to touch precisely the edges of the white disc. We were 
thus able to judge of the shape of the chromatisms, and 
could measure them to a millimetre. ... In a long series of 
experiments we determined, by this empirical method, the exact 
size and form of all the chromatisms of numbers and diphthongs. 
No matter how often we repeated the experiments, the results 
were always the same. If the experiments with the diphthongs 
had yielded remarkable results, in the case of the numbers a 
still greater surprise was in store for us. 

"As before, we took two dimensions, height and length, or 
vertical and horizontal diameter, but in this case we found that 
the vertical diameter depended on the number of syllables in 
the name. For instance, the monosyllable dot had a vertical 
diameter of 21 mm., equal to the horizontal diameter, but the 
dissyllable patru (four) a vertical diameter of 22 mm., while its 
horizontal diameter remained at 21; and pat7-u-zeci qi ^atru 
(forty-four) had a vertical diameter of 26 mm. Thus we found 
that with every added syllable the vertical diameter increased 
by a millimetre. Innumerable control-experiments of every 
sort yielded the same result. The horizontal diameter, on the 
other hand, corresponded to the class to which the number 
belonged — that is to say, to the units, tens, or hundreds, etc., 
and remained the same for all the numbers of the same class. 
For example, 100 and 999 exhibited the same horizontal 



Units 


21 mm. 


Thousands . 


Tens 


23 „ 


Tens of thousands 


Hundreds 


26 „ 


Hundreds of thousands 



AND ILLUSIONS. 22/ 

diameter. The following is a table of the horizontal diameters 
of the chromatisms : — 

30 mm. 

35 55 

41 ,, etc. 

" In comparing these numbers, which we had obtained quite 
empirically, we found that they followed a very simple rule. 
Tke differejtce in the horizontal diameters betweeii class and 
class corresponded to the series of the natural numbers^ thus : — 

Diameters: 21 23 26 30 35 41 48 56 65 75 
Differences: 23456789 10 

" But what astonished us most of all was the fact that both the 
'phonetic' element (which grew vertically) and the arithme- 
tical or psychical element (which grew horizontally) increased 
by the same unit, a millimetre." 

These observations, which of course only hold 
good of this particular subject, in that they indicate 
highly complex subconscious processes capable of 
achieving results impossible to the normal conscious- 
ness, testify at least to the genuineness of the pheno- 
mena.^ 

The question now to be considered is whether in 
such a case we have to deal with real double-sensa- 
tions, or only with phenomena of association. Even 
Myers ^ considers it more probable that slight cases 

^ It is of course difficult to say how far such a scheme may or may 
not depend on unconscious and unintentional suggestion on the part of 
the observers acting on the neuropathic constitution of the subject. 
(See Congres ijiiemat. de Psychologic physiologiqiie, Paris, p. 96. ) Com- 
pare the case in Ziehen's Psychiatrie, p. 19. where the phenomenon is 
apparently due to an association of addition. For instance, the per- 
cipient saw the sum of two numbers, for which his respective chroma- 
tisms were red and yellow, as orange coloured. The results, however, 
of other observations with the same patient, which have been kindly 
furnished to me, do not support this view. 

^Proceed, of the S.P.P., 1892, p. 457; Dessoir, A nh. /. Physiol. 
tind Anat.^ 1 892. 



228 HALLUCINATIONS 

are to be ascribed to association, due for the most 
part to infantile experience working upon an Innate 
predisposition. But in cases where the phenomena 
are found in fuller development he considers that 
there is real synaesthesia, an actual Irradiation of 
sensitivity into the sphere of a second sense, and he 
points, in support of his view, to the many forms in 
which these reflexes have been found to occur,i and the 
abnormal precision and Inevitableness with which they 
act, and, further, to the ascertained fact that only a 
very small percentage of persons can remember 
when their " photisms " or " chromatlsms " began.^ 
S. Epstein ^ draws a distinction between cortical 
phenomena and phenomena which, according to him, 
originate somewhat In the following manner : — • 

Only a small proportion of the bundle of nerve fibres which 
carry sound sensations reach the cortex ; the greater number 
branch off sooner, forming a regular network of axis-cylinder 
prolongations, which extend into the anterior corpora quadri- 
gemina and there terminate. These axis-cylinder prolonga- 
tions are connected first with the trochlear, oculomotor, and 
abducens nerves ; secondly, with the fibres of the optic nerve 
proceeding from the superior part of the corp. quad. In 
accordance with these anatomical indications a small part 
only of the excitation started by the acoustic stimulus would 
be directed to the cortex, while the rest reaching the corp. 
quad, would exert a reflex centrifugal action through the fibres 
of the optic nerve on the retina. 

^ A case is described in the Reznie de f Ilyp}20lhjue, December 1892, 
p. 185, where a man who had long exhibited audition coIo) ee 
developed gustation coloree in addition, when in a low slate of health. 

' It appears from Prof. Flournoy's Enqiiete stir Vaiidition coloree 
that among 213 persons presenting synaesthesia only 48 could assign a 
date to the origin of these associations. 

^ A lecture delivered before the third International Congress of 
Physiology at Berne, 1895. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 22Q 

The question whether the phenomena are to be 
regarded as pathological or physiological has been vari- 
ously answered. The pathological view is advanced by 
Neiglick and Steinbriigge, Fere postulates a " tonalite 
particuliere de Torganisme,"^ while Perroud, Chaba- 
lier, and Urbantschitsch consider the phenomena as 
physiological. Urbantschitsch founds his view on 
the results of his ow^n experiments. He succeeded 
through excitations of the senses of smell and taste 
in arousing reflex sensations in other senses in the 
great majority of his subjects,^ but observed that 
notwithstanding the frequency with which they were 
manifested, a combination of favourable circumstances 
was, as a rule, required to evoke them. Consequently 
he considers that the remarkable thing about these 
synsesthesiae is not their mere occurrence, but the 
great vividness which they assume in some cases, 
and the fixed character of the associations. In any 
case, it seems probable that heredity plays a part, 
since whole families are occasionally found to 
possess this faculty, though the nature of the asso- 
ciated sensations differs in different members. 

Too little is yet known of the subject, however, to 
justify us in explaining hallucinations as "synaes- 
thesis"; pending further inquiry, we must rather 
regard synsesthesiae as hallucinations whose regular 
recurrence and fixed character point to an automatic 
association acquired very early in life.^ 

^ Compare also the remarks in the report of the Cougres International 
de Psychol. Physiol., Paris, 1890, pp. 94-96. 

^ From the results of Fechner's inquiry it would appear that about a 
fourth of the persons answering are subject to synaesthesia. 

'^ For literature see Nussbaumer, " Ueber subjective Farbenemp- 
findungen, die durch objective Gehorsempfindungen erzeugt werden," 
Wien. vied. Wochenschr., xxiii. (1873), P- 123; Bleuler und Lehmann, 



230 HALLUCINATIONS 

Hallucination of Memory as a possible Explanation. — 
Again, we might answer the question in another way, 
by assuming that no halkicination in a second sense 
really takes place at all; that in the case we have 
used to illustrate this point there may have been no 
actual visual hallucination of polar bears and ice- 
bergs, but only an extremely complex perception of 
the stimulation of the temperature sense caused by 
the slipping off of the bed-clothes. Thus the cold 
would be perceived as "the cold felt on seeing polar 
bears and icebergs," and the complex would be split 
up in the memory into parts separated in time. The 
possibility of such an explanation has already been 



Z'tvangsmassige Lichtenipjindung dw'ch Schall u. verivaitdte Erschein- 
tcngen, etc. {1881) ; J. Stinde, Farbige Tone und tbnende Farbeii 
(1885); SteinbrUgge, Ueber secunddre Sinnesempjindungeii (1887); 
Urbantschitsch, Arch. f. Physiol.^ xlii. (1888), p. 154; Krohn, 
" Pseudo-chromaesthesy," Am. Jotirn. of Psychology, v.; Binet, 
" L'audition coloree," Rev. d. Deitx Mondes (i Oct. 1892); F. 
Suarez de Mendoza, Vaiidiiion coloree (1892), Such a case as 
the following, described by Arndt, cannot be classed here: — "A 
patient suffering from hernia experienced auditory hallucinations 
which he believed to be independent and primary. But observation 
showed that they varied with the disease, becoming more violent as it 
become acute, and ceasing altogether when Herr A. succeeded in 
reducing the rupture permanently." Hoppe explains this correctly 
as a reflex psychosis with hallucinations, not as direct reflex 
hallucinations. Nor can the following case, reported by F. de 
Rause, Gaz. d. Paris (187 1), 33, be classed as such. In a gun- 
shot wound in the lungs the ball had entered just below the spina 
scapulae and come out in the first intercostal space. Every time 
that lactic acid diluted with water was injected into the anterior 
wound gustatory sensations were experienced. The patient could 
recognise the taste of the liquids injected — of tea, for instance— and 
could even tell whether the mixture was strong or weak. When 
the liquid was injected into the posterior wound the experiment did 
not succeed. Chassinat, Gaz. d, Paris (187 1), 35, reports a similar 
case. 



AND ILLUSIONS. ^31 

indicated above, but it would be no easy matter to 
find unequivocal proofs of its general applicability. 
Moreover, the difficulties admit of another explana- 
tion. 

A Third Hypothesis, — This third hypothesis allows 
us to suppose that a visual hallucination indeed takes 
place, but that the temperature stimulus is not to 
be regarded as the starting factor. The change 
of temperature co-operates with many other circum- 
stances to bring about the required state of heightened 
tension in a particular element complex, and thus 
directs to it the irradiation of processes initiated 
otherwise by stimulation of the visual sense. It only 
prepares the w^ay for the hallucination, it exerts only 
a suggestive influence on its content. To use a 
metaphor, it lifts the lid from a powder-cask, so that 
a falling spark explodes this particular cask and not 
one of the others which remain closed. 

But the initiation of the hallucination by a visual 
stimulus is not to be conceived of in Binet's sense, 
that is if I rightly understand him. From the results 
of his experiments in co-operation with Fere — e.g.^ 
from the doubling of the imaginary object by the 
prism, and its reflection in a mirror — Binet was led 
to conclude that the hallucination is always attached 
to a certain sensation derived from a real external 
source.^ He maintains that a sensory nucleus for the 
hallucination is in each case furnished by some special 
object {point de I'epere), which becomes completely 
overgrown and obscured by the hallucinatory super- 

1 Moll, Hypnotism, p. 104, mentions the similar results obtained by 
Jendrassik : " If a (^ is drawn with the finger on a sheet of white paper, 
and it is suggested that the d is real, the subject sees the d. If the 
paper is turned upside down he sees/, and in the looking-glass ^." 



232 - HALLUCINATIONS 

structure ; some minute black speck, for instance, 
upon a card may, according to him, furnish the point 
de repere for a hallucinatory picture projected upon 
it, and when the object to which the hallucination 
is attached is doubled by a prism, enlarged by a 
magnifying-glass, or reflected in a mirror, the sensory 
stimuli proceeding from it become the nucleus of a 
hallucination, which is in like manner doubled, en- 
larged, or reflected. 

But it has been proved by other observers that 
hallucinations do not always follow optical laws.i 
Further, we may ask, with Gurney,^ how the hal- 
lucination can be explained when it appears in free 
space where no special points of external excitation 
can possibly be connected with it; for instance, if the 
phantasm of a woman's form appears immediately in 
front of me, and my eyes are firmly riveted to it, that 
is to say, are focussed on a point in clear space where 
there is nothing objective to be seen ? A mark on the 
wall of the room some distance behind the figure can 
hardly be supposed to form the nucleus of the hal- 
lucination in this case, since to see the wall would 
require a very different adjustment of the eyes. 
Besides, how is it in any case conceivable that a 
point of external excitation situated in one place 
could act as the point de repere of a hallucination ap- 
pearing elsewhere? New difficulties arise when we 
seek to explain phantasms appearing in the dark, and 

1 Compare James, Principles of Psychol., n. p. 130. Beinheim, De 
la Suggestion, etc., pp. 101-105, seems to me to have firmly established 
the suggestive origin of the whole series of phenomena. The real 
nature of \.he poijii de reph-e is well brought out in Dixey's experiments, 
and also in those of Mrs. Sidgwick (Report, pp. loS, 109). 

^ Gurney, op. cit. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 233 

still more when we attempt to account for moving 
hallucinations on this theory. In the latter case, 
for instance, the point de repere cannot follow the 
phantasm, and we should have to suppose that the 
percipient attaches his hallucination in turn to all the 
objects in front of which it glides. Again, how would 
M. Binet explain the behaviour of an apparition which 
came directly towards the percipient; for instance, the 
phantasm of a bird flying towards him — a form of 
hallucination in connection with which convergence 
of the eyes has been observed ? Is it possible to 
conceive that the phantasm can detach itself from 
its point de repere, from what is supposed to be its 
sensory nucleus, and flutter about in free space with- 
out losing its sensory character ? 

All these difficulties disappear, however, if we 
assume that the sensory character of a fallacious 
perception originates, not in one specific sensory 
stimulus, but in the general fact that the nerve-tract 
of the sense affected is at work ; that instreaming 
currents from the periphery discharge the elements 
of the " hallucinated '"' centre in the same way as in 
normal perception. - For just as we cannot say that 
an act of perception is altered, by the introduction of 
a new object into the field of vision, into a new act of 
perception which is the sum of the former plus the 
perception of the object, no more can we speak of a 
hallucination — the hallucination of a white figure, for 
example — as though it were a separable part, capable 
of being subtracted from or added to some percept, — 
"a room with a white figure in it," for example. In 
neither case can we refer a part of the perception to 
one particular sensory stimulus. The most that we 
can say is that the sum of the sensory stimuli has a 



234 HALLUCINATIONS 

certain effect on the brain-state which obtains at the 
moment, and that the cerebral process which is 
brought about by both these factors is accompanied 
by an act of perception, which is either "objective," 
z'.e., can be shared by all individuals alike, or "sub- 
jective," i.e., a fallacious perception. 

A view somewhat similar to the one presented 
here in physiological terms has been expressed by 
Volkmann von Volkmar^ in terms of psychology. 
It is true he employs the old distinction between 
illusions and hallucinations, but he points neverthe- 
less to an intermediate class of phenomena to which 
it seems to me his " hallucinations " ought in the last 
analysis to be referred. 

" Not seldom, indeed, we encounter cases where between the 
sensation and the projection (or localisation) a reproductive 
element intervenes, so that whilst the sensation still furnishes 
the occasion for the projection, this latter is eked out and 
completed by the reproductive image. The sensation endows 
the mental image with objective vividness, and the image 
adopts the nameless sensation and gives it a name. The 
sensation starts the projection, but the completed projection 
represents the sum of sensation and image. This somewhat 
complex form of sensory deception resembles an illusion in 
having a sensory basis, and a hallucination in the projection of 
a mental image. It may therefore be said to begin as an 
illusion and end as a hallucination, and may be regarded in 
two ways, according as the sensory or the representative 
element predominates in the projection. In false perceptions 
of the former sort^ the mental image insinuates itself unre- 
marked into the sensation, which it modifies without destroying 

^ Volkmann von Volkmar, Lehrhiuh d. Psychol. (4th ed.), ii. pp. 147 
et seq. I quote the passage, but without committing myself to the 
author's psychological standpoint. 

^ We are reminded here of the numerous examples cited by Helmholtz 
to prove that the position, surroundings, and form of an object all help 
to determine its colour. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 235 

its sensory character; in those of the latter sort the sensation 
flows side by side with the transforming" process, and only 
serves to give the mental image the tone and appearance of a 
sensation. It should be noted, moreover, that on the other 
side true hallucinations are related to this class of sensory 
deceptions because, though initiated by the reproductive 
element alone, a sensation never fails to accompany them 
sooner or later." 

In any case this theory seems best to cover all the 
facts, since, while it refers the sensory character of the 
hallucination to the participation of the sensory nerves, 
it explains the content of the hallucination by refer- 
ence to the specific processes started by the sensory 
stimuli in connection with the cerebrostatic condition 
present at the time. On this view Binet's point de repere 
resolves itself into a purely suggestive factor, which 
assists in two ways in the result. In the first place, 
by stimulating the element-groups (whose activity 
conditions the false-perception) associated with it 
through suggestion or self-suggestion, and placing 
them in the required state of heightened tension, it 
prepares the way for the hallucination ; in the second 
place, it frequently serves to localise the phantasm. 
By including under his term each and every sensory 
impression which by acting as a mental cue may pre- 
pare the way for a hallucination we are really enlarg- 
ing the scope of Binet's theory. Thus when a visual 
hallucination is suggested to a hypnotised subject, a 
clicking sound made with the finger-nails, or the 
muscular feeling corresponding to a certain move- 
ment of the head and eyes, or the touch of the 
hypnotist's hand, may serve as d^ point de repere. 



CFIAPTER VIII. 

THE MANIFESTATIONS OF FALLACIOUS PERCEPTION. 

Various Degrees of Distinctness in Sensory Pha7itasms. — Per- 
cipie?tfs Attitude — Sensory Character of the Phenomena 
not disproved by a certain feeliiig of SiLbjectivity — 
Attempts to explain '"'"Audible Thinking'^'' — Autojnatic 
A rticulatio7i — Spontaneous Cases — Experijnental Evi- 
de?ice. 

In the preceding chapter I have endeavoured to trace 
the origin of the sensory quality in false perception. I 
shall now proceed to consider its manifestations — i.e., 
the various forms of extern alisation of the halluci- 
natory percepts. If we consider first the distinctness 
of the percept we shall find that this is not always 
uniform. From the accounts we can clearly recog- 
nise a gradation. Sometimes the hallucinations seem 
to be scarcely distinguishable from vivid mental 
images; or, again, they may be externalised to such 
a degree as to differ in no particular from the ordi- 
nary correct perception of plainly recognised objects. 
Between these two extremes, of course, there are 
countless delicate gradations, of which the most 
important must be discussed here.^ 

But first let me advert briefly to Wundt's^ remark 

^ Cf. for these discussions, Report, pp. 70-133. 

^ Wundt, Grundziige der physiologlsclien PsycJwlogie. On the other 
hand, Friedmann {Ueber den Wak)i) says of illusions that they are 
somewhat wanting in plasticity. 



HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. 237 

■ — an irrelevant one, certainly, according to my view 
of the matter, — that complex visions are usually 
described as much more vague and evanescent in 
character than illusions (in Esquirol's sense) to 
which the external point of attachment gives "an 
element of fixity."^ But the fact that detailed, fully 
developed phantasms are often less clearly described 
has nothing to do with their distinctness in them- 
selves, but must be accounted for by the confusion of 
mind which obtains in many morbid conditions [e.g.^ 
in fever delirium), as also in dreams and drowsy, half- 
asleep states. On the contrary, the greater distinct- 
ness of the more complex, and consequently rarer,^ 
type of phantasm is indicated first by the circum- 
stance that the English census gives more cases of 
complex than of simple hallucination (showing that 
the former are better remembered), and secondly, by 
the comparative frequency with which they affect 
several senses at once.^ 

The gradations of distinctness above referred to 
yield different images according to the sense affected. 

1 Wundt, taking his stand on the ground of the centrifugal theory, 
does not pay sufficient attention to the psychological differences of 
quality which exists between a mental image, however vivid, and all 
illusions of the senses — even if their perceptibility to the senses should 
only arise from a higher degree of the accompanying physiological 
process. 

^ Rarer, because corresponding to the discharge of less extensive 
complexes of elements. In hypnotised persons, too, the hallucinations 
are more rarely complex. A man who has the hallucination of a glass 
of red wine need not, in addition to visual hallucination, experience 
also the hallucination of the feelings corresponding to the weight, 
temperature, etc., of the glass. 

^ If we reckon among simple phenomena those cases which, as 
sensations of light, sound, touch, remain entirely dissociated, or in 
which the appearance, though realistically perceived, was not re- 
cognised as this or that concrete person, and the other reported cases 



238 



HALLUCINATIONS 



Degrees of Distinctizess in Auditory^ Painful, Ol- 
factory, and Gustatory Hallucinations. — In auditory 
delusions the lowest degree is represented by the 
"psychic" hallucinations of Baillarger. These are 
" soundless " internal voices, which seem to the sub- 
ject to be addressed to him from outside ; they are 
spoken of by the insane as " spiritual," or as " soul- 
language."^ By their soundlessness they are clearly 
distinguished from more highly externalised acous- 
mata, where the " sound " element is more or 
less strongly marked, the voices sometimes seem- 
ing to whisper softly in the ear, or to be heard 
faintly from a great distance, and in other cases 
sounding loud and distinct. Hallucinatory (non- 

as complex, the figures, according to the English tables, will stand as 
follows : — 





Total. 


Simple Hallucinations. 


Percentage of Simple 
Hallucinations. 




Unknown 
Persons. 


Indistinct 


Total. 


Hallucinations of 

one sense 
Hallucinations of 

more than one 

sense ... 


1619 
251 


572 
49 


190 
28 


762 

77 


circa 47 
circa 31 



So that, in hallucinations affecting more than one sense, we find 
complex phantasms to be 16 per cent, more numerous. This figure, 
however, is certainly a good deal too low, if we take into considera- 
tion that among the forgotten experiences the majority must have 
been simple, and affecting one sense only. 

^ Griesinger, op. cit., p. 102; cf. Mwiich Collection, xxiv. a. Louise 
Hansen, at Llibeck in 1871, sees the face of her mother, who was then 
dying at Hamburg. "I saw my mother in a grey cloud. The face 
looked out of the cloud ; she made a request of me, and I answered yes, 
and at the same moment cloud and face vanished. The request was 
not made in articulate language, and as we speak, but by an exchange 
of thoughts, quite as clear and intelligible as though spoken aloud," 



AND ILLUSIONS. 239 

vocal) noises, such as the ringing of the door-bell, 
steps in the hall, or in the room itself, knocks at the 
door, etc., seem, as a rule, to be indistinguishable 
in intensity from corresponding objective sounds. 
Sometimes, in dreams, the hallucinatory noises are 
said to be loud enough to awaken the sleeper. In 
such cases, however, we are often concerned, not with 
hallucinations, but with external noises heard with 
abnormal intensity in a state of dissociation.^ In 
other cases it may be subjective sensations which 
are hyperaesthetically perceived, for instance, certain 
attacks (not, of course, to be confounded with epi- 
leptic seizures), called by Weir Mitchell^ "sensory 
shocks," which occur with alarming violence in neuras- 
thenic and hysterical subjects, and after the excessive 
use of tobacco. On going to bed, — not on awaking, 
— and while going to sleep, a sudden shock is felt like 
a blow inside the head, in most cases accompanied by 
a sensation of sight, hearing, or smell so intense that 
these attacks, often preceded by an aura, are actually 
dreaded by those subject to them. This observation 
seems to confirm Hoppe's view, that the frequently 
reported subjective sensation of a loud crash or jar 
is to be taken as a symptom of fatigue. Here are 
two examples : — 

\_Munich Collection., xvii. 2, and xvi. i.] " Fraulein R. 
Mei. . . ., an actress, reports : ' I thought I heard (on January 
I2th, 1888, in my apartments, between 11 A.M. and noon) a 
violent blow on the surface of the table at which I was sitting. 
Fraulein M. R., my maid, who was in the room, also heard 
it. We were not touching the table, and were both greatly 
startled by the sound. We examined the table, and found it 

^ See above, p. 117, Note i. 

2 "Some Disorders of Sleep," in Atnerican Journal of Medical 
Science, vol. c, pp. 120-123. 



240 HALLUCINATIONS 

quite intact. I was knitting a stocking and studying my part 
in a play. My maid was busy with household work. I wae in 
perfectly good health and wide awake, yet was profoundly dis- 
turbed by the occurrence. Between 4 and 5 P.M. I received a 
telegram, informing me that my mother, who had been ill for 
some time, — in fact, I had been expecting to hear of her death 
for the last three weeks, — had died on the same day, between 
II and 12. I had not seen her for two years. My mother's 
last words were addressed to my brother, a lad of sixteen : 

' Give my love to my R , and always do as she tells you.'" 

\Mtmich Collection^ xvi. i.] "At 31 Am . . . strasse, Munich, 
one day in February 1874, about 8 p.m., I distinctly heard a hand 
strike several violent blows on a piece of furniture standing in 
the room. My husband (who died in 1883) heard the same thing, 
and at once expressed his annoyance. The cook, too, who was 
just bringing in supper, heard the blows, and was frightened. My 
husband at once examined the piece of furniture, thinking that 
it had cracked. Nothing could be discovered, and no crack or 
other cause of the peculiar noise was to be found elsewhere in 
the rooms. I at once assumed that an aunt of mine, then in a 
dying state in the Pfalz, had in this way called our attention to 
herself. It turned out that this aunt had been thinking much 
of us, especially in connection with testamentary dispositions. 
She died soon after, in March 1874." 

That hallucinations of pain often attain great vivid- 
ness may be observed by every dentist, in patients 
who feel pain before the diseased tooth is even 
touched.^ Moreover, the same thing is to be seen in 
hypnotism, where suggested burns and scalds cause 
the severest pain ; nor are spontaneous cases, like 
that of Mrs. Severn,^ so very rare. In this case the 
subject awoke with the feeling of having been struck 
and wounded on the mouth, sat up, pressed her 

^ Cf. the case of Bernheim [Etudes Noiivelles), where the hallucinatory 
pain was confined to a particular spot and represented an ulcer in the 
stomach. 

^ Proceedings S.P.R., vol. ii. p. 128. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 24I 

handkerchief to the spot, and was astonished to see 
no blood.i 

Hallucinations of smell also vary in degree, as 
may easily be seen in post-hypnotic suggestion. 
Sometimes the subject is able to recognise the 
specific odour distinctly; sometimes, again, the 
sensation is vague and blurred. The same is the 
case with hallucinations of taste. Observations 
made during experiments in telepathy^ show that, 
though the "transferred" sensation is frequently quite 
clear and distinct, so that the percipient can really 
indicate what he tastes, in other cases the taste 
experienced is much less definite. " It burns, and 
there is some sugar about it — ^just enough to soften it. 
It burns . . . you would feel it burning, I can tell 
you," — this is the degree of accuracy with which the 
subject of a successful experiment in the telepathic 
transference of taste-sensations describes the taste of 
ground ginger, which the experimenter had in his 
mouth. Another time, when the agent had sugar in 
his mouth, the percipient thus describes his subjective 
taste-sensations: "It's getting better. Sweetish taste 
— sweet — something like sugar." 

Degrees of Distinctness in Visual Hallucinations. — 
Gradations can best be recognised in cases of visual 

^ \_Mtinich Collection, xv. 2.] "In the spring of 1889 I lay down one 
night between 10 and 11. I had put out the light, but was still 
awake ; was not unwell ; was just wondering how it was possible 
for some persons, whom I had seen, to fall so easily into a hypnotic 
condition. All at once I felt as if a cold hand had struck me in the 
face, at the same time I was conscious of pain. I could even feel 
the fingers. I was so much frightened that I did not venture to get 
up. 

2 Cf. e.g. Proc. S.P.R., vol. i. pp. 226, 276; 1883-84, pp. 2-5, 8, 
18-22, 205. 206. 

16 



242 HALLUCINATIONS 

hallucination, with which, therefore. I shall deal rather 
more in detail. The lowest degree of definite external- 
isation may be assumed, where the narrator uses such 
expressions as "I saw with my mind's eye," etc. The 
appearance is not a mere mental image, but neither 
is it perfectly externalised. The following narratives 
of waking hallucinations may serve as examples : — 

Mr. Rawlinson writes : — " I was dressing one morning in 
December 1881, when a certain conviction came upon me 
that some one was in my dressing-room. On looking round, 
I saw no one ; but then, instantaneously, in my mind's eye 
(I suppose), every feature of the face and form of my old friend, 
W. S =," etc.i 

" In the convalescence^ from a malarial fever, during which 
great hyperaesthesia of brain had obtained, but no hallucinations 
or false perceptions, I was sitting alone in my room, looking out 
of the window. My thoughts were of indifferent trivialities ; 
after a time my mind seemed to become absolutely vacant ; my 
eyes felt fixed, the air seemed to grow white. I could see 
objects about me, but it was a terrible effort of will to perceive 
anything. I then felt great and painful sense as of sympathy 
with some one suffering, who or where I did not know. After a 
little time I knew with whom, but how I knew I cannot tell, for 
it seemed some time after this knowledge of personahty that I 
saw distinctly, in my brain, nol before my eyes, a large, square 
room," . . . etc. 

The narrator then points out that the natural order of per- 
ception was reversed — the emotion came first, then the feeling 
that a particular person was in question, and lastly, the vision or 
perception of the person.^ 

'^ Proceedings S.P,R., 1884 (vol. ii.)- p. 158. Cf. Phantasms of 
the Livings vol. i. p. 209. 

2 Proc. American S.P.R., pp. 398 sgq. Cf. Phantasms of the Living; 
cases 21, 27, 38, 56; vol. i. pp. 196, 209, 235, 255. 

2 Cf. the case of unconscious hallucination already mentioned (p. 125), 
and the following observation of Janet's {International Congress of 
Experimental Psychology, Second Session, p. 165). "Many patients 
were tormented by fixed ideas. Some had full consciousness of those 
ideas, and openly stated what they were. Others could not well 



AND ILLUSIONS= 243 

In the next stage of visualisation the percipient 
sees a face or figure projected or depicted, as it were, 
on some convenient surface — the image being thus 
truly externalised, but in an unreal and unsubstantial 
fashion, and in a bizarre relation to the real objects 
among which it appears. In this respect it might be 
compared to the " after image " of the sun, or of some 
object that has been intently scrutinised through a 
microscope, which we involuntarily import into our 
view of the surrounding scene.^ An excellent ex- 
ample of this kind of hallucination is the following : — 

" My mother had not been very well, but there was nothing 
alarming in her state. I was suffering from a bad cold, and 
went to bed early one night, after leaving her in the drawing- 
room in excellent spirits and tolerably well. I slept unusually 
well, and when I awoke, the moon was shining through the old 
casement brightly into the room. The white curtains of my bed 
were drawn to protect me from the draught which came through 
the large window, and on this curtain, as if depicted there, I 
saw the figure of my mother — the face deadly pale, with blood 
flowing on the bed-clothes. For a moment I lay horror-stricken 
and unable to move or cry out ; till, thinking it might be a 
dream or a delusion, I raised myself up in bed and touched the 
curtain. Still the appearance remained (although the curtain 
on which it was depicted moved to and fro when I touched it), 
as if reflected by a magic-lantern. In great terror I got up," 
. . . etc.2 

describe them, and did not clearly know what it was which tormented 
them. Others had no notion of those fixed ideas, which provoked only 
states of emotion and impulses in them. For example, a young man 
had continual fear, without being able to explain what he was afraid 
of. It was sufficient to make him gaze on a shining surface for some 
time for him to see the flames of a fire ; and after listening to a 
monotonous sound for some time he became aware of other sounds — 
those of the bugle of the fire-brigade; in a word, that process revealed 
the persistent idea of a fire which he had witnessed at some previous 
date." 

1 Proc, S,P.R,, vol. ii. p. 163. ^ Ibid, 



244 HALLUCINATIONS 

Another example, perhaps somewhat more distinctly 
externalised, — although the image was certainly not 
so clearly defined as the other objects in the per- 
cipient's field of vision, — is to be found in the statement 
of Richard Searle. 

" One afternoon, a few years ago, I was sitting in my chambers 
in the Temple, working at some papers. My desk is between 
the fire-place and one of the windows, the window being two 
or three yards on the left side of my chair, and looking out into 
the Temple. Suddenly I became aware that I was looking at 
the bottom window-pane, which was about on a level with my 
eyes, and there I saw the figure of the face and head of my 
wife, in a reclining position, with the eyes closed, and the face 
quite white and bloodless, as if she were dead." ^ 

In connection with the above I may mention an 
experiment of my own. A hypnotised subject, while 
realising the hallucinations suggested to her, saw the 
objects as pictures hanging on the wall. She was struck 
by a want of distinctness in the pictures (marine views), 
and explained it by the unfavourable character of 
the light, which was reflected from their surfaces. In 
reality, of course, the percipient had eked out an 
imperfect hallucination by imagining it to consist 
of pictures hung in a bad light. 

Baillarger describes this class of phantasms as seen 
through a veil of gauze, or some similar substance; 
but in the following case the incompleteness of the 
externalisation is expressed a little differently. The 
percipient sees the phantasms quite distinctly, only 
he sees other objects through them. 

\_Muiiich Collection^ xxix.] " I have seen and heard persons 
who spoke to me ; they usually looked, I might say, tra?ispa?'e?it^ 
like grey mist, yet they were wearing clothes like ours." ^ 

1 Froc. S.P.R,, vol. ii. p. 163. 

^ Compare also below (App. I.), Munich CoIIeclion, xxvii. p. 214. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 245 

In the statements accessible to me, I have but 
rarely met with this kind of phantasm, though it is 
a type to which the visions and spectres of pictorial 
art frequently conform, and which also occurs in 
various forms in the religious traditions of remote 
peoples; thus among the Omahas the name for spirits 
is " Wa-na-he," i.e., transparent bodies. However, this 
type of partial externalisation sometimes crops up in 
experimental cases. I need only mention the case 
where the hypnotised subject was required to see 
the bearded experimenter as a young, handsome, 
and beardless man, as in fact he did, though at the 
same time he could see the old, bearded face through 
and behind the young one.^ 

Finally, coming to the highest development of 
hallucination, we have the realistic bodily appear- 
ance combined with non-perception of that part of 
the field of view covered by the apparition.^ Indeed, 
in hypnotic cases it would seem that the vividly ex- 
ternalised phantasms produced by suggestion tend to 
appear more real than the actual objects or beings 
which they represent v/hen placed alongside them.^ 
The explanation is surely obvious. 

Besides the differences in distinctness already dis- 

^ Forel, Der HypnotismiLs, 2nd ed. , p. 53. 

^ Forel's narrative, op. cit., p. 65. 

^ Cf. for instance, Moll, Hypnotism, p. 168. " Y. being in the 
hypnotic trance, I say to him, * When you awake, X. will be sitting 
on this chair; you will be wide awake and have all your senses about 
you.' Y., on awaking, in fact thinks he sees X. on the chair, converses 
with this imaginary person, etc. I then point out to him the real X. 
with the words, ' Now, which is the real X. ? You see one on the chair, 
the other you see standing here.' Y. feels the chair and the real X., in 
order to convince himself which is X. and which empty air. After 
trying for some time, he finally comes to the conclusion, ' He is sitting 
here on the chair.' " 



246 HALLUCINATIONS 

cussed, variations also occur in the colouring of the 
phantasms. Sometimes they are perceived only in 
outline and with no colour, sometimes they resemble 
photographs, showing light and shade only, others 
again resemble dark silhouettes. We are here re- 
minded that among the Greeks and Romans the souls 
of the dead were held to resemble the phantasms of 
dreams, a conception probably arising out of the 
latter; the Tasmanians used the same word for shadow 
and ghost; the Algonkin Indians call the human soul 
bdatsJiuk — his shadow; in the Quiche language natul 
expresses shadow, soul; the Arawak ueja , means 
shadow, picture, soul; the Abipones have only one 
word (Joakal) for picture, shadow, soul, and echo.^ 
Frequently, again, the images occur in their proper 
colours, sometimes fainter in tone, but sometimes 
extraordinarily bright and vivid." Gratiolet asserts 
that hallucinations by night, in the dark, and with 
closed eyes, as well as in the case of the blind, 
are mostly light in colouring, even fiery, but some- 
what pale, and with a tendency to undulatory 
motion; that in the dusk, or with defective illumina- 
tion, white figures are very frequently seen, appearing 
to occupy positions in space at a measurable distance, 

^ Radestock, Trail ni und Schlaf^ p. ii. 

2 Cf. A. V. Vay, Visiomn iui IVasserglase ; Griesinger, op. ciL, p. 
91 ; V, Schrenck-Notzing, Die BedeuHing narcoiischer ISIiltel, p. 70, 
"The glowing colours of a sea-piece suggested to him by me whilst 
he was in a state of coma induced by haschisch, were remembered by 
Herr U. in all their vividness, and induced him to make use of the 
idea in a picture, especially the colouring, which otherwise [i.e., in a 
waking condition) was never perceived with the same intensity." Cf. 
Radestock, op. Hi.., p. 148; also Sander, " Sinnestauschungen," Keal^ 
Encyklopcvdie, xviii. p. 326; Brach, " Geschichte eines Phantasma 
Visionis," Med. Zeit. v. Ver. f. H. in Pr. (1837, No. 5); Smithsonian 
Institute, ii. p. 9. 



AND ILLUSIONS. ^4^ 

and not moving to and fro; and that those seen in 
full daylight most nearly resemble real objects.^ Such 
a general statement as this, however, can scarcely be 
regarded as borne out by experience.^ 

It would also be a mistake to assume that all hal- 
lucinations will fit exactly into the above scheme. 
Thus there are phantasms which in the course of their 
development pass through different stages of definite- 
ness, growing from vagueness to comparative distinct- 
ness, or, on the contrary, gradually fading away. 

{^Munich Collection^ x. 13.] "In April 1886, between 4 and 
5 xA..M., upon awaking, I saw my sister, who had died at the age 
of nine, standing before my bed. She was dressed in her 
shroud, and had a wreath on her head. She approached my 
bed. At first I saw dim, nebulous outlines, out of which the 
figure was developed as it approached me. It was just dawn- 
ing; her features looked deathly pale, as they had done in the 
coffin. I screamed aloud. The not yet fully developed figure 
vanished before my eyes. A sister sleeping in the same room 
was not awakened by my scream, and did not share my im- 
pressions. I had been greatly excited the day before, but 
believe that I was fully awake at the time." 

"In the spring of 1889 I saw, at night, as I Avas lying awake 
in bed, a person nearly connected with me approach my bed. 
The course of the vision was as be-fore. The face was distorted 
and ghost-like. My thoughts had been much occupied with this 
person during the past few days." 

Von Krafft-Ebing^ has noted that, in insanity, hal- 
lucinations often appear more dimly and indistinctly 

^ Griesinger, op. cit.^ p. 99. 

2 J. Mourly Void (" Experience sur les reves," Revue de V Hypno- 
Hs!ne,]z.n. 1896) found "that the colours seen before falling asleep, 
particularly black and white, tend to enter into dreams, or to evoke in 
dreams their complementary colours. In some cases," he adds, "it 
seems as though it were the contrast between darkness and the intense 
light which takes effect in the dream." 

^ Siiinesdelirien, p. 37. 



248 HALLUCINATIONS 

in the first period, afterwards become clearer, and 
gradually cease during the period of convalescence. 

While, on the one hand, there are some observa- 
tions which seem to indicate (see above, p. 128, Note 
3, and p. 129, Note 4) that hallucinations may leave 
after-images, others, again, might lead us to underrate 
the distinctness possessed by hallucinatory percepts. 
In some hypnotic experiments, for instance, it has 
been observed^ that, "when subjects are asked to 
trace their hallucinations with a pencil, or even to 
describe them minutely, they often show a vague- 
ness and uncertainty which their previous expressions 
and actions would hardly have led one to expect."^ 
I do not think that we should be induced by such 
observations to assume that in these cases there is 
mere mental vision, and deny the sensory character 
of the phenomenon. Perhaps the whole assumption 
and inference is based on a trace of the "eccentric 
projection theory," which I have already given my 
reasons for rejecting. However, I shall insist no 
further on this for the present; nor shall I do more 
than call attention very briefly to the facts that an 
unpractised draughtsman finds sufficient difficulty 
even in tracing an image projected by the camera 
lucida on a sheet of paper, and that many people 
indicate quite a wrong position for the image of a 
house, for instance, reflected on the surface of a 
pond ; or, at any rate, cannot point out the right one 
without stopping to consider. I only wish to adduce 
two principal circumstances in explanation. In the 
first place, the sub-consciousness that the objects 
perceived by hallucination are not real, and the 
uncertainty arising from the discord between surface 

^ Proceedings of the American S.P.R., p. 98. 



AND ILLUSIONS. . 249 

consciousness and sub=consciousness; secondly, and 
more especially, the dream-like condition of the per- 
cipient.^ 

Attitude of the Percipient zvith regard to the Hal- 
lucinatory Perception. — The attitude of the percipient 
towards the hallucination depends, in the first instance, 
as we shall see, on his belief in its reality. But even 
where this belief exists, its manifestations differ 
considerably. Sometimes the percipient behaves 
as would be required by circumstances, supposing 
him to be in the presence of an objective reality; 
in other cases he fails to do so. This circumstance 
has been adduced as a distinctive symptom of hal- 
lucination as opposed to pseudo-hallucination {i.e., a 
vivid image of the imagination which yet lacks the 
feeling of sensory affection, and therefore is a mental 
image and not a true hallucination). However, this 
does not seem to me correct. That the condition 
of the hallucinant is frequently that of a man in a 
profound dream sufficiently explains the difference 
between his behaviour at such times and when awake. 
This is the explanation given by Krafft-Ebing for the 
circumstance that a person hypnotised by him, while 
allowing herself to be carried back, by suggestion, to 
her childhood, found no difficulty whatever in be- 
lieving the season to be winter, though she could 
see the green leaves on the trees. Even when her 
attention was called to this point, she showed no 
surprise, but found an explanation in harmony with 
the apathetic condition of her mind at the moment- — 
she thought she must be in a hothouse.^ 

1 Compare J. Philippe, *' Sur les images mentales," Third Infer- 
national Congress for Psychology, p. 235 ; also Forel's remarks, p. 237. 
^ Krafft-Ebing, Hypnotische Experimenle, p. 28. 



250 HALLUCINATIONS 

An example given by Kandinsky may serve briefly 
to illustrate my point — viz., that the experience may 
be a genuine hallucination although the percipient 
does not behave towards the apparition exactly as he 
would do with regard to the objective reality. This 
author reports the case of a person who perceived 
the hallucinatory figure of a lion (or, according to 
Kandinsky, " vividly imagined " a lion), and yet 
manifested no particular excitement, apprehension, 
or terror. Now, it is true that if the man in question 
had met in the street a lion escaped from some 
menagerie, he would have been seized by the above 
emotions. However, it is not the mere sight of the 
lion which would have excited his apprehension in 
such a case, but the same sight in conjunction with 
certain definite though chiefly sub-conscious associa- 
tions. The sight of a lion in a menagerie will no 
longer affect us in the same way, even though a 
certain sense of uneasiness, oppression, and suspense 
may perhaps be produced by a secret misgiving as to 
the strength of the grating securing the cage. If, on 
the other hand, we see a lion, having finished his 
meal, lying drowsily behind the stout iron bars of 
his abode in the Zoological Gardens, there can no 
longer be any question of such a feeling; on the 
contrary, the sight is productive of a high degree 
of pleasure to the animal-painter.^ The sight of a 
lion in a picture is certainly also a perception by 
means of the senses, but it does not produce a 

^ It is the hero's failure to take into account the different effects 
produced by impressions on the senses under different circumstances 
and with other associations, which gives rise to the comic situation in 
Daudet's " Tartarin de Tarascon," where Tartarin, while preparing to 
go lion-hunting in Algeria, takes nightly walks in the neighbourhood 
of a menagerie, in order to accustom himself to the roaring of the lions. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 25 I 

feeling of apprehension. If, in the case quoted by 
Kandinsky, the percipient was not terrified or excited 
by the apparition of a Hon, this means no more than 
that, in consequence of the condition of the percipient's 
brain at that particular moment, the connection with 
the complex of elements usually associated with the 
idea of a lion roaming about at liberty did not and 
could not take place. The perception was confined 
to an isolated group of elements, corresponding to 
the ideas of heraldry, pictorial art, zoological studies, 
etc. For the sake of comparison, I here cite an 
experiment, in which the hallucination of a snake at 
first produced no corresponding emotion, but, later 
on, when the cognate associations had been called 
to mind, elicited the expression of extreme fear. I 
do not think that the first case is to be explained by 
calling the image a merely mental one, but that a 
hallucination of the senses is to be assumed in both 
cases alike.^ 

"HeiT A., a medical student, was hypnotised by me. No 
similar experiment had ever been tried on him before. The 
suggested hallucination of the staff of ^sculapius was realised, 
but the staff declared to be of extraordinary size. The snake's 
life-like appearance was first pointed out to A. ; afterwards, 
when it was suggested to him as living, it coiled itself off the 
staff, wriggled about the room and approached A., who, smihng 
and following its movements with his eyes, asked me, ' Do you 
always keep this snake in your room ?' I interrupted the scene 
by exclaiming, ' Look out, it's a rattlesnake.' A. immediately 
sprang aside, asked anxiously if the poison-fangs had been ex- 
tracted, and, on receiving a negative answer, fled, with every 
symptom of fear and confusion, from one corner of the room to 
another, hid behind chairs, and was so terrified that it became 

^ Cf. William James, Principles of Psychology, ii. pp. 442 sqq.; 
Dewey, "Theory of the Emotions,'' Psychological Review, ii. pp. 
13 sqq. 



252 HALLUCINATIONS 

necessary to put an end to the scene by means of soothing 
suggestions," 

And if the behaviour of hallucinated persons can- 
not be taken as a test, no more can the presence of a 
certain feeling of subjectivity on their part disprove 
the sensory character of the experience. The subject 
of a genuine hallucination may be aware that his own 
imagination has furnished the material for the vision. 
He is able to indicate the subjective character of the 
hallucination, but thinks it real, nevertheless,^ or, at 
any rate, cannot escape from it. Such a case occurs 
when patients state that their own thoughts, " the 
sound-images of their thoughts are words, with ail 
the peculiarities of self- uttered words, pale images of 
words uttered by themselves."^ Griesinger quotes from 
Esquirol the answer of a melancholic patient.^ His 
attention being called to the erroneous character of 
his hallucinations of hearing, he remarked, in the 
midst of a conversation, " Do you ever think ? " 
" Certainly." " Very good — you think to yourself, and 
I think out loud." Many patients believe themselves 
to think so loud that other people can hear their 
thoughts and are annoyed thereby; or they assume 
that their apartments are so constructed acoustically 
as to strengthen the sound, not only of spoken words, 
but even of unspoken thoughts (Grashey).^ 

^ Griesinger, op. ciL, p. 94. 

^ Grashey, " Ueber Hallucinationen," Miinch, Med. Wochenschrift 
(1893), p. 154. 

^ Griesinger, op. ciL, p. 91 ; cf. Leuret, Gazette Medicale de Paris 
(1834, No. 10). The latter mentions a patient who said of his voices, 
" C'est un travail qui se fait dans ma tete." 

^ Such hallucinations not infrequently play a considerable part in 
literature, especially in descriptions of the tortures of remorse, and the 
like. An example of such a description is to be found in Gerhard 



AND ILLUSIONS. 253 

Sometimes the feeling of subjectivity is feebler. 
The patient knows that the thoughts are his own, 
but they seem to be uttered by other voices. He 
still feels himself to some extent an active agent, 
but at the same time his receptivity is much in- 
creased. Such patients complain of their thoughts 
being uttered aloud by other people. When reading, 
they think some one is reading the same book aloud 
at the same time ; and when writing a letter, they 
complain that a strange voice is dictating the thoughts 
to them. 

In another variety of auditory hallucinations, the 
feeling of subjective origin becomes still more rudi- 
mentary. The contents of the hallucination are quite 
alien to the patient's mind, but a trace of the feeling 
remains; they hear their own thoughts, but do not 
recognise them as their own, considering them as 
" made " thoughts suggested to them by God or the 
devil, or some human being.^ 

We must not reckon in this category, however, 

Hauptraann's Der Apostel, pp. 79, 80. "He strode along, with a 
feeling as if he were walking dry-shod over water. So great and 
awful he seemed in his own eyes that he had to admonish himself to 
humility. And as he did so, he could not help remembering Christ's 
entry into Jerusalem, and then the words, ' Behold, thy king cometh 
unto thee in meekness.' For a time, he still felt the girl's looks follow- 
ing him. For some reason or other he took care to walk exactly in the 
middle of the road. ... At the same time, as if controlled by some 
force outside himself, he kept repeating again and again : • Behold, thy 
king cometh unto thee in meekness.' Children's voices sang these words. 
They lay still unformed between his tongue and his palate, but the 
sound of his breath seemed to become articulate, and in it he heard 
them. ..." 

^ In addition to many other cases, Kandinsky reports such hallu- 
cinations as experienced by himself. He thought them too absurd to 
have originated in his own mind, and took them as " induced " by some 
of his feilow-patients. 



254 HALLUCINATIONS 

a certain not uncommon type of dream where the 
dreamer is haunted by the feeling that whatever 
happens is not actually true — that it is only a dream. 
He sees other people, perhaps even himself, perform- 
ing certain actions ; he hears conversation, but all the 
time the conviction that he is only dreaming persists 
in his mind. This is also manifested in other ways — 
e.g., the dreamer dreams that after doing something 
or other he lies down tired, goes to sleep, and dreams. 
Sometimes this dream within a dream is so distinct 
and complete that the action interrupted by it is 
continued from the point at which it was broken off. 
It is also sometimes reported of sick people and 
hypnotised subjects that, along with the hallucina- 
tion, from which they cannot escape, they have the 
consciousness that it was only a delusion of the 
senses. Or, again, the percipient may succeed in 
correcting the hallucination, but it returns the next 
moment.^ 

^ A good example of this, and also of the effect of points de repere 
in suggesting the same delusion over and over again, is offered in the 
case referred to by Rosenbach {Centralblatt fiir Nervenheilkitnde, April 
I, 1886). X, of a healthy family, had no further trouble to comj^lain 
of than periodic digestive disturbances, followed by sleeplessness. Ex- 
amination showed a normal state of the organic functions, except for 
a moderate degree of hereditary myopia. He was able to undergo 
without difficulty the severe mental labour connected with his pro- 
fession. But for the last few years he has noticed that, after working, 
he seems when in the street to meet none but persons known to him. 
It is only after bowing to them that he finds himself mistaken. Some- 
times he sees people of whom he has not even thought for years ; yet 
he is not one of those who are always on the look-out for resemblances. 
The details of the process are as follows : On the first glance he sees a 
person of his acquaintance standing before him, but closer examina- 
tion soon convinces him that he has made a mistake. Yet, in spite of 
this, the hallucination is caused anew by another look at the face, a few 
moments later, though immediately corrected by the recollection of the 
previous discovery. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 255 

In these last-named cases it is not the feeh'ng of 
subjectivity with which we are concerned, but the 
belief in the objectivity of the halkicination. A 
patient may suffer from the utterance of his own 
thoughts, as above described, but need not therefore 
be in any doubt as to the reaUty of the voices 
accompanying his thoughts. Moreover, even if 
the beHef in the reality of the appearance or voice 
does not necessarily accompany the hallucination, yet 
it is certain that the latter is in most cases so 
accompanied. It cannot be the quality of the psychic 
occurrences which distinguishes the hallucination 
from an objective perception. In some cases only 
its content may, by the impossibility of reconciling 
it with other experience, awaken doubts. Yet, 
as all our knowledge comes to us through the 
senses, as it is they which, every moment, enable us 
to receive new impressions, and as in ordinary life 
we find them trustworthy witnesses, we need very 
strong reasons to persuade us to examine into the 
objectivity of any perception.^ If a lady passing 
along the corridor in a hotel sees the apparition 
of a man standing at the open door of the lift, 
there is no occasion for her to inquire whether the 
appearance corresponds to an objective reality any 
more than there is in the case of a lady who hears 
the door-bell ring without knowing that no one has 
touched it. Thus it often happens that the percipient 
finds himself repeatedly deluded by hallucinations 
before it occurs to him to doubt the reality of the 
appearances while they last. When he has once dis- 

^ Compare the way in which children, or primitive peoples, are 
completely at the mercy of sense-impressions — subjective as well as 
objective. 



256 HALLUCINATIONS 

covered their true character, however, his blind belief 
in the evidence of his senses is thoroughly shaken.^ 
Or, again, the content of the hallucination may awaken 
doubt and misgivings. The apparition of a dead person, 
for instance, would naturally suggest the visionary char- 
acter of the experience. Thirdly, the doubt may arise 
from the contradiction between the hallucination and 
the sub-consciousness of its unreality. The hallucinant 
is in doubt; when asked what is the matter, he does not 
reply, not being sure whether "his senses have deceived 
him." 2 Or, in many cases, he asks, "Am I asleep 
or awake ?"^ Others are induced by their uncertainty 
to test the matter. Thus Holland* relates that a 
patient, having discovered that he was able to suggest 
words to the voices at pleasure, succeeded in recog- 
nising his auditory hallucinations as such. A lady 
saw the apparition of her sister, and thought, " If this 
is really she, I ought to see her reflected image in the 
mirror." A young man, who continually heard his 
thoughts uttered aloud, went into an open field, with 
no house or tree in the neighbourhood. He could 
see no one but a labourer ploughing at a great 
distance. When, even here, he heard his thoughts 
spoken so loudly that they could not possibly be 
uttered by the voice of the distant ploughman, he 
became convinced that what he heard was a hallu- 
cination. 

Attempts to Explain ^^ Audible Thinking.'' — Many 
attempts have been made to explain these hallu- 
cinations of voices uttering the percipient's own 

^ The visions of Nicolai are well known in this connection. 
^ Statement of Mrs. Townsend in Proc. S.P.R., vol. iii. p. 75. 
^ Statement of Ch, Jupp, ibid. , p. 88. 

^ Sir Henry Holland, Chapters on Menial Physiology (2nd edit.), 
p. 52. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 257 

thoughts — e.g., by assuming a duplex action of the 
cerebral hemispheres.^ Cramer's explanation has 
already been given (cf. page 183). Grashey- takes 
quite a different view of the matter. 

He finds that the difference between the two pro- 
cesses corresponding respectively to sensory percep- 
tion and ideation is not, as I think, in kind, but 
consists, firstly, in the different degree of intensity, and, 
secondly, in the feeling of the connection between 
our memory-images and the earlier memory-images 
which called them forth; in the connection of our 
present thought with the chain of our thoughts, with 
its predecessors, which gave birth to it. (Physiologi- 
cally, the process of association corresponds to this 
feeling.) An excitation proceeding neither from the 
peripheral organs nor through the association- 
channels of the cerebral cortex, he calls a hallu- 
cinatory excitation ; every sensation produced by 
such excitation a hallucinatory sensation, and every 
perception composed of hallucinatory sensations a 
complete hallucination;^ he considers as illusions 
all perceptions arising out of hallucinatory sensa- 
tions combined with sensations coming from the 
peripheral sense-organs. If the two above-mentioned 
criteria are lost to the consciousness (as, e.g., in sleep) 
no genuine hallucination arises, but, e.g., a hypnagogic 
fallacy of judgment. The surprisingly clear and 
definite form assumed by the memory-pictures of 
objects looked at for some hours is caused, first, 
by a state of irritation in the corresponding parts 



^ See above, pp. 180-184. - Op. cit. 

^ Compare with this view the criticism at the end of Chapter IV., 
supra. 



258 HALLUCINATIONS 

of the cerebral cortex, and secondly by the fact 
that the attention, being now diverted from this 
sensory region, is less directed to the processes of 
association which call forth the vivid memory- 
picture. If the many accustomed stimuli of average 
intensity are shut out from any one sense it is 
only reached by sensations of slight intensity, so 
that the memory-images assume a surprising dis- 
tinctness. If patients, even without the accompaniment 
of unusual external quiet, distinctly hear their own 
thoughts (" imperfect hallucinations," since the exci- 
tation takes place through the association-channels, 
although with abnormal intensity), there is a mor- 
bidly intensified irritability of the parts of the cortex 
in question. If, on the contrary, the thoughts heard 
are those of other people, we must assume more or 
less intense pathological processes at the points 
where the memory-images of these processes are 
stored up. 

More correct than this view is probably the one 
represented by Hoppe (among others), who distin- 
guishes : — ■ 

I. Subjective noises from the neighbourhood of the auditory 
nerves, and of the ear, and in the head — i.e.^ all sounds heard 
which do not immediately announce themselves as specifically 
belonging to the ends of the auditory nerves. These are 
caused, indeed, by an irritation of the auditory nerve, but a 
seco7idary irritation, or they may in other cases arise from a 
primary irritation of the auditory fibres not manifesting the 
special form of excitation required for the production of articu- 
late sounds. With these may be grouped all noises in the 
head conducted through the bony parts to the ear, or reaching 
the auditory centre by centripetal channels.^ 2. The peripheral 

1 Hoppe, Erkldrung der Sinnestdiischimgen, p. 236. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 259 

awakening of the impressions stamped on the ends of the 
auditory nerve in the ear (after-images — permanent images). 
3. The phenomena with which we are now concerned — so- 
called auditory hallucinations, which, however, consist merely 
in the unnoticed articulati07i of one's own thoughts, which 
becomes audible, and takes the form of an auditory hallucina- 
tion without determinable origin/ 



All thinking — or, at least, all verbal thinking— is 
connected with centrifugal motor innervation of the 
muscles which regulate the articulation of speech, as 
well as of other (mimetic) groups of muscles. The slight 
movements resulting herefrom do not usually reach our 
consciousness; but it is possible, by observing one's self, 
to feel the movements in the vocal apparatus.^ If the 
innervation is strong enough, then it becomes a more 
or less audible speaking. Now, if it were possible to 
assume that, while the sounds themselves are received 
by the ear, the articulation which takes place makes 
no impression on the consciousness, the result would 
be an auditory perception, whose production by our- 

1 Ibid.^ p. 248. 

2 Klinke, " Ueber das Symptom des Gedankenlautwerdens," Arch. 
f. Fsyck., xxvi. p. 155. "Unprofessional persons, who have never 

heard of motor sensations . . . when verbally thinking, feel no motor 
sensations in the articulatory apparatus ; at least, after questioning a 
succession of individuals, I could never succeed in ascertaining any- 
thing of the sort. Only after the explanation had been given to them, 
and the motor sensation pointed out, one or another thinks he can 
detect such impulses in the organs of speech, or even, as in the case of 
one of my patients, in the forehead, or the tip of the nose." (For this 
transference of sensation cf. examples given on the following page.) 
Id., p. 198. "One can, indeed (especially after a detailed study of 
Strieker's proofs that, when a person is thinking in words, slight motor 
impulses are continually imparted to the organs of speech), believe that 
one really feels certain slight sensations in the tongue, the mouth, and 
the epiglottis. ..." 



260 HALLUCINATIONS 

selves would remain unknown to us, and whose origin 
we should be unable to trace. There would result, then, 
either the above-mentioned phenomenon of audible 
thinking, or — the thing heard being referred to a real 
or fancied personality — the other forms of the delusion 
described above would naturally follow. If the thing 
heard is associated with pressure on the prsecordial 
region, unpleasant sensations in the abdomen, pains 
in the leg, etc., the transference of the voice — as 
stated in various narratives — to the chest, the toes, 
the abdominal region, etc., would follow as a natural 
consequence.! (Cf supra, p. 175, note i.) 

This being assumed as a preliminary, it is, of course, 
unnecessary that the patient should articulate aloud, 
or so that the articulation should be observed in any 
way by the persons present. A fusion of what is 
softly articulated, or of the sound produced by the 
current of breath influenced by articulation, with 
any coincidental subjective noises, or its perception 
during a possible hyperaesthesia of the auditory nerve, 
would easily explain the perception of "spoken 
words" even with very faint and perhaps scarcely 
perceptible articulation.^ 



^ Klinke, loc. cit. (pp. 155 sqq.), has stated the objections to the view 
that, in every case of verbal thought, slight motor processes must take 
place in the vocal apparatus. Apart from the weakness of the objections, 
the possibility of thought without such motor processes in the vocal 
muscles makes no difference whatever as far as the hypothesis here 
adopted is concerned, the point being that such movements tistially do 
take place. If they are absent in some particular cases, the result is 
only that there is no " double thinking." 

^ Persons suffering from affections of the ear frequently state that 
their own voices sound louder to them. Gruber, *' Ueber Autophonie 
und Tympanophonie," Monatsschrift fiir Ohrenheilkimde^ ii. 8 (iS68). 
Cf. Klinke, loc. cit., p. 153. "I will now briefly touch upon the 



AND ILLUSIONS. 26l 

The most important question, however, is whether 
we are justified in assuming that the movements of 
articulation could escape the consciousness. Such an 
assumption will scarcely seem a rash one, considering 
the number of analogous cases observed in other 
muscular groups. I have already called attention 
to the slight, rapid movements of the eyes, of which 
the patient is quite unconscious, in cases of vertigo. 
The result of these unconscious eye-movements is 
identical with what I am assuming to occur in 
automatic articulation. We see movement, but 
are not aw^are that it is our eyes that move 
and therefore transfer the movement to surrounding 
objects which appear to revolve round us. 

Automatic writing, in which the hand writes, while 
the consciousness is unaware of the action, is another 
example of the same thing. Here, too, the motor 
impulses set the muscular apparatus in motion, 
while our upper consciousness knows nothing of the 
action except through the result, afterwards looked 
on with incredulity by the writer, who denies having 
wTitten the words, and either thinks he has been 
made a fool of, or attributes the writing to spirits 
(mediumistic writing). 

The complete correspondence between automatic 
writing and automatic articulation will be best shown 
by the following parallel table : — 

phenomenon of heightened voice-innervation cited by Kandinsky (cf. 
Cramer, op. cit., pp. i6, 17). After subcutaneous injection of one 
milligram of hyoscine, I felt — in addition to visual hallucinations and 
illusions, and atactic phenomena — when I spoke that my own words 
sounded extremely loud. They seemed to me to come from above — 
from a point directly over the vertex . . . and several times I was 
uncertain whether the words I heard did not come from outside — 
i.e.y from another person." 



262 



HALLUCINATIONS 



Results. 



In automatic action of the 
muscular writing-apparatus. ^ 

I. Up and down strokes 
without recognisable meaning. 



In automatic action of the 

vocal organs." 

1. Inarticulate sounds with- 
out recognisable meaning ; 
when vigorously uttered, ob- 
jectively perceptible as z/*?*:/- 
/^r<2//^;^, or ecstatic "speaking 
with tongues " ; when the 
utterance is feeble, subjective 
perception of " confused noise," 
— " many voices talking at the 
same time." 

2. Subjective perception: 
The same word or sentence 
heard over and over again, 
e.g.^ ^^07tkel August^'' '"'' hepp^ 
heppi' "Do not eat," "Kill 
your child," or strange words, 
as, " Lolch-graf^'' etc. 

3. Subjective perception : 
Hearing of strange voices: 
" Thoughts are made for me." 
(This case sometimes develops 
out of the former).^ Ob- 
jective perception : somnam- 
bulistic prophecy. 

4. Subjective perception : 
Audible thinking, double 
thinking. Objective percep- 
tion : attacks of chattering ; 
Friedreich's co-ordinated 
memory-spasms. 

^ Cf. the series of articles by F. W. H. Myers in Proc. S.P.R. 

^ Compare "A Case of Psychic Automatism, including Speaking 
with Tongues," by Albert Le Baron, communicated by William James, 
Proceed. S.P.R. , vol. xii. pp. 277 et seq. 

^ Ball, Maladies mentales, p. 67. Also the hallucinatory "running 
commentary" on conscious thoughts mentioned, e.g.^ by Ziehen, 
Psychiatrie. 



2. The hand writes the 
same word or sentence over 
and over again. (Occurrence 
of mirror-writing, anagrams, 
etc.) 



3. The hand writes sen- 
tences, often long and com- 
plicated, belonging to the sub- 
liminal consciousness. 



4. The hand writes what the 
person is consciously thinking; 
but the person does not con- 
sciously or intentionally in- 
fluence the writing. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 263 

5. The hand writes auto- 5. The patient is able to 

matically, but the conscious direct the voices at pleasure, 
train of thought on the part 
of the subject influences the 
character of the communica- 
tion. 

The foregoing view is not only theoretically tenable, 
but finds further support in medical observations on 
hallucinated patients. Thus Moreau^ observed an 
insane patient who, when under the influence of hal- 
lucinations, moved his lips, and therefore was no 
doubt softly uttering the words which he heard from 
imaginary voices. 

Michel^ reports the remark of a patient that his 
auditory hallucinations — the words which forced them- 
selves upon him — accumulated in his mouth, so that 
his saliva was impregnated with them. Hoppe^ 
cites the case of a lunatic with persecution-mania, 
whose auditory hallucinations (consisting of abusive 
language) were accompanied by a twitching in his 
head, and who also declared that he perceived a 
gentle plucking in his mouth, and especially in the 
epiglottic region. With this may be compared 
Hoppe's observations on himself: — * 

" I was suffering from a slight inflammation of the left 
ear, and was lying in bed, on my left side, prepared to go to 
sleep. In consequence of the pressure and the pulsation I 
heard the secretion in the left ear moving with a slight crepita- 
tion. It occurred to me to imitate this noise articulately; I 
therefore gave the necessary impulse to the articulatory muscles 
and very soon my imitative articulatory motions were pro- 

^ Moreau (de Tours), Du Haschisch, etc. 

^ Michel, Gazette des hdpitaiix {\%(i\); vide stipra, p. 28, Note i. 

3 Op. cit.^ p. 217. ^ Qz5. cit.^ p. 229. 



264 HALLUCINATIONS 

duced with extreme rapidity, while I heard them in my ear, 
Txxvdifelt them in jny mouth P 

We may also cite in this connection the note of 
Kandinsky's already made use of by Hoppe. Kan- 
dinsky, having played on the zither before going to 
sleep, suddenly, when in bed, heard the beginning 
of the piece which he had been playing. After this 
the tones followed one another with increasing 
rapidity until the tune died away.^ 

Langwieser's patient^ at first had auditory hallu- 
cinations, to which were gradually added those of 
smell, sight, etc. In eating, he could not perceive 
the deglutition of the food, and never felt that he had 
had enough. Every morsel turned round of itself in 
his mouth and was snatched aside ; what he drank 
seemed to be lost under his tongue, and not swal- 
lowed. His tongue felt as though it hung by thirty 
or forty fine threads, which were continually being 
pulled, so that it moved constantly of itself In 
speaking, he felt as if the words were being dragged 
out of his mouth. 

According to Seglas,^ a patient said, " When I 
think, I cannot help speaking, or I should choke. 
Even if I do not speak aloud, if you watch care- 
fully you can always see my lips moving ; but this 

^ Cf. the way in which one is haunted by tunes, especially dance 
tunes. This, too, usually arises from an automatic and continued 
production of the particular rhythm. In most cases it is the rhythm 
alone which possesses the sensory quality, though the imagination fills 
it in with the remembered tones of voice or instrument. 

- Langwieser, " Exquisiter Fall von Hallucinationen," Spit. Zeit.^ 
1863, Nos. 46-48. 

^ " L'hallucination dans ses rapports avec la function du langage ; 
les hallucinations psychomotrices," Progres medical, 16^ annee 2, serie 
viii., Nos. 33, 34. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 265 

is still more the case when I hear voices out of 
my belly." Further material in abundance is to be 
found among the cases discussed in the article of 
Klinke's already cited. In one patient frequent 
movements of the lips were noticed, as though he 
were talking to himself; another denied that he was 
forced to repeat what he heard, but felt his tongue 
becoming heavy, etc. 

One of the best cases is that recorded by Sir H. Holland 
(1840), and afterwards rescued from oblivion by Pick.^ A man 
aged 85, physically weak, but with his mental faculties quite 
unimpaired, who had never suffered from any brain affection, 
had a fall in which he struck his forehead, causing a swelling. 
After this he could no longer remember the names of his 
servants, or find the right words ; all speech sounded to him 
unintelligible and indefinite. These symptoms ceased after two 
days. Some days later he went out for a drive. Immediately 
he was aware of voices, but these voices were as ataxic and 
aphasic as the patient himself had previously been. On his 
return from the drive, when reading, the symptom of audible 
thinking occurred, the voice sometimes being in advance of 
what he was reading, but never farther than his eye could 
reach. 

In explanation of this case one might assume that 
the functional derangement had not quite passed 
away, that the shaking during the drive again threw 
the vocal mechanism out of order; but that this 
disturbance was too slight to override the strong 
impulses on which speech is based, although able to 
make itself felt in the wider innervation accom- 
panying the act of thinking. This would furnish a 
very simple explanation of the conversations between 
hallucinated patients and their ghostly counsellors 
or persecutors. V. Parant mentions the case of a 

^ Prager medicalische Wochenschrift^ iSSjj No. 44. 



266 HALLUCINATIONS 

female inmate of a lunatic asylum, who, whenever 
she fancied herself threatened, or in any trouble or 
difficulty, went to some fixed place, and there 
received, from imaginary persons, advice which 
always corresponded with her wishes.^ Another was 
in the habit of playing at " odd or even " with an 
apparition, who always obligingly guessed the wrong 
numbers. The phantom was less complaisant in the 
case of a woman who was constantly studying a 
law-book, and in her imaginary disputes was always 
defeated by the arguments of her opponent.^ 

Just as external rhythmic sounds, repeated for a 
considerable period of time, like the rumbling of a 
train, the sound of breathing, etc., can so influence us, 
that a tune, or a sentence pronounced rhythmically, 
forces itself on us in continual repetition, so the 



^ Ann. mid. -psych., 6th series, vol. vii. p. 379; Ball, Maladies 
mentales, p. 98. Other cases have been previously mentioned. 

^ This case may perhaps be compared with one of those dreams in 
which, e.g., the dreamer imagines that he is in school and is asked a 
queslion by the master which he cannot answer. He finds himself in the 
greatest embarrassment ; and the master asks the next pupil, who then 
gives the correct answer. The explanation of this esprit d'escalier 
which sometimes occurs in dreams is usually this : that the slate of 
excitement does not allow the idea which is pressing forward to reach 
the consciousness, but that the attention is entirely devoted to the 
seeking, to the exclusion of the finding. It is only when the tension 
is relaxed that the thing sought for penetrates into the consciousness. 
Yet how many of these so-called *' correct answers " are really correct, 
and do not rather consist in an entirely meaningless vocal motion, 
which, through the emphasis it receives from the feelings, produces 
the impression of having been correct? Compare with this, on the 
other hand, the following from Ziehen's Psychiatrie (p. 27): — "I 
know a patient who regularly carried on the study of Italian ; when 
he repeated lists of words to himself, it sometimes happened that he 
did not know a word, or said it wrongly, and the voice told him the 
right word." 



AND ILLUSIONS. 267 

same is the case with intra-aural sounds, pulsations, 
etc. In this connection a narrative of C. Fiirer's^ 
is of interest. Without being acquainted with the 
form of auditory hallucinations here to be de- 
scribed, Furer, when still suffering from an imper- 
fectly healed perforation of the left tympanum, 
made on himself an experiment in the inhalation 
of ether. Hereupon there set in, among other 
symptoms, a rushing in the ears, chiefly localised 
on the left side, then strong hyperacousia, fol- 
lowed by steadily increasing pulsations in the left 
ear. These pulsations produced the mechanical 
repetition of the words " tom torn s s, tom tom s s," 
in the form of obstinately recurring mental images 
(2>., softly articulated by himself), which increased in 
distinctness, till it assumed the character of a halluci- 
nation. He thought he could distinctly hear a person 
standing on his left, shouting these words to him, 
marking the rhythm and keeping time with the 
pulsations in his ear. 

In connection with this observation on himself, he 
cites three other cases, in which the patients (acute 
hallucinatory insanity, imbecility, maniacal period of 
circular insanity) were subject to auditory hallucina- 
tions of a rhythmic character. In two of these cases 
an examination of the ears was instituted. It was 
found that, in the one, chronic changes of connective 
tissue had taken place over circumscribed areas in 
both tympana — a condition frequently accompanied by 
noises in the ears. The second patient was found to 

^ C. Fiirer, '* Ueber das Zustandekommen von Gehorstauschungen," 
Centralblatt fiir Nervenheilkunde u. Psychiatrie, New Series, v. , Feb. 
1894. These rhythmic auditory hallucinations are frequently to be 
found in published reports of cases. 



268 HALLUCINATIONS 

be suffering from chronic affections— on one side, of 
the middle ear, on the other, of the labyrinth. 

I am inclined to find further confirmation of 
the hypothesis just stated, in the occurrence of 
certain objective phenomena akin to this type of 
hallucination — viz., spasmodic attacks of chatter- 
ing, Friedreich's co-ordinated memory-spasms, etc. 
While the latter are, in fact, nothing else but 
the carrying out of " continued " movements,^ the 
former correspond throughout to "audible think- 
ing." Kandinsky describes such a case, in which the 
patient, fearing to betray his thoughts by his rapid, 
mechanical chattering (resembling the noise of an 
alarum-clock), ran into the water-closet till the attack 
had passed away. 

A fact specially pointed out by Burckhardt^ in his 
interesting work seems to me not without importance. 
Starting with the idea that irritation of the cortical 
area, whose destruction deprives the human subject 
of the power of understanding spoken words, might 
so act upon the hearing-function as to cause hallu- 
cinations of words and sentences, he searched 
through medical literature for evidence of a relation 
between auditory hallucinations and affections of the 
temporal lobes. But while Nothnagel is able to 
adduce visual hallucinations as symptoms of lesions 
in the occipital cortex, no definite indications of a 
corresponding connection between acousmata and 

' Professor Wille knew a paranoic professor of botany who would 
continue counting up the genera and species of plants for four hours at 
a time. 

- G. Burckhardt-Prefargier, " Ueber Rindenexcisionen, als Beitrag 
zur operativen Therap. der Psychosen." Paper read at the Berlin 
International Medical Congress. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 269 

lesions of the temporal lobes are to be found.* Never- 
theless Burckhardt holds that it by no means follows 
from the silence of the authorities as to auditory 
hallucinations in temporal lesions of the cortex, " that 
Wernicke's convolution has nothing to do with the 
origin of auditory hallucinations." He considers it 
most probable that, " besides Wernicke's convolution, 
other cortical regions connected with the function 
of speech must be simultaneously excited. I was 
thinking," he adds, " in the first instance, of Broca's 
convolution, and of the possibility that it is only 
through the co-operation of the motor element 
located there that the hallucinations attain the 
strength and clearness of the spoken word." Quite 
so, they possess this strength just because they are 
spoken words.^ 

^ In Ladame's catalogue {Hirngeschwiihle, Wurzburg, 1865) two 
cases of "hallucinations" in tumours of the "middle lobe" are 
cited, but not one in tumours of the convexity. Bernhardt {Him- 
geschwiilstey Berlin, 1881) summarises five cases of tumour in the 
temporal lobes, or their immediate neighbourhood, with rushing and 
buzzing in the ears, and three with deafness (equal on both sides), but 
never mentions auditory hallucinations. In the case of Wernicke and 
Friedlander {Gehirtikranhheiten, iii. p. 338) these are likewise absent. 
Nothnagel [Top. diag.) does not speak of them, neither does Roger 
{Lesions corticales, Paris, 1879) or Pierson [Die Localitdt der Him- 
krankheiten, 1880); the latter, however, gives the lack of observations 
as a reason for the omission. Naunyn says nothing of auditory hallu- 
cinations in temporal (cortical) lesions. 

- Note, especially, in Case V. the difference in the effect of the 
excision of the grey matter in the acoustic, and of the second operation 
in the motor vocal area. The observation is, as it were, complementary 
to the case narrated by Pick, after Sir H. Holland [vide supra, p. 265). 
It may also be mentioned that, according to Serieux [Archiv. 
der NeiiJ'ologie, May 1894), the autopsy in the case of a paralytic 
woman, subject to auditory hallucinations of a pronounced motor 
character, showed scarcely any changes except in the third frontal 
convolution on each side. 



2/0 HALLUCINATIONS 

To this it might be objected that all the examples 
given above, in which the patients were more or less 
distinctly aware of the movements of their vocal 
organs in audible thinking, are so many direct refu- 
tations of the explanation I have given. This 
objection may be met by referring to the example 
given by Gurney {vide supra, pp. 154 sqq.\ and the 
considerations which it suggests. One may, how- 
ever, specially point out that, in most cases, patients 
consider themselves as passively enduring the un- 
recognised vocal movements. The one theme, whose 
variations we meet with in the statements of patients, 
runs thus : " My tongue is moved — some one is 
speaking in my mouth." Here just that sense in 
the patient of his own activity, which Cramer's hypo- 
thesis implies, is absent. 

Not satisfied with all these arguments, I have tried 
experiments in order to produce automatic articula- 
tion. From the series of experiments, which (so far 
as any automatic articulation took place at all) for 
the most part yielded positive results, the following 
example may be given. 

A. having been hypnotised, these directions were 
given him (carefully written out beforehand, so as 
to avoid any unintentional suggestions connected 
with hearing)'. — "You are aware that no thinking 
is possible, except in words. When I wake you, 
after a time, you will articulate all your thoughts 
very forcibly. You will only do this until I give you 
an order to the contrary. You will articulate all your 
thoughts very forcibly, but you will not notice that 
you do so; you will not be conscious of moving your 
epiglottis, your tongue," etc. I expected speech as a 
result of this suggestion. This did not take place. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 2/1 

On the contrary, after A. had been awakened, he 
assumed, almost immediately, a listening attitude. His 
expression showed intense expectation ; his look ivas 
directed sideways. After a considerable pause, he 
remarked spontaneously, " Tell me, do you think 
there is any one in the room ? " " Yes, you and I." 
"But is there no one else?" He cast his eyes 
searchingly about the room, and once more assumed 
a listening attitude. In order not to suggest to him 
any ideas having reference to this matter, and to leave 
him uninfluenced, in view of future experiments, no 
further questions were put to him. 

From all this, it would appear that the greater 
number of the " voices," if not all, are caused (in flat 
contradiction to Cramer's theory) by automatic 
speech on the part of the percipient. As in all 
automatism, we must assume here, as in genuine 
hallucinations, a dissociation, a splitting off, even in 
those cases where the hallucinatory perceptions form 
the only symptom visible to the observer. 



CHAPTER IX. 

TELEPATHIC HALLUCINATIONS. 

Results of the International Census — Various sources of error : 
(i) Hallucinations of Memory, (2) Reading back of details 
after the evenly (3) Exaggeration of the Coincidence — 
Comparison between Coincidental and Non-Coincidental 
^^ Waking" Hallucinations misleading — Indications of 
Dissociation i?t the Death-Coincidences of the Report — 
Association of Ideas not to be ignored — Other proofs of 
Telepathy Criticised — Alleged special characteristics of 
^^ Telepathic^^ Hallucinations. 

In any general discussion of hallucinations it is 
impossible at the present day to ignore the ques- 
tion of "telepathy."^ Apparitions are frequently 
reported as coinciding with the death or with 
some exceptional crisis in the life of the person 
whose presence they suggest, and there is a dis- 
position in certain circles to regard these as 
"veridical," that is to say, as depending in some way 
on the event which they shadow forth. Numerous 
attempts have been made to explain these "coinci- 
dental hallucinations," which it is supposed are of too 

^ The hallucinations of "clairvoyance" I purposely pass over here. 
The evidence for this reputed faculty seems to me of quite inconsider- 
able value, even that part of it which has been critically examined 
and sifted being open to grave objections. One of the most im- 
portant contributions to the subject is Richet's "Relation de Diverses 
Experiences sur la Transmission Mentale, la Lucidite, etc.," Proceed. 
S.P.R., vol. V. pp. 18-168. 



HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. 273 

frequent occurrence to be merely fortuitous — attempts 
ranging from the first crude theories, the beh'ef in 
ghosts, guardian angels, and so on, to the modern 
hypothesis, put forward with due reserve and based 
on an astonishing mass of material, to some extent 
critically handled, which we owe to the researches of 
the English S.P.R., and especially to the authors of 
Phaiitasms of the Living. 

But before formulating new theories, we ought 
first to make sure that veridical coincidences^ really 
do occur more frequently than chance will explain. 
The question whether we must postulate a new 
cause or attribute the coincidences to mere chance, 
may thus be regarded as purely a question of 
figures.^ 

^ I shall call a case "veridical" when the content of the hallucination 
corresponds to the event to which it is supposed to refer (for instance, 
the apparition of a friend who is dying), and I shall use the word 
'^ coincidental" only with reference to the correspondence in time 
between the veridical hallucination and the event. 

' The Report calculates the probability of chance coincidence in 
cases of death as follows : — " The fact that each of us only dies once, 
enables us to calculate definitely the probability that that death will 
coincide with any other given event, such as the recognised apparition 
of the dying person. Taking as a basis for calculation the average 
annual death-rate for England and Wales for the ten years 1881 to 
1890, as given in the Registrar-General's Report for 1890, namely, 
19. 15 per thousand, we get as the probability that any one person taken 
at random would die on a given day, 19.15 in 365,000, or about i in 
19,000. This, then, may be taken as the general probability that he 
will die on the day on which his apparition is seen and recognised, 
supposing that there is no causal connection between the apparition 
and the death. We ought therefore to find that out of 19,000 appari- 
tions of living persons, or persons not more than' twelve hours dead, 
one is a death-coincidence." Compare the chapter on the Theory of 
Chance-Coincidence, vol. ii., pp. 1-28, in Phantasms of the Living, 
and two articles in the S.P.R. Proceedings for 1885, pp. 190 et seq., and 
1886-87, PP- '§9 ^^ ^^1- '■> also an adverse criticism of the evidence in 
the Proceedings of the American S.P.P., pp. 180 et seq., and a review 

18 



274 ' HALLUCINATIONS 

The first obstacle which we encounter is the diffi- 
culty of obtaining satisfactory evidence of the co- 
incidental character of the phenomena. The English 
observers. simpHfied their task, and at the same time 
adopted a limit which seemed to them sufficient, by 
including only hallucinations reported as occurring 
within twelve hours of the event to which they were 
supposed to relate. 

The reason given — a sufficiently plausible one — 
for allowing this interval is that a " telepathic " im- 
pression (that is to say, an impression conveyed to 
us by some still unknown means, but in any case not 
through the normal sensory channels) probably takes 
place sub-consciously, and can emerge as a hallucina- 
tion only when a favourable psychical state occurs, 
as we saw, for instance, in crystal visions. ^ 

Whether or not this supposition would be found to 
cover the facts if the existence of a telepathic agency 
were demonstrated, to adduce it while the proof of 
telepathy is yet to seek is rather like arguing in a 
circle. In any case it is to be noted that the conception 
of coincidence is in this wise not inconsiderably ex- 
tended. 

oi Phantas7}ts to the same effect in the Amei-ican Journal of Psychology. 
In all attempts at calculation we must keep constantly before us the 
fact emphasised by Edgeworth in the Proceed, of the S.P.R., 1S85 : 
that '^l/ie calciihts of probabilities cannot reveal to tis the nature of the 
agency^ tvhether it is ?nore likely to be vulgar illusion or extraordinary 
la7v:' 

^ It does not come within the scope of the present work to discuss the 
various forms (emotion, involuntary movements and ideas, etc.) under 
which telepathy is supposed to manifest itself. For a general survey of 
the theory of telepathy and the evidence upon which it rests, see Frank 
Podmore, ApparitioJis and Thought-Transference, an Exami7iaiio7t of 
the Evidence for Telepathy (Contemporary Science Series), London : 
Walter Scott. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 275 

One of the main objects of the International Census 
of Hallucinations, with the results of which I have 
dealt more fully in a previous chapter, was to discover 
the actual proportion between the number of hallucina- 
tions in general and those which are "veridical," which 
coincide, that is, with a corresponding experience. On 
the first glance, the result of the Census seems dis- 
tinctly favourable to the hypothesis of telepathy.^ 

Res2ilt of the Collections. — In the English Collection, 
with which I shall chiefly deal, we find ^2 hallucina- 
tions of a distinct and vivid kind, which represent 
living persons. (I take these figures from the " first- 
hand " cases, and shall henceforward ignore the 
" second-hand " accounts, as being insufficiently at- 
tested.) Of the 372 first-hand cases 6^ (18 per 
cent.) are reported as occurring coincidentally with 
the death of the person whose " apparition " was 
recognised.- 

The final figures of the American Census are not 
yet to hand, but its results so far, as communicated 
by Professor W. James in a letter to the Munich 
Congress, appear to be even more favourable to 
telepathy than the results of the English Collection. 
(In the latter the coincidences are 292 times more 
numerous than chance would allow, while Professor 
James reckons the disproportion in his cases as no 
less than 487.) But his 12 death-coincidences can 
hardly be taken seriously, since "only five" of them 
"have any corroboration, and in no case is it first 
rate"! With such data, above all in dealing with so 
baffling and so vexed a question, no conclusion can 

^ Compare below Appendix II., Table 8. 

- According to the Report, 65 coincidental cases, besides 15 other 
cases which were rejected on various grounds. 



276 HALLUCINATIONS 

safely be drawn. It is futile to guard against for- 
getfulness and so on when it is not even certain that 
one genuine veridical coincidence is to be found 
among the cases, Marillier's French Collection gives 
35 first-hand coincidental cases=i.7 per cent, of all 
the hallucinations reported. But in the majority 
of these cases he found it impossible to obtain 
any further details, or independent confirmation of 
the statements. He received on the whole the 
impression that the coincidences appeared to the 
narrators closer than they really were.^ The Munich 
Collection ^ is distinguished by the great number of 
cases in which the percipient reports the coincidence 
of the vision, voice, or touch with a death. It is 
also relatively rich in cases where several persons 
simultaneously shared in the hallucination (see cases 
in Appendix I.). 

Arguments Against the Veridical Nature of the 
Cases Reported. — It is among the narratives of this last 
Collection, however, that the most obvious indications 
are to be found of the common tendency (which is 
perhaps responsible for most reported coincidences) to 
connect events, especially those which are important 
and striking, with each other. Take, for instance, 
the following case : — 

(Munich Collection, iii. 23.) " I hereby certify that in May 
1888 my wife and 1 were awakened simultaneously by a loud 
noise, which sounded like the breaking of a glass door and the 
falling of the splinters. There was no such door in our house, 
I went to see what was amiss, but found everything as usual. 
Three weeks after my father-in-law died." 

Captain K.'s narrative^ is equally characteristic. 

^ RepOTt of Second International Congress of Psychology^ pp. 66etseq. 

^ See below, Appendix II., Table 8. 

2 See Appendix I., Munich Collection, xvi. 2 b. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 2yj 

He states that he saw a black balloon-Hke ball ascend 
into the sky, whereupon he immediately thought of 
his mother, who was ill, although she was then 
expected to recover, and he was not feeling anxious 
at the time. " Next day," he adds laconically, " I 
found my mother worse (unconscious); on the 29th 
October she died " [3-4 days after the apparition]. 

Halhicinations of Memory. — It is not improbable 
that we have to deal in many of these cases with a 
mnemonic error of a peculiar kind. Thus I should 
be inclined to refer with Royce^ a large class of 
recent cases, vouched for by persons whose honesty 
is undoubted, and who are in nowise superstitious 
or inclined to mystical beliefs, to a hallucination of 
memory consisting in the impression at the very 
moment of some exciting experience, or at a longer 
or shorter period after it, that one has expected it before 
its coming. 

Royce suggests a provisional explanation of the process ; we 
might call it a sort of " cramp of recognition," a " momentary 
spasm of the activity of apperception," he says. As one to 
whom a stranger has accidentally bowed on the street 
momentarily tries to believe that he does after all recognise 
the stranger, so one surprised by a calamity, even in the midst 
of the shock of it, still tries to believe that things were always 
so with him. "Just my luck!" cries one. "It was sure to 
happen, I knew it before," exclaims another. These are, of 
course, only half-sincere, conventional ways of meeting mis- 
fortune. They produce in general no hallucination. But 
som.etimes under the sudden strain, or soon after the blow 
has fallen, consciousness gives way, the spasmodic effort to 
"realise" this new intolerable thing, to familiarise the mind 
with it, overshoots the mark, and a kind of pseudo-recognition 
takes place. The experience now seems strangely familiar. 
We must have known it before, we had a presentiment of it. 

^ Proceedings of the American S.F.R,, pp. 366 el seq.. 



278 HALLUCINATIONS 

This process, which occurs sporadically in certain sane 
people under certain exciting conditions, may in abnormal cases 
become the more or less constant accompaniment of every act 
of apperception. It is not, however, a form of mnemonic error 
often observed among the insane/ Kraepelin speaks of it as 
represented by " a small group of observations." The patient, 
he says,^ is perfectly conscious of his real surroundings, and 
events wear a familiar face to him, not because he thinks he has 
experienced them before, but because he imagines they have 
been revealed to him in visions or foretold to him in some 
mysterious way. 

Since such a fallacy of memory is just as capable 
of deceiving as a sensory hallucination, and since 
it generally occurs in exciting circumstances, that is, 
in circumstances which tend to lower the critical 
faculty of those present, and often actually to pre- 
dispose to the reception of waking suggestions, 
witnesses will soon be found — even supposing com- 
plete integrity on the part of those concerned — to 
testify to the actual occurrence of the presentiment. 
Frequently other hallucinations of memory follow 
and other imaginary impressions are remembered 
which testify to the existence of the presentiment 
previous to the occurrence of the event in question; 
or, again, — and probably in the majority of cases, — 
present impressions are projected backwards in a form 
involuntarily modified to suit the presentiment.^ 
Some examples will illustrate this. 

" One week from to-night (Friday, December 9th) I had a 
vivid dream. I was in a store with a friend, selecting a pistol. 

^ Kraepelin, "Ueber Erinnerungsfalschungen," Arch.f, Psych. ^ xviii. 
pp. 393-409, gives two cases. For some other cases which may perhaps 
be classed here see v. Krafft-Ebing, Lehrb. d, Psychtatrie, 2nd ed., ii. 
p. 146,= Arch.f. Psych., xx. p. 337. 

^ Kraepelin, Arch.f. Psych., xviii. p. 395. 

^ Cf. Bernheim, De la Suggestioit. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 2/9 

My friend was purchasing the pistol with the intention of com- 
mitting suicide. I seemed to favour my friend's project, and 
was busy helping him to pick out a suitable one. I can see the 
store, the pistols, and all, very vividly now. The picture has 
fixed itself in my mind. The following night my friend, G. Z., 
shot himself in a New York hotel. I did not mention the 
dream to any one, thinking it of no consequence. The shooting 
was a great shock to me, as I had no suspicion of such a 
thing." ^ 

" Miss C.'s younger sister^ came home from town, and began 
to say, 'Aunt G. is ill ' 'Stop,' said the elder sister; 'be- 
fore you say another word, let me tell you a singular dream 
which I have had. I thought I was walking up the steps to my 
aunt's house, when some one met me and told me that my aunt 
was ill, but that it was impossible at that time to say what was 
the matter with her, but it would be decided very soon. I went up 
the steps again in an hour or two, and then was told (I think by 
the doctor) that there was no doubt now — it was pneumonia.' 
A few days after this conversation, the aunt died of acute 
bronchitis." 

(Munich Collection, ii.) "When my mother died, Januaiy 
8th, 1890 (at Donau-altheim, of influenza, at the age of 67), I was 
lying awake in bed, in my house at Dillingen. At y.'^o a.m. I 
felt myself touched through the clothes, three times, quite firmly, 
as if by a hand. I began to weep, because I already had a 
presentiment that my mother would die. I mentioned this at 
the time, and an hour later, on the same morning, I received 
the news that my mother had died that morning at 7.30. I 
was wide [awake], but had a slight headache. I had never 
previously experienced anything of the kind, and am not other- 
wise out of health." 

Perhaps the following narrative, like a great 
number of cases of second sight, really belongs to 
the sanne class, though it must be admitted that the 
narrator may have experienced genuine sensory hal- 

^ Proceedings Amer, S.P.R., p. 375. The further details there given 
furnish a good example of the distinctness which can be assumed by this 
kind of retrospective hallucination. 

- Ibid., pp. 385, 3S6. ■ 



280 HALLUCINATIONS 

lucinations. The greater number of the occurrences, 
however, are probably based on the kind of memory- 
fallacy we have been discussing. 

(Munich Coll., xxix.) " I saw and heard persons speaking to 
me. Their appearance was mostly, I might say, grey, vaporous, 
transparent, yet they wore clothes, like ours. They usually 
warned me of misfortunes, of which I told other people, and 
they came to pass within eight or ten days. I also had 
visions, and often saw fires. After an interval, usually of 
from six to eight days, the house which I had seen on fire was 
really burnt down. The thing comes all at once, of itself, and 
disappears again. . . . My wife also heard knockings and felt 
her feet touched." 

To another kind of memory-fallacy, called by 
Kraepelin the "identifying fallacy,"^ many of those 
cases are probably to be referred, in which the nar- 
rator believes he has previously passed through the 
same experience, corresponding in all its details, in a 
dream or hallucination. 

This form of qualitative disturbance of reproduction, which 
causes a whole situation to appear as the exact repetition of 
a previous experience, frequently occurs in healthy subjects, 
especially young and imaginative persons, and is, in adults at 
least, certainly to be understood as a symptom of fatigue. 
This is in accordance with the fact that, of the few cases ob- 
served in insane patients, several occurred in epilepsy, and the 
connection of the disturbance with epileptic fits has often been 
noted. In healthy persons it takes place at moments of weari- 
ness, when outward impressions are only perceived vaguely, as 
if in a dream, and the subject experiences a feeling of complete 
mental vacuity, though without the power of stopping the 
stream of vague, indistinct images hastening through the mind. 

^ Kraepelin, Arch. f. Psych. ^ p. 400. To this article belongs also 
the short summary which follows in the text. For the literature of the 
subject the student may be referred to the same passage j cf. also 
Allgemeine Zeitschrift fur Psych. ^ xlviii., No. 6. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 28 1 

The conjunction of these two disturbances points to inhibition 
of attention, making clear apperception impossible, and, in 
spite of energetic efforts of will, not allowing clearness of view 
to be restored at once, but only after overcoming a certain 
resistance. This troubling of the consciousness, though only 
an accompanying phenomenon, yet no doubt acts as a predis- 
posing factor. 

The attempts at explanation have proceeded on two different 
lines, according as the reminiscence is taken to be a real but 
dim recollection of actual occurrences or not. The latter is the 
view adopted by Neumann, who considers that the " repeated " 
scene is simultaneously perceived as an image of the senses 
and of the memory, but leaves the reason for the duplication 
still to seek. Anjel explains the dupHcation by supposing 
that two processes, ordinarily simultaneous, perception and 
apperception, which may be supposed to be localised in 
different parts of the brain, may — through the retardation 
of the central conducting process in consequence of great 
fatigue — be separated by a sensible interval, so that we 
lose sight of the inner connection between the two, and take 
the apperception for a figment of the imagination. Jensen 
similarly assumes the separation of two processes psychologi- 
cally overlapping, or divided only by an imperceptible interval, 
and seeks the organic ground of this incongruity in the theory 
— championed by Wigan and Schroeder van der Kolk — of a 
normal parallelism of the functions of both cerebral hemi- 
spheres. In fact, if, under ordinary circumstances, every 
perception of each hemisphere takes place separately, and if 
this separate activity only fails to affect our consciousness 
normally, because of the complete simultaneity of all pro- 
cesses, every pathological or physiological disturbance of 
this harmony must lead to a temporary disintegration of the 
act of perception. Unfortunately, there are weighty objec- 
tions to each of the above-named theories. But even the 
explanation attempted (in the other direction) by Jessen, 
Sander, and others, of these delusions of memory as real, dim 
recollections of actual experience in dreams, is not without 
difficulties ; it might be overthrown by the mere fact that other 
kinds of memory-fallacies exist. This being so, a solution 
which it is possible to accept has yet to be discovered. 



2-82 HALLUCINATIONS 

While, as a general rule, the "foreknown" scene 
or circumstance appears to repeat a former waking 
experience, in the following examples the imaginary 
experience is transferred to a dream. Otherwise 
they present all the marks of typical "identifying" 
memory-delusions. 

One narrator states ^ that during the night he dreamed a line 
of verse unknown to him, and that next day this line was read, 
with a slight change, at a public commemoration. " I felt that 
something was coming which was familiar, and as he ended the 
line I felt that I could repeat the next one, and I did so, ahead 
of him. But as we proceeded, I was confounded with the fact 
that apparently my line would not rhyme with his. As I said 
' die for,' he said ' do.' ^ I spent some minutes in trying to 
determine whether I liked his sentiment or mine the most." 
The same narrator reports also a second and later incident of 
the same kind. 

In the above case all the characteristics of the 
memory-fallacy are clearly recognisable — viz., the 
feeling of having experienced the event (in a 
dream), the dim presentiment of what is to follow, 
the sudden cessation of identity, and the feeling of 
uneasiness accompanying all this (" I was con- 
founded"). 

The following case is probably an example of the 
same fallacy : — ^ 

" I thought I saw a mad dog coming up Randolph Street, 
and saw him attack my little eight-year-old boy, seizing him on 
the upper arm near the shoulder. Such was the impression 

1 Froc. Am. S.P.R., p. ^J^. 

^ " Those love her best who to themselves are true, 
And what they dare to dream of, dare to do/'" 

— Lowell, Harvard Commemoration Ode. 
^ Froc. Am. S.F.J?., p. 456. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 283 

that I soon awoke, and called to my wife and told her of my 
dream. * Oh,' she replied, ' it is only one of your dreams !' 
I told her I never, in all my dreams, had had such a vivid 
dream. I could not sleep any. more that night, and could not 
shake it off." On the narrator's return from the journey during 
which this dream had taken place, he found that his son had 
been bitten by a mad dog on the same part of the arm seen in 
his dream. 

Adaptation of an actual hallucination to the event 
afterwards connected with it. — But even in cases 
where the actual occurrence of a hallucination may 
be assumed, there is still the question whether its 
details were really identical with those presenting 
themselves to the memory at a later period. For 
it is just such "strange" occurrences, as would seem 
to most of us the partial correspondence of a dream 
or vision with a subsequent event, which show a 
tendency to assume within a short time a more 
finished, perhaps a more interesting form, which the 
common instinct for dramatic completeness renders 
plausible and natural, to the percipient's friends as 
well as to himself. The points of correspondence 
come out with special distinctness; those, on the 
contrary, which do not correspond drop out of 
sight or are assimilated to the rest^ Thus I 



1 Cf. Report, pp. 117 .y^^.— from Dr. H. C. :— " In the year 1863 
(I think I could find out the very day and year with a little trouble. 
It was a Tuesday, five days before the death of a lady whom I used to 
connect in my mind with my vision. But as I did not do this when I 
related my story in the morning after, nor till after the death of the 
lady, I now reject this connection as a fanciful addendum}, being 
about twenty-six years old, I was sleeping alone, = , . As I started 
up and raised myself on my elbow I saw a tall lady . . , looking 
steadily at me with a most gentle, meditating gaze. About forty, I 
should say. T no'-iij say that I did not at all recognise the face." It 



284 HALLUCINATIONS 

know a lady (a great lover of dogs) who dreamed 
that she was taking leave, with her family, of their 
estate, which had been sold for the price of 750,000 
poodles. The dream was related and laughed over. 
A few days after her husband was approached by a 
land-agent with the inquiry whether he would be 
willing to sell his estate. As an approximate price 
which the purchaser, in the event of an arrangement, 
might be willing to give, he named the sum of 
750,000 marks. This coincidence was quite sufficient 
to produce in the mind of the lady, a strictly veracious 
person, the delusion that she had not only dreamed 
the number correctly, but the unit of value — i.e., 
that in her dream she had received, not a pack of 
poodles, but a sum of money as an equivalent for 
the estate. And not only the lady herself, but the 
greater number of her friends and relatives, allowed 
themselves to be fully convinced that this was the 
true state of the case. 



follows from these words that the narrator (whom the rest of the narra- 
tive shows to have had a comparatively critical mind) during the period 
immediately succeeding the lady's death, not only believed himself 
compelled to connect the apparition with the death, but also at that 
time thought thai he had recognised the figure as that of the deceased. 
It was only at a later period that he was able to free himself from the 
overpowering impulse towards adaptation of memory and to correct his 
memory-image. 

Cf. also Report, p. 284 (case 402. 8) : — A lady about to enter a 
carriage saw inside it a hallucinatory figure which she did not 
recognise. Some days later she heard of the death of a gentleman 
known to her, and on the receipt of this news she immediately became 
aware that the apparition was no other than that of her deceased friend. 
Her sister agrees with this opinion — ** Grace i ma description precise," 
adds the narrator naively ! 

Case 49. 5 (pp. 143, 144) is of another kind, and rightly explained 
by the percipient. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 285 

As in this case, the Jialhicination retroactive is 
characterised by the firmness with which the per- 
cipient's faith resists all assaults, by the obstinacy with 
which he persists in asserting the actuality of the 
occurrence, and the extreme annoyance which he 
exhibits when any doubt is hinted as to the accuracy 
of his version. Many persons, not usually fanatics in 
the cause of truth, prefer to submit to inconvenience 
rather than doubt their own recollections. 

The following was observed by myself : S , .1 cow-herd, 

who had been several times hypnotised, was on one occasion 
when awake, some days after he had been last hypnotised, 
asked in a manner designed to give the suggestion, what had 
happened to the oxen, as they were running about the yard 
with no one to look after them. This (imaginary) occurrence 
was willingly admitted; S accused himself of gross care- 
lessness; the bailiff, coming in, declared that he knew nothing 

of the matter, and threatened S with immediate dismissal 

in case it should really be as he represented. S excused 

himself for his carelessness, but obstinately adhered to his 
statement that, through his fault, the oxen were running about 
and had been injured. 

Bernheim's descriptions of retroactive hallucinations 
in hypnosis show the same character,^ which, indeed, 
they share with many sensory delusions — e.g.^ in the 
insane. Thus it would seem that it is often easier to 
convince such a person that he has been mistaken 
in an objective sensory perception than to shake his 
belief in the objectivity of his hallucinations.^ 

If we keep these considerations in view we shall 
feel that it is necessary to maintain a very sceptical 
attitude towards all accounts of " veridical " hallucina- 

^ De la Suggestion,, pp. 183 1?/ seq. 

- Compare the case of Moll's cited above, p. 245, Note 3. 



2S6 HALLUCINATIONS 

tions. Not of course that we should dismiss them 
offhand as old wives' fables — an all too common 
method of dealing with them — or even doubt the 
narrator's good faith; but we should, so to speak, 
append two large notes of interrogation to each of 
the cases, and ask before we accept the evidence as 
satisfactory, first, whether the experience may not be 
due to a hallucination of memory; and second, sup- 
posing the vision actually took place at the time 
affirmed, whether the details which exactly corre- 
spond to the details of the real event may not have 
been gradually developed afterwards by a process of 
sophistication through which the hallucination came 
to appear "veridical." And even if the second objec- 
tion alone should hold good it would be sufficient in 
itself to invalidate any conclusions from the veridical 
cases reported, seeing that it would be impossible to 
establish their veridicality,^ 

T/ie Coincidence not ahvays Proved. — If the 
above objection applies to all the cases in the 
collection alike, there remains yet another question 
to be asked in individual cases : whether, to wit, 
granted the veridical character of the hallucination, 
tlie experience was really coincidental; and, in spite 
of all the precautions taken by the committee, it 
seems to me that this is very doubtful. Surely 

^ Of course I should except cases in which, for instance, the per- 
cipient communicated the details of the hallucination, the time of 
its occurrence, etc., in a letter to a friend before hearing of the corre- 
sponding event. In this respect, however, the ''best attested" 
narratives in the Report are in very poor case, for when notes are said 
to have been taken or letters written at the time, they have been either 
lost or destroyed, or, if extant, are of such a kind that neither the 
details of the hallucination nor the exact coincidence can be proved 
from them. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 28/ 

cases like 418. 4,1 425. 10,^ and 307. 20,^ ought to 
be excluded from the number. The reported corre- 
spondence, so frequently appealed to as proof by 
the narrator, between the certified date of the death 
and the time of the hallucination, proves nothing-. 
For of course the percipient, assuming a discrepancy 
between the dates, would transfer the hallucination to 
the day of the death, and not the death to the day 
of the hallucination. 

Though it would be interesting to take a group of 
cases and analyse them as regards the probable 
genuineness of the coincidences, I shall not attempt 
to do so here, as it would take up too much time to 
weigh the separate items of evidence. But if I have 
only briefly referred to this source of error it is not 
that I consider it irrelevant or of secondary im- 
portance.* 

Arguments against the Comparison of Coincidental 
a) id Non-coincidental Waking Hcdlucinations, — But 

1 The percipient, Mr. Sims, is about six years out in his reckoning, 
and so is his wife. This is the more remarkable since the event 
must have occurred (Mr. Sims was about twenty years old at the time) 
very soon after their marriage, and therefore at a time which one would 
think hardly likely to be confused with a period six years afterwards. 

^ Mr. A. Sherar, the percipient, struck his interviewers "as having 
a very vivid recollection of his experiences." Nevertheless, his state- 
ment (in Case 2), " he believes he made out the coincidence of time," 
and his somewhat remarkable vagueness about the date of his own 
affianced wife's death ("about July 1873? "), furnish sufficient ground 
for excluding the case. 

2 Here the coincidence between the hallucination and the death was 
not discovered till some three weeks after the event. The mistake 
about the day of the week makes it very doubtful whether such a coin- 
cidence was really proved. 

^ Compare, for instance {Proceed. American S.P.R.), the exhaustive 
criticism on Phantasms of the Livings by Pierce, and Gurney's 
rejoinder. 



288 HALLUCINATIONS 

even supposing that the bulk of the narratives arc 
correct, we are still not entitled to assume that the 
numbers of the coincidental and non-coincidental 
cases are at all comparable. 

In the first place, it is very difficult in such an 
inquiry to guard against unconscious bias on the 
part of the collectors, who might by the special 
interest attaching to the coincidental hallucinations 
be led unintentionally to select them. The com- 
mittee have adopted various precautions against 
such selection, but, nevertheless, it is shown that 
of the coincidental phantasms of living persons 25 
per cent, and of the non-coincidental cases only 8 
per cent, were known beforehand to the collectors. 

Moreover, in regard to another point, it is clear 
from the tables themselves that the percentage must 
be considerably reduced. Thus the table distinguishes, 
first, hallucinations which occurred within five years 
of the date at which they were communicated; second, 
those which occurred more than five years but not 
more than ten years before they were reported ; and 
third, those which occurred at a still earlier period. 

In the last 5 years out of 84 cases 5 coincided with a death = 5.9570 

,, preceding 5 ,, ,, 50 „ 5 ,, ,, lo.o 

More than 10 years ago 99 ,, 55 ,, ,, 55.0 

These figures furnish on the face of them the most 
obvious confutation of the view of the English authors,^ 

^ Gurney, F>'OceedingsoftheAmerica?tS.F.R., pp. 176, 177. "All 
that I have assumed is, that a hallucination of the waking senses so 
distinct as those which have occurred in the coincidental cases is likely 
to survive in the mind on its own account, or at any rate to be recalled 
when the person who has experienced it is put into the right attitude 
for recalling it by being asked a definite question on the subject," 
Compare Phanf. of the Living, ii. pp. 10, 11. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 289 

a view which is of course assumed in all calculations 
of the kind, namely, that a hallucination persists 
equally long in the memory and is as readily recalled 
in reply to a question, whether the experience made 
but a slight impression on the percipient or affected 
him deeply, as would be the case, for instance, if the 
hallucination had been found to coincide with the death 
of a near relative or friend. If such a supposition 
were justifiable, if we could leave the memory- 
factor out of count in fixing the percentage, we 
should, if we adopted these figures, either have to 
assume that the coincidences are enormously under- 
rated, or that the death-rate among the favoured 
mortals who have experienced "veridical" halluci- 
nations is nine times less than the death-rate of 
those whose hallucinations have, so to speak, pro- 
phesied falsely. 

Thus there is nothing for it but to explain the circum- 
stance that the proportion of veridical hallucinations 
reported as occurring more than ten years ago, is 
nine times as great as the proportion reported as 
occurring within the last five years, as indicating that 
such striking experiences continue to be remembered 
when a multitude of other hallucinations have passed 
out of mind. To compare the numbers of coincidental 
and non-coincidental hallucinations is to compare the 
incomparable, and the attempt must be abandoned at 
the outset as fruitless. 

The writers of the Report — influenced, it is true, by 
other considerations — have sought to turn the point 
of this objection by multiplying the whole number of 
cases reported by 4. To go into the reasons for 
adopting this plan would lead us too far,i but it seems 

^ See Report, pp. 62-65 ; PP- 246 et seq. 

IQ 



290 HALLUCINATIONS 

to have a good deal in its favour.^ Nevertheless, it 
does not appear to me that the assumptions on which 
the calculation rests are well founded. 

A "veridical" hallucination is to be included among 
the " coincidental" cases even when it appears probable 
that external circumstances have produced in the corre- 
sponding nerve element-groups the tension favourable 
to the occurrence of hallucination.^ There is there- 
fore no objection to be raised when we find amongst 
the cases reckoned as coincidental, narratives in 
which the shimmer of a reflecting surface formed the 
occasion for the hallucinatory emergence of a sub- 
consciously perceived " shiny black waistcoat " and 
an individual subconsciously associated with that 
impression,^ or where the reflection of light in a 
mirror was perceived as the apparition of a friend 
who was seriously ill, and with whom the percipient 
had been sitting up the night before.* In another 
case certain objective sounds which were interpreted 
as footsteps, and a short conversation with one brother, 
led to the apparition of another brother passing 
through the room.^ There is of course nothing to be 
said against the inclusion of these cases among the 

^ If the similarity of the figures, which seem to afford a foundation of 
"natural law " for the calculations, is not fortuitous. " But where such 
small numbers are involved [and the numbers are very small indeed !] 
how can one be sure on this point?" (James, Psychol. Review^ 
ii. p. 74). 

^ Excluding, of course, cases where sensory impressions from the 
death-scene itself may have aroused the corresponding brain elements; 
for instance, where sounds of mourning from the death chamber, even if 
only subconsciously perceived, may have suggested that the event had 
taken place. 

^ Report, p. 237, Case 571. 14. 
- ^ Ibid.^ p. 237, Case 725. 6. 

^ Ibid.^ p. 239, Case 385. 20, and p. 227, Case 620. 5. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 29I 

coincidental ones, since the question is the coincidence^ 
and even such a simple case as my seeing in some 
stranger's face the face of a friend (who was dying at 
the time) might fairly be included; the problem at 
issue is the coincidental character of the phenomena, 
and that cannot be explained away by " mistaken 
identity." 

But if such cases may be legitimately reckoned 
among the " coincidences," similar non-coincidental 
cases ought not to be ruled out on the other side, 
but this is what the committee have done by reckon- 
ing them as "suspicious cases." If the cases excluded 
on this ground were taken into account in allowing 
for forgetful n ess, the multiplier would be not 4 but 
6\, Moreover, we must take into consideration that 
such cases would seldom be reported, that the 
great bulk of false perceptions, mistakes of identity, 
were excluded by the form of the question in the 
circular, which admitted such phenomena only as 
could not be explained by an external physical 
cause. 

This consideration would in itself be sufficient to 
demonstrate that the percentage of " veridical " hallu- 
cinations was much too high. But even when all wak- 
ing hallucinations are included the proportion is still 
considerably too high, and the reason is that all these 
calculations, according to my view of the nature of 
false perception, are vitiated by a fundamental fallacy. 
It is not merely that hallucinations which made 
little impression upon the mind soon fade from 
the memory, or that there is no legitimate ground 
for separating " illusions," in Esquirol's sense, from 
hallucinations; but there is absolutely no distinction^ 
either theoretic or practical, to be drawn between the 



292 HALLUCINATIONS 

sense deceptions of the dj^eam-state and those of the 
" zvaking-consciousness^ 

To prove the practical impossibility of such a dis- 
tinction, I should have to discuss all the cases in the 
Report, an undertaking manifestly impossible here. 
But if I take for examination some sufficiently large 
group of cases which have been classed together in 
the Report, on other grounds, I shall at least avoid 
the error of generalising from certain selected narra- 
tives which tell in favour of my conclusion, the more 
so since the series of cases which I propose to analyse 
are those included in the chapter on Telepathic Hal- 
lucinations (Report, pp. 207-241), that is to say, are 
those which the committee consider "on the whole 
the best evidentially." 

The objection will perhaps be raised that, in my 
attempt to indicate the ground for assuming that 
these experiences occur in the dream-state, that is 
to say, while the percipient is drowsy or half asleep, 
I have attached too much importance to mere casual 
expressions and turns of phrase. But when we con- 
sider how rapidly the details fade out of mind (as 
already shortly indicated on p. 104), and also the 
gradual change which the memory-image undergoes, 
both from the action of time and from frequent 
repetition, so that at last the idea of having been 
fully awake at the time becomes firmly fixed in the 
percipient's mind, we become convinced that the 
slightest indications of the presence. of such a state 
— which may be gathered from the percipient's de- 
scription of his feelings and surroundings at the 
time — are worthy of consideration. It is a proof of 
the honesty of the witnesses, and of the care with 
which the members of the S.P.R. have investigated 



AND ILLUSIONS. 293 

individual cases, that in these very narratives, all 
reasons to the contrary notwithstanding, there are 
yet so many hints of this kind to be found. 

I shall now proceed to discuss the separate cases, 
all of which are described in the Report as "death- 
coincidences." 

I. (425. 12.) Mr. S. reports the apparition of his aunt, which 
took place seven liiontJis previously ; the phantasm seemed to say 
" good-bye." The following details were obtained by Prof. H. 
Sidgwick in an interview with the percipient: "He had gone 
to bed early ^ eight-thirty, or a little later, and between nine and 
twelve he woke up and saw . . . In the early nwrnijtg he told 

his wife : ' I have seen Aunt P -, I am sure she is dead.' . . . 

He knows it was before twelve o'clock that he had the 
vision, because he used to get up at night and give the child 
something." 

The fact that the percipient mentions his going to 
bed early would seem to indicate that this was not 
his usual habit, and we may therefore infer that he 
was unusually tired. The vagueness as to time (in a 
case so recent) is a characteristic mark of the drowsy 
state. Considering the very friendly relations between 
the percipient and his aunt (to whom he used to write 
about once a month), it seems hardly likely that Mr. 
S., if he were really awake, should have let the whole 
night go by without communicating to his wife his 
strange experience and his firm conviction that his 
aunt was dead, but should have quietly turned round 
and gone to sleep again. Perhaps the whole ex- 
perience was a dream, a morning-dream even, which, 
through an illusion of memory, was transferred to the 
first sleep. It is further to be noted that a light 
was burning in the room all night, a circum.stance 
of course favourable to visual dreams. We shall 
encounter this fact frequently. 



294 HALLUCINATIONS 

2. (381. 4.) Mrs. T. P. Smith was roused from sleep by the 
vision of an acquaintance, who told her that she had " passed 
away." In this case the percipient was, by Mrs. Sidgwick's 
account, " probably only half awake." In a further fuller account 
Mrs. Smith states that the figure appeared twice, and she is 
" quite sure that she was awake " the second time. Nevertheless, 
the presence of the dream-state is clearly indicated by the un- 
critical spirit in which the apparition (and its strange utterance, 
"I have passed away") was received and taken for a real 
person, though the acquaintance whom the figure represented 
was then living at a distance, and expecting her confinement ; 
and further, the characteristic abse7ice of any feeli?tg of as- 
tonishmejit. " She felt no fear nor sense of the supernatural, 
only anxiety to question further." The suggestion that she was 
dreaming does not seem at first to have been very emphatically 
repudiated by Mrs. Smith. To her sister's remark that it must 
have been just a very vivid dream she merely replied, "Well, it 
was a very vivid one then." In the sister's account, Mrs. Smith 
is represented as waking her up " to tell her she had dreamt," 
etc. The fact that the percipient gets out of bed does not 
necessarily indicate that he or she is fully awake. This is shown 
in a parallel case, Report, p. 72. 

3. (362. 21.) Mrs. Baldwin had a complicated vision of the 
death of an uncle to whom she was much attached. This case 
is twenty-five years old, so it is naturally difficult to obtain 
details, but still a circumstance, to which we have referred 
already as not unimportant (p. 71), is indicated in the words, 
" One morning at about foiLr o'clock^ as I was sitting in bed 
with my baby^^ etc. 

4. (147. 23.) Madame Obalecheff S2.\v the apparition of her 
brother-in-law. A maid-servant shared in the hallucination. 
To begin with, this case is very old, over thirty years. Never- 
theless, the circumstances described are precisely those likely to 
induce the dream-state. It was eleven o'clock at night. The 
room was only dimly lighted by a little lamp burning before the 
ikon, and one candle beside the bed. The husband was sleeping 
quietly in the same room, and the lulHng sound of the sleeper's 
breathing would add its quota to the drowsy effect. The sleepy 
maid-servant, just aroused by her mistress's call, had settled 
herself on the floor beside the bed. Madame Obalecheff her- 
self was propped up in bed suckling her infant, probably aroused 



AND ILLUSIONS. 295 

by the touches of the child's hps, her thoughts brooding more or 
less dreamily over it (" Je ne pensais alors rien qu'a mon fils"). 
Moreover, the experience is accepted in a way which indicates 
the characteristic absence of the critical element : the brother-in- 
law lived at Iver, Madame Obalecheff in Odessa; but speak- 
ing of herself, Madame Obalecheff says, "Cette apparition ne 
m'effraya nullement," while the maid-servant is described, in 
romantic contrast to her own calmness, as "trembling with 
fear." In fact the narrative conveys, on the whole, the impres- 
sion of having in the course of time been worked up into 
dramatic completeness. It is, however, only given in translation. 
5' (579- 24.) This case is given above on p. 97. 

6. (215. 9.) Miss J. E. L. was lyijig awake in bed between 
six and seve?t o'clock in the morning. A friend suddenly 
appeared and kissed her (hypnopompic hallucination). The 
account is extremely condensed. 

7. (630. 5.) J\Ir. T. H. saw in the night the figure of his 
step-brother pass through the room. He had been asleep and 
was waked by a " rattling noise at the window," and wakened 
his other step-brother, who told him to go to sleep again ; a few 
minutes after the phantasm appeared — according to the account, 
that is to say. This case, which is about fourteen years old, is 
easily explained as a hypnagogic hallucination, whose content 
was suggested by the objective noise^ which was perceived as 
" footsteps," and possibly by something in the foregoing con- 
versation which suggested the absent brother. The corrobor- 
ative account furnished by a witness does not entirely bear this 
out, but may be taken as the more romantic, and, being second- 
hand, the less trustworthy version of the case. According to 
this version, Mr. J. H. saw his brother, not walking, but " in a 
kneeling position." 

8. (83. 21.) See above, p. 98. 

9. (307. 20.) Mrs. Murray^ '"''awaking suddenly at night ^'' saw 
a man in naval uniform disappear behind a curtain. This 
case, which, by the way, is more than twenty years old, ought 
to be excluded from the group of cases considered " the best 
evidentially," because of the vagueness of its date. 

10. (418. 4.) The apparition was seen soo?t after going \.q bed. 
See above, p. 287, note i. 

11. (532. 12.) The apparition appeared in the same circum- 
stances as in the foregoing case. 



2g6 HALLiJCiNAtiONS 

12. (730. 24.) See above, p. 99. 

13. (458. 18.) Miss S. Jv. R. saw her siste?'^s form lying near 
her the whole (/) night. The dream-state is very clearly in- 
dicated. (Compare below, Appendix I., case i. 13.) "My 
thoughts were very much with my sister, who was dangerously 
ill . . . and, just as I lay down, I plainly saw her lying dead 
beside me. ... I scarcely slept all that night, and there my 
sister lay beside me, and I was glad to have her, knowing too 
well what the contents of the telegram would be next morning." 
The dream-character of the experience is also brought out in 
Professor Sidgwick's report of his interview with Miss R. : 
"What she saw was first 'something white' on along cedar 
chest beside her bed. Then, looking closer, it seemed to her 
to be her sister in bed ; the chest was plain, bare wood, but it 
seemed just like a bed." The presence of the dream-state 
could hardly be indicated more clearly. Miss R. had had 
similar visions after the death of her mother. " For three 
months after her death she used to come to me almost nightly, 
after I had retired to my bedroom." 

14. (645. II.) Mr. Beer saw a recurrent apparition of his 
father. The indications in this case are almost as clear as in 
the foregoing one, to which it forms a parallel. The impression 
of having seen the phantom of his father first on the platform at 
a concert before he saw it in bed is probably due to a mistake; 
for when the vision appeared to him in the night it startled 
him enough to make him get up and wake the footman, yet he 
appears not to have thought it necessary to communicate his 
strange experience at the concert (when he supposed himself to 
be fully awake), though his father appeared on the platform at 

freqnent intervals the whole time the concert was going on^'' 
Finally, he remained lying quietly in bed, although he says, 
"on returning to my own room I again saw the figure of my 
father leaning over me as I lay in bed" (thus the vision came 
again only when he had returned to bed), " and he remained on 
and off through the night." He must have had exceptionally 
good nerves ! 

15. (725. 6.) Dr. B. G., who had spent the whole of the 
previous night watching by the sick-bed of a friend, saw, at 
about 3 A.M., an apparition of this friend passing in front of 
a looking-glass. (Was there a light in the room.^) The per- 
cipient \N2CE> fifty -seven years of age at the time. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 297 

16. (385. 20.) Mrs. C. S., after sitting up the whole 7iight 
with her sister, Avho was ill, saw at 5 a.m. the apparition of her 
grandfather, whom she knew to be seriously ill at the time. 
(A hypnagogic hallucination.) 

17- (579- 25.) Mrs. A. was lying in bed at ten o'clock in the 
evening, after a journey of one hundred versts into the 
country. That it had been slow and tedious, and therefore 
probably not accomplished without some fatigue, seems in- 
dicated by the early start for the return journey. We may 
therefore conclude that she was feeling tired. The bailiff's 
mother was making up a bed for herself in the same room, 
and while she arranged her pillows, with her back turjted to 
the percipient.^ she went on talking — of nothing very exciting 
apparently, and from the talker's position her voice would 
probably reach the hearer as a monotonous.^ murmuring souiid. 
Suddenly the percipient had a vision of a hand. (Compare 
Report, p. 115, case 692. 2, hypnagogic hallucination.) 

The cases which follow bear a strong resemblance 
to crystal-visions. These latter phenomena are 
indeed often regarded by the percipients as occur- 
ring in the normal consciousness. Nevertheless, this 
assumption is distinctly opposed to the following 
account, by a friend of " Miss X," the author of 
Recent Experiments in Crystal-vision^ of her own 
observations in connection with the latter's visions.^ 

" On January 29th, X. and I were dressing to go [out] when 
I suddenly noticed that her eyes were fixed on the window., in 
a manner I know well and have lotig learned to associate with 
something ''uncanny^ I waited till her face regained its 
normal expression, and then asked what she had seen or what 
she felt. She turned to the clock, and said in a dreamy^ far- 
away to?ie . . ." 

I have repeatedly used this example to illustrate 
my point, because it show^s that so good an observer 
as " Miss X." may think herself fully awake, although 

^ Proceedings of the S. P. R., 1895 (March), p. 132. 



2gS HALLUCINATIONS 

an onlooker finds obvious symptoms of a dreamy- 
state. In the three following cases from the Report, 
which, as I have said, have many points in common 
with crystal-visions, a similar state may be presumed. 

i8. (571. 14.) Airs. Belcher^ who appears to have experienced 
other visions in I'eflectiiig surfaces (she mentions one other), 
was sitting in the dusk at supper with her mother and aunt 
in the dining-room, with her back to the window and facing 
an old-fashioned side-board (the polished surface of which 
naturally reflected the window opposite). " I felt as if I could 
not take my eyes off hiin^'' she adds, speaking of the phantasm, 
and the feeling she describes is characteristic of the dream- 
state. 

19. (425. 10, case ii.) Mr. Alex. Sherar, a sailor, saw reflected 
in the ship's compass the face of his betrothed (see above, p. 287, 
note 2, for criticism of this case). 

20. (328. 1 5-) Dr. A. T. saw a cloudy figure (probably 
entoptic) which, when he gazed at it intently, revealed itself as 
the phantasm of his father. Circumsta7ices : " Assis seul , . . 
sous I'influence de tres tristes pensees : . , . Je n'ai rien fixe." 
Absence of critical faculty : In spite of the gradual development 
of the phantasm, the percipient declares that he was " plutot 
inclind k croire k la presence reelle de mon pere qu'a une 
* apparition.'" 

21. (191. 3.) If, indeed, a hallucination took place, and not a 
mere error of memory, in the following case, which is nearly 
sixty years old (see below), it may be bracketed with the case 
just quoted. " I was leaning in a listless sort of way against 
the kitchen table, looking upwards to the ceiling, thinking of 
nothijtg in particular." Thereupon an apparition developed 
itself gradually, probably from an entoptic nucleus. 

I repeat once more that I by no means assert that 
these hints and indications suffice to prove in each of 
the cases under consideration the presence of a 
decided state of sleep-stupor, or even of a slight 
degree of drowsiness. In some cases they do 
indicate such a state almost with certainty, in the 



AND ILLUSIONS. 299 

greater number they suggest it, and in all they raise 
the suspicion. That in the other 6 cases (22.22 per 
cent of the whole number) none of these suspicious 
circumstances are reported is of course attributable, 
in the first instance, to the fact that no questions were 
asked calculated to elicit them; secondly, to the long 
period of time which had elapsed, 1 1 years in case 
42. 17, over 14 in case 383. 24, about 10 in case 379. 24, 
exactly 11 in case 422. 25. and about 27 in case 
452. 10. Case 61. 22 is the only comparatively recent 
one (about two years old when the communication was 
madey It is all the more remarkable then that in 
other old cases where no leading questions were 
asked so many suspicious circumstances are to be 
found. And we are not dealing here, be it noted, 
with casual ''borderland " cases, hallucinations occur- 
ring in the transition period between sleeping and 
waking, but with the 27 cases of "waking hallu- 
cinations" selected as " the best evidentially ! " 

It is the same thing over again. Hallucinations 
which are either in the first instance distinguished by 
strong emotion, or are stamped upon the mind by the 
occurrence of an event corresponding to them, out- 
last hundreds which, because they make no special 
impression, soon pass from the memory. But this 
peculiar state of feeling at the time, and the vividness 
of the impression left on the memory, are among the 
causes which lead the percipient to feel, " I must have 

^ The fact that the "suspicious cases," i.e.^ cases in which there are 
grounds for supposing mistakes of identity, etc., decrease in frequency as 
the period between the date of the experience and the date at which it 
was reported lengthens, of course admits of the same simple explana- 
tion — the tendency of "suspicious circumstances" to drop out of mind 
in the course of time, and their consequent omission from the narra- 
tives. 



300 HALLUCINATIONS 

been awake." TJiis feelings however, the one distinc- 
tive feature of the so-called zvaking hallucination^ is 
deceptive. This can be demonstrated ad oculos In the 
lighter stages of hypnosis, and objective indications 
of it are to be gathered, as we have just seen, from the 
reports. 

Thus we find that it is impossible, in practice as in 
theory, to distinguish between waking hallucinations 
and those of sleep. And this again points to the 
chief defect in the census question, which restricted 
the inquiry to "waking hallucinations," while from 
the nature of the case " coincidences " must reach a 
higher proportion in this class than chance would 
account for. The correct method would be to 
endeavour to ascertain the proportion of all death- 
coincidences amongst hallucinations, both of the 
waking and the sleeping state. The result could of 
course only be estimated approximately, but that 
such a comparison would prove very unfavourable 
to telepathy may safely be assumed from the fact 
that with increased practice and careful self-obser- 
vation the number of remembered dreams is greatly 
increased.^ 

Association of Ideas. — My first objection was 
directed against the material collected, and aimed 
at showing that, in view of the probability of a 
delusion of memory, it must remain an open 
question w^hether in each case a sensory decep- 
tion really occurred ; or, again, even if the hallu- 
cination were really "veridical" — i.e., if its content 
corresponded to the actual event — whether it coin- 
cided in time. In other words, the objection was 

^ See Nelson, "A Study of Dreams," Anieiican Journal of Psychology, 
vol. i. x. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 3OI 

directed against the postulate which underlies the 
calculations of the Sidgwick Committee. But another 
criticism remains to be made : no matter hoiv great 
the number of coincidences^ they afford not even the 
shadow of a proof for telepathy. A very crude illus- 
tration may serve to show what is still to be urged 
against the telepathic nature of the coincidence. 

Suppose A. and C. are sleeping in a room without 
a fire on a frosty winter night, and that the window 
has not been properly fastened, so that the cold night 
air is streaming into the room. B. goes past A's 
house in the piercing cold outside, and it occurs to 
him to try a telepathic experiment. He seeks to 
transfer to A. the feeling of cold which he is then 
experiencing. Having done what he thinks necessary 
to attain this end he hurries home, and on the follow- 
ing day at the midday meal, which A., B., and C. are 
in the habit of taking together, C gives him the 
following account of his nocturnal experiences: — "Last 
night I was wakened by loud groans from A. His 
bed-clothes had slipped off, leaving him exposed to 
the cold, and he was dreaming of an expedition to 
the North Pole, and imagined himself attacked by 
a polar bear ! That shows how dreams come about ; 
it is easy to see that A.'s dream resulted from the 
cold to which he was exposed." Would B. object to 
this common-sense explanation? "Not so, my good C, 
/ transferred my feeling of cold to A. telepathically, 
hence the dream." 

If the elements (discussed in Chapter VI.) corre- 
sponding to the specific content of a given halluci- 
nation are to hand, it is not possible to regard the 
case as though it owed its existence not to these 
elements but to quite another chain of causes. The 



302 HALLUCINATIONS 

whole argument of the Sidgwick Committee is valid 
only so long as it is dealing with coincidences in 
which the veridical content cannot arise from normal 
known factors. 

Now, the writers of the Report appear to assume 
that they are dealing in by far the greater proportion 
of coincidences with hallucinations whose specific 
content could not be brought about in the normal 
way, especially as they have indicated that ex- 
citement and anxiety about the person represented 
by the phantasm and " suggestion " were of import- 
ance only in a small proportion of the cases.^ But 
these are not, after all, the weightiest factors : one 
which is of much higher importance, to wit, the 
association of ideas ^ has been left altogether out of 
account. It must indeed be conceded that it is not 
easy to trace the connection of ideas in the hallucina- 
tory state, and to show how, when dissociation is 

1 See Report, chapters ix. and x., where the evidence for the 
influence of anxiety, nervous strain, expectancy, and suggestion is 
discussed. 

^ Compare above the crystal-visions of "the old vicar," p. 6^, the 
"Jewish Elder," and the "pentagram," p. 69; the Rigi-kaltbad 
incident, p. 197 ; Mlinsterberg's experiments, Binet's " verbascum 
thapsus" story, p. 198, etc. One other case, to which I have already 
referred briefly above, I should like to quote here more in detail. The 
following account is slightly abridged from the Report, pp. 143, 
144 • — " • • • One night I saw a woman come through the door. . . . 
I distinctly saw her features. . . . She had on an old-fashioned bonnet 
and an old-fashioned caped cloak, and she was carrying a basket in 
front of her, such as country women carried their husbands' dinners in. 
. . . A great hurricane was blowing. I was dreadfully disturbed and 
hysterical next day — the impression so vivid and yet unable to say who 
it was. About a week after the revelation came. . . . All at once I 
jumped up, saying, ' It is Mrs. Beasant.' Mrs. Beasant was the pretty 
young bride of a farmer with whom, when about ten years old, we 
used to go and take tea at a farm two or three miles from the vicarage. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 303 

present, they may lead to a particular hallucination, 
just as in the normal state they evoke a specific 
mental image. We are not all gifted with the special 
faculties of an August Dupin.^ Besides, in following 
up these delicate clues, we are handicapped by our 
slight knowledge of the hallucinatory personalities, 
by our ignorance of facts about them which would 
indicate the subtle points of connection which lead up 
to the hallucination. But though these factors can 
seldom be traced, I believe I have succeeded above in 
indicating some of them.^ This point is, however, of 
minor importance, since their existence is to be pre- 
sumed, and it is not their presence but their absence 
which needs to be proved — a task which falls, of 
course, to the share of those who seek to put a new 
causal nexus in place, or alongside, of the normal 
elements. 

Naturally, this proof is not forthcoming, and in its 

One day she went with her husband's dinner as usual, and he was 
felling a tree. She passed the wrong way, and the tree fell on her and 
killed her. I remember watching her funeral . . . and the anguish of 
spirit at her death, but never remember speaking of it or the circum- 
stance since. The day before a nurse of the natne of Beasant had 
disturbed and annoyed me. A few months before a large e\xn-tree had 
fallen in our garden and partly on the house. A hurricane was blowing 
at the time, and I remember thinking ' what a lucky thing that tree 
can't fall on the roof.' This narrative shows with special clearness how 
the content of the hallucination may depend on a train of ideas started 
in the first instance by some sensory impression — in this case * the 
blowing of the hurricane,' and how impossible it must be for the 
observer to trace the windings, turnings, and doublings of individual 
thought through a labyrinth for which he has no clue." 

1 The amateur detective in Edgar Allan Poe's tale, " The Murders 
in the Rue Morgue." 

^ See the discussion on p. 219 above on the influence of subconscious 
impressions, etc., and the references to cases in the Report there 
given. 



304 HALLUCINATIONS 

stead we are asked to accept as evidence the dis- 
proportionately high number of coincidences. Prof. 
James states the argument briefly as follows : — 

"We have three orders of frequency in hallucinations to con- 
sider, that of hallucinations at large, that of hallucinations of 
persons, and that of dying persons. These may be caused by 
their respective objects, or may come at 'random,' their causes 
lying exclusively in the subjective cycle. The point is to see 
whether anything in the frequency can help us to decide which 
of these alternatives is the true one. . . . Obviously, if persons 
do not cause hallucinations of themselves, the hallucinations of 
persons should be 110 ino7^e frequent among hallucinations than 
persons are frequent among all the things that may become 
objects of hallucinations ; whilst, on the contrary, if persons, and 
persons alone, do cause hallucination, then hallucinations of 
persons shouldhe relatively more frequent than other hallucina- 
tion, because the causation by the real outer object would be 
simply added, for this class alone, to the random inner causes 
that produce hallucinations in general. Similarly, if the deaths 
of persons do not tend to cause hallucinations of those persons, 
the hallucinations^ of the dying should be ?70 more frequent 
among hallucinations of persons than the dying themselves are 
frequent among persons ; whilst if, on the contrary, the dying, 
and the dying alone, among persons, do cause hallucinations of 
themselves, then these hallucinations should be more frequent 
among hallucinations of persons than the dying among the 
whole population of persons. This latter ratio is what the 
Sidgwick Committee finds realised in fact, hence its conclusion 
that the dying do cause hallucinations of themselves." 

I must beg to differ ! Such a conclusion cannot be* 
drawn as long as it is not proved that there are 
hallucinations which are independent of "random 
inner causes." As long as this is not proved, that is 
to say, as long as the normally induced images must 
be provisionally accepted as causes, the conclusion 

.1 Psychol. Review, II. i. , pp. 70, 71. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 305 

drawn from the relation of coincidental to non-coinci- 
dental cases must be as follows: "Out of a group of 
20,000 persons, to take round figures, 2000 halluci- 
nations are reported, of which 500 are realistic 
apparitions of human beings, and of these 50 are 
coincidental. As these coincidences could only have 
occurred in a proportion of i : 19.000, it is to be con- 
cluded that each 20,000 persons have had 19.000 X 500 
= 9.500.000 hallucinations, dreams, etc., of realistic 
human beings." That is to say, that instead of in- 
ferring from the coincidental cases a specific causation, 
we should, on the contrary, infer from the number of 
coincidences, and according to the probability-factor, 
how many hallucinations may be conjectured to have 
occurred in a given group ; we should use, to multiply 
the hallucinations, a factor which would balance the 
various sources of error, forgetfuhiess, the misleading 
form of the question, etc. (The multiplying factor 
would then certainly have to be somewhat higher 
than the modest ^.) 

A Typical Case. — At the conclusion of this dis- 
cussion I will give in full a case where the association 
of ideas may be traced, and where the presence of the 
dissociative state was proved, although, in the classical 
way, the percipient felt wide awake at the time, and the 
coincidence between the " waking hallucination " and 
the death of the individual whose phantasm it repre- 
sented would certainly have been established if 
objective proof had not been forthcoming to show 
that the whole experience was a dream.^ Only the 
accidental discovery of this piece de conviction dis- 
tinguishes this case from the analogous cases of the 
Report, which it may help to elucidate. 

'^ Jcurnal Qp th?i S,P.R.^ No. 56, vol, iv, pp. I2 ei seq-. 

2Q 



305 HALLUCINATIONS 

From Mr. Pratt, Camden House, Lower Merton, Surrey. 

December i2,ih, 1882. 

On December 31st, 1856, I, Thomas Pratt, was residing at, 
and carrying on the business of a clerical tailor, etc., at 50A 
Cambridge Street, corner of Warwick Street, PimHco, the house 
at that time being known as Oxford House, Cambridge Street. 
Mr. Gleddos, a young curate of St. Barnabas' Church, Pimlico, 
came to me to pay his bill and order a new clerical coat about 
seven o'clock in the evening, saying he was going away for a 
short time, and he wished the coat to be ready to Jit on by the 
time he retiir7ied. He was in a great hurry ^ having several 
calls to make before evensong, which was at eight o'clock. He 
did not give me time to finish receipting his bill, but took it 
away with only the word Rec. written on it and left the house 
immediately. 

I was busy making a clerical coat that was wanted the next 
day, and had decided to sit up to finish it. I was accustomed 
to work all night frequently, and continued working at the coat 
after my wife and family had retired to bed. / kept on working 
and thinking about my order^ planning it out in my mind, when 
suddenly Mr. Gleddos appeared at the corner of the board on 
which I was sitting, and at the same spot as he had stood 
in the evening, and looking just the same as he did in the 
evening ; the gaslight was between us. At that moment the room 
door opened and he vanished. The fright was so great, I felt my 
hair go stiff up on my head. I had leaped from the board and 
looked outside the door, but saw nothing of him. Creeping 
upstairs as best I could, my knees shook so violently I did not 
know what to do, but got into bed and covered my head over 
with the clothes and told my wife what had happened. I had 
left the gas burning, and when I got up felt very unsettled, and 
could not begin to work. About nine or a little after Father 
Lyford ^ came to me, bringing the partly receipted bill in his 
hand, and inquiring if I knew anything about what was written 
on it, as Mr. Gleddos was found dead, and the bill was on the 
top of the drawers in the bedroom where he had died. I the7i 
told him what I had seen in the night. He seemed very much 
shocked, and told me not to talk about it. 

^ The Rev. Charles Lyford was curate at the same church, but was 
called Father by those who knew him best. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 307 

As the day went on and I became more calm, I commenced 
to finish the coat. Now this will, I think, be the most im- 
portant part of my ghost story. I had finished both halves of 
the coat, and only the back seam remained to be joined. It 
was this middle seam I was working at, and had sewn up to 
between the shoulders when Mr. Gleddos appeared, and here I 
found my needle as I had left it. As I was about to begm, I was 
surprised at the lastpa7-t of the back stitching for hem; the stitches 
were all shapes and not one alike. This convi7iced me that I 
had been asleep^ although my haiid had used the 7ieedle at the 
same tiine. Having convinced myself it was a dream, the door 
coming open had woke me from my sleep, which could not 
have been altogether more than half a minute. 

The door of the room was in the habit of coming open with 
the least vibration caused by wijid, and from these two cir- 
cumstances I came to the conclusion that I had dreamed of 
seeing him only. Had not these things come to my knowledge 
in this way as I have described them, I should have believed I 
had seen a real ghost, and nothing would perhaps have con- 
vinced me to the contrary. But I feel quite certain I did 
not see him with my eyes I work by, although at the time 
everything appeared to favour the belief of an apparition. 

Thomas Pratt. ^ 

' Some other Alleged Proofs of the Telepathic 
CJiaracter of cei'tain Hallucinaizons. Collective Hal- 
hicinations. — There are, however, other phenomena 
besides coincidental hallucinations which are adduced 
in proof of telepathy, of which the most important 
are the so-called "collective" hallucinations. This 

^ I cannot agree with the explanation suggested in ihefourjial — i.e., 
that the phantasm was an after-image. It is apparent that a series of 
factors likely to suggest the content of the hallucination were present ; 
the sudden bursting open of the door by the wind probably repeated the 
sound made when Mr. Gleddos entered the room (''he was in a great 
hurry ") ; the percipient's thoughts were busied about Mr. Gleddos' 
order; perhaps, also, the glare of the gas-lamp when the percipient 
lifted his head and glanced in the direction of the door, as he had 
glanced when Mr. Gleddos entered ("the gaslight was between us "), 
acted as one of the suggestive influences. 



308 HALLUCINATIONS 

term, however, must not be understood to include 
hallucinatory phenomena affecting great crowds of 
people, since it is admitted that "popular" or 
" epidemic " hallucinations are not telepathically 
caused. 

Although such phenomena are not exactly of 
frequent occurrence, yet a series of more or less 
trustworthy accounts exists. Thus we find in 2 
Maccabees v. 2, 3, " Through all the city, for the 
space almost of forty days, there were seen horse- 
men running in the air, in cloth of gold and 
armed with lances, like a band of soldiers. And 
troops of horsemen in array, encountering and 
running one against another, with shaking of 
shields, and multitudes of pikes, and drawing of 
swords, and casting of darts, and glittering of golden 
ornaments, and harness of all sorts." These appari- 
tions are said to have preceded the plundering 
of the temple at Jerusalem by Antiochus, and 
Josephus also narrates that portents of the same 
kind appeared before the destruction of Jerusaleni 
by Titus. Perhaps these and similar cases might be 
referred to peculiar atmospheric and meteorological 
conditions. Thus the astronomer Heis has explained 
the army seen at Buderich on January 22nd, 1854, 
as arising from a fog-bank and mirage.^ 

Such an origin is also indicated by the circumstance 
that these apparitions are often mentioned as showing 
themselves at sunset, after a thunderstorm. Thus, in 
September 1680, at Chemnitz, a protocol was drawn 
up from the sworn testimony of witnesses, who as- 
serted that immediately after sunset they had seen 

^ Cf. Jahn, Asti-onomische Unterhaliungen (1854), Nos. 11 and 12; 
Fechner's Cenirlbli. (1854), No. 24. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 309 

armies fighting and firing at each other in the sky. 
In the summer of 1571 many inhabitants of Prague 
saw a visionary troop of horsemen enter the New 
Town after a heavy storm.^ Perhaps Braid's^ nar- 
rative of a delusion affecting a number of people on 
the banks of the Clyde below Lanark, in the year 
1686, may be explained in the same way. These 
persons collected on several successive days in that 
place, and saw the ground and the trees covered with 
bonnets, guns, and swords, while at the same time one 
company of soldiers after another marched along the 
river bank, in such a manner that one company 
passed through the other, whereupon the soldiers fell 
to the ground and disappeared. Immediately after- 
wards new companies appeared, marching in the 
same manner. According to the account which has 
been handed down, two-thirds of the persons present 
testified to their conviction of the reality of these 
apparitions, and this conviction was expressed not 
only in their words, but in the dread and terror 
shown in their countenances, which struck even 
those who had seen nothing of the warlike spec- 
tacle.^ So early as 1785 the appearance of spectral 
soldiers on several days in January and February, 
at Ujest (Silesia), was explained by mirage, which 
rendered visible a detachment of troops marching 
to the funeral of a certain General von Cosel. The 
narrative given in the English work of Ottway* 

^ Horst, Deuteroscopie, ii. (1851). 

2 The original account is to be found in the Biographia Presbyteriana 
of Patrick Walker, the Covenanter (Edinburgh, 1827, vol. i. p. 32). 

^ Similarly in 1655, in Upland, Sweden^ many people saw a fight at 
sea and one on land take place simultaneously, and a month later a 
funeral procession. 

* The Spectre^ pp. 382 : " Very Singular Appearance of a Vision." 



310 HALLUCINATIONS 

might be similarly interpreted. It relates to the 
vision of two Scotsmen, near Inverary. They saw 
a company of soldiers in red, driving in their 
midst an animal like a horse. When the two per- 
cipients had changed their standpoint, and looked 
again at the place where they had seen the vision, 
it had disappeared. But presently they saw a man 
coming towards them, who, when questioned, knew 
nothing of the soldiers, but who was leading a horse, 
in which they thought they could recognise the 
animal w^hich they had previously seen in the 
vision. 

In other cases strange and mysterious noises 
may furnish the material for " epidemic " auditory 
delusions. Thus Studer^ gives the following narra- 
tive : — " Seefeld (a mountain 4,600 feet high, on the 
eastern side of the Sohlfluh, Canton Bern) is said 
to be haunted by spirits. Wyss {Reise im Berner 
Oberland) relates that, according to a legend current 
among the peasants, the quantity of water in the 
Beatenbach — a brook emerging from a cave on the 
shores of the Lake of Thun — is connected with a 
strange sound like thunder heard on the Seefeld 
Alp, as though it came from the further side of the 
Beatenberg. This thundering was called in the 
neighbourhood ' the muster on Seefeld,' and has 
been heard at a distance of several miles, resembling 
the file-firing of several companies, mingled with the 
sound of cannon. It is said to be heard at very 
regular intervals, and to be invariably followed by 
a rise in the waters of the Beatenbach." With this 

^ Sluder, Das Panorama von Bern (1850), p. 69, quoting from 
Perty, Der jetzige SpiriCualisnins, p. 32; cf. the additional examples 
on pp. 32, '^i of the latter work. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 311 

description may be compared the following com- 
munication : "On a cold winter's day in 1748, a 
noise was heard at Solothurn like a distant cannon- 
ading in the air, and a few minutes later the strains of 
a full Turkish band, so that all the inhabitants rushed 
out of doors. Drums and fifes could be quite clearly 
distinguished. Some listeners even stated that they 
distinctly heard the second parts of the wind instru- 
ments." ^ 

But though some "popular" hallucinations may 
be partially explained, as in the above instances, by 
unwonted natural phenomena, in many cases the 
chief factor must be sought in the emotional 
excitement, and, generally, in the mental predis- 
position of the percipients. The following is an 
example : — ^ 

All the crew of a vessel were frightened by the ghost of the 
cook, who had died some days previously. He was distinctly 
seen by all, walking on the water with a peculiar limp which 
had characterised him, one of his legs being shorter than the 
other. The cook, who had been recognised by so many, 
turned out to be a piece of wreck, rocked up and down by 
the waves. 

In the same way, the whole of the thirty-two men 
forming the crew of the castaway yacht, " Ter Schelling," 
saw fishermen at work, whom they took for Dutch- 
men, on a desolate and in reality quite uninhabited 
coast. So great was the contagious force of this 
hallucination, that not only the sailors, but the 

1 Perty, Die 7iiysiischeii Erscheimingen der nienscJiL Natur[2x\i\ ed.), 
i. p. 133. The majority of the above instances are taken from this 
author. 

- Hibbert, Sketches of the Philosophy of Appaiitions (Edinburgh, 
1825). 



312 HALLUCINATIONS 

captain, mate, and surgeon saw it even when making 
use of the telescope. 

To this category belong also the many religious 
" epidemic " hallucinations, which occur with especial 
frequency at times when a religious community is 
being formed, or during any period of religious 
excitement. An example may here be briefly given.^ 

Near Mettenbuch, a small hamlet on the edge of the Bavarian 
forest, not far from Deggendorf, lights had been seen by various 
children from the middle of September 1877 onwards, hovering 
about a damp spot in a ravine, where a blackberry bramble 
was growing over the stump of a tree. These were set 
down as "lights of the souls in purgatory" (" Armen-Seelen- 
Lichter"), and prayers for the dead were offered up on the 
spot. To prevent disorder, these meetings were prohibited by 
the police. Nevertheless, some of the neighbours still went 
with their children to pray near the spot. This was the case 
at 7 P.M. on December ist. "Now the little light floated 
down towards the ditch, remained stationaiy, and then went 
out quickly. Suddenly a girl (aged 10) cried out, ' A bairn ! 
a bairn ! ' The apparition disappeared, but soon after two girls 
exclaimed, 'The child Jesus! it is the child Jesus!' They 
were about to hasten up to it, but the vision vanished — 
appeared once more, indistinctly, and again disappeared." 

^ I obtained the particulars of this affair from Dr. Lang of Gross- 
hesselohe, Member of the Munich Section of the " Gesellschaft fur 
psychologische Forschung." While expressing my thanks to him, I may 
add that he states that the father of the two girls who first saw the 
vision was in a kmatic asylum, while their mother had a tendency to 
hysteria. The apparition might in any case have been encouraged by 
the excitement of the " Culturkampf," by the similar visions at Mar- 
pingen, by the special efforts made by the local priest at that time to 
extend the worship of the Virgin, and the great influence of the Bene- 
dictine monks who distributed pamphlets on the JNIarpingen visions, as 
well as by theatrical performances of legends of the Virgin and Advent 
mysteries. The passages of the text between inverted commas are 
quoted from the Rev. Father Benedictus Braumiiller's Kitrzer Bericht 
ilher die Erscheimins[en miserer liehen Fratc bei Mettenbuch. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 313 

This vision, the details of wliich soon became firmly fixed in the 
children's minds by questions and conversation, appeared still 
more distinctly on the following day, as soon as the children 
caught sight of the pomt de repere^ the stump. This time the 
child seemed as though about to approach them; and, soon 
after, amid the prayers of those present, the principal persons 
and scenes comprised in the children's religious knowledge 
made their appearance — the Virgin, the Crucified, Saints, etc. 
Five children in all shared in these visions, which lasted till 
December 21st. Conversation with the visionary figures took 
place. " If the children asked the Virgin anything, it was not 
necessary to address the question aloud to the vision ; it was 
enough to think of it clearly in their own minds. They received 
the answer from a sweet voice, which was not like the voice 
of any human being. And if they asked in this way, quite 
separately from each other, they all received the same answer." 
(We are informed that they asked at the instigation of their 
parents, so that the questions were probably fixed beforehand ; 
that the answ^ers should be identical is only natural.) 

These epidemic hallucinations unquestionably do 
not owe their origin to telepathy, but other " col- 
lective" hallucinations affecting a small number of 
people (two or three) are often thus explained.^ 
Simpler occurrences of this kind — e.g.^ the hearing of 
a crash, or the like — naturally give rise to the sup- 
position that it is a case of real, external noises. 
But, on the other hand, many highly complex collec- 
tive hallucinations are reported which such an ex- 
planation seems insufficient to cover. The following 
case may, perhaps, contain the key to one class of 
these : — ■ 

Two sisters were seated in different rooms ; neither could see 
the other, but both could overlook from their places different 
parts of the hall. Both heard at the same time an (objective?) 
noise, which both attributed to the opening of the front door, 

' Collective hallucinations of this kind are very frequently reported, 
cf., e.g.^ Appendix I. 



314 HALLUCINATIONS 

as it was the hour at which their fa'.her was in the habit of 
returning from his daily walk. The one saw her father cross 
the hall after entering, the other saw the dog (the usual com- 
panion of his walks) run past her door. It afterwards turned 
out that their father had not been out at all on that day, but 
had remained all the time in the dining-room with the dog.^ 

This case, which — in consequence of the two haUu- 
cinations being different — lacks the marvellous and 
exciting elements found in many other narratives, 
shows, precisely through this difference, that one and 
the same point de repere (perhaps sense of time and 
objective irritation of the sense of hearing) acted by 
way of suggestion on both the sisters. The two 
hallucinations, however, differ from each other in 
virtue of the difference of the connected associations. 
Had the association of ideas been the same, the 
form of the hallucination would have been identical ; 
the process would then have been much less intel- 
ligible to the observer, and the suggesting cause as 
difficult to discover as in the majority of collective 
cases. At any rate, to suppose a similar connection 
of ideas in both minds appears to me to be the 
simplest way of explaining many of these cases. 

I have already (p. 94) pointed out^ another kind 
of simultaneous and identical, or at least similar 
hallucinations, produced by suggestive questions, 

•"^ Cf. siipra^ p. 190. 

^ In the Report, however, p. 325, a plea is entered for tele- 
pathy : "On the whole, we are inclined to think that in collective 
cases there is generally a combination of telepathy with suggestion by 
word or gesture, each helping the other ; and that this is the reason 
why the proportion of collective cases out of those in which a second 
possible percipient was present is large as compared with the proportion 
of successful cases of telepathy among those in which we must suppose 
that persons dying, or in some other crisis, have desired to communicate 
with their friends." 



AND ILLUSIONS. 315 

exclamations, gestures, and the like. The ease with 
which, as we have seen, such appearances adapt 
themselves in recollection makes it easy to understand 
how it is that in such cases, as a rule, several per- 
cipients should assert themselves to have had exactly 
the same perception, agreeing even as to the details of 
dress. Podmore, in one of his articles, compares the 
result of the mental process by which the several 
hallucinations are moulded into uniformity to a com- 
posite photograph. 

The process of adaptation is most clearly shown 
when special circumstances cause the accounts of the 
various percipients to differ instead of agreeing with 
each other. This is illustrated in the following case, 
which, moreover, shows how easily the recollection 
of a hallucination may be modified by the simplest 
suggestion shortly after its occurrence, and therefore 
before the memory-image has become fixed through 
repeated narration. Two girls stated that they had 
met a gentleman in the street and distinctly recog- 
nised him. This gentleman was afterwards discovered 
to have died in his own house at that very hour. 
Being asked if they did not think him looking ill 
when they saw him, one girl adhered to the statement 
that he looked much as usual, while the other — under 
the overpowering influence of the coincidence (now 
suggested to her mind) between the apparition and 
the death — gave the information that the gentleman 
looked strangely pale. She had previously said 
nothing of this remarkable paleness, simply because 
this was an additional element added to the memory- 
image by the suggestive question. 

We must not, therefore, unhesitatingly cite the 
comparative frequency of these cases in proof of 



3l6 HALLUCINATIONS 

telepathy, as though no other explanation of them 
were possible.^ That it should be just collective hal- 
lucinations which are so frequently reported as coinci- 
dental need not seem strange. If there is an actual 
occurrence of simultaneous and similar (or identical) 
hallucinations, such occurrence, owing to its rarity and 
the degree of interest compelled by it, will naturally 
tend to connect itself with some other prominent event; 
and, conversely, the occurrence of such an event as 
the death or mortal danger of a friend is most 
calculated to produce memory-delusions of this kind. 

Alleged Characteristic Peculiarities of Telepathic 
Hallucinations. — I cannot attribute a greater degree of 
importance to the attempt to discover in " telepathic" 
hallucinations certain characteristics which testify to 
their peculiar origin, and to separate them, in degree as 
well as in kind, from "subjective" or "falsidical" ones. 
The higher degree of distinctness attributed to them 
arises, first, from the fact that, as a rule, the necessity 
for establishing a connection only occurs when a strong 
impression has been produced; while the less impres- 
sive, paler sensory delusions fade sooner, disappear 
from the memory, and can no longer be recalled when 
needed. In the second place, the actual or supposed 
coincidence is sufficient to impart more relief and 
vividness, even to less fully externalised hallucina- 
tions. A second peculiarity ascribed to telepathic 
hallucinations, the feeling of anxiety and uneasiness 
which accompanies them, acquires a special sig- 
nificance when we remember that, precisely in 
delusions of memory, a feeling of tension and dis- 

•^ Still more does it seem premature to indulge in hypotheses con" 
cerning the mechanism of telepathic action on several persons. Cf. 
Phantasms of the Living, ii. pp. 277 et seq. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 317 

comfort which may well influence their details, is apt 
to prevail. 

Experimentally produced Telepathic Hallucinations. 
— Although none of the circumstances hitherto dis- 
cussed seem to me to afford any ground for assuming 
telepathic influence, manifesting itself in the content 
of hallucinations, the experimental evidence appears 
to be somewhat more favourable. However, even 
here the results are not free from ambiguity. The 
numbers — far transcending all probability — of suc- 
cessful experiments on some persons are to be 
matched, on the other hand, by experiments on 
other persons (especially with the exclusion of all 
contact) in which non-success — equally transcending 
probability — is to be recorded. One might perhaps 
be as much justified in deducing from the latter 
series of experiments a general law that all attempts 
at thought-transference act unfavourably on guessing, 
as in inferring the influence of thought-transference 
from the former series.^ Moreover, these experiments 
have most distinctly shown how incalculably difficult 
it is, in such investigations, to exclude all sources 

^ Generally speaking, the results of those experiments in which the 
percipients made drawings of the hallucinatory objects, which proved to 
be similar to those produced simultaneously by the agents, are open to 
Lehmann's objection that this similarity is based on self-deception, the 
rough, indistinct scrawls being capable of different interpretations, and 
their points of resemblance overrated. The instance he gives, how- 
ever, — that, while he, as percipient, drew a cat, the drawing was found 
to resemble the candlestick drawn by the agent, — is not very happily 
chosen. Why did he draw the cat standing on its head, the adherents 
of telepathy might ask, and why did he cease drawing at the precise 
point where the resemblance ceased between the object which was in 
his mind and that thought of by the agent ? It might plausibly be 
urged that he had made the drawing under telepathic influence, but 
misinterpreted the image transferred to him. 



3l8 HALLUCINATIONS 

of error — e.g., unconscious suggestion, number-habit, 
identity of associations, etc. 

To one of these sources of error, lately discovered 
and known as "involuntary whispering," I wish to 
call special attention here. I shall therefore proceed 
to describe a recent series of experiments bearing on 
this point.^ 

The experimenters, F. C. Hansen and Alfred Lehmann, started 
from the view that, if thought-transference actually exists, it 
must be brought about by some known or unknown form of 
energy {e.g.^ by undulatory movement of some medium). If 
this were so, they further concluded, then it must be possible to 
concentrate this, like every other undulatory movement, at a 
single point, by means of concave mirrors, and, through this 
condensation and strengthening to do away with the need for 
hypnotising of the subject in order to produce hyperaesthesia, 
and thus render it possible to observe the phenomena in their 
own persons. If then a sufficient number of cases fulfilling the 
conditions could be obtained, they would thus be in a position 
to discover the laws of the phenomena. In accordance with this, 
they placed two spherical metal mirrors, of about half a metre 
in diameter, facing each other, some distance apart, and sat 
down, back to back, each being so placed with regard to his 
mirror, that the thinking part of the agent and the receptive 
one of the percipient (z>., their heads) were at the foci of 
their respective mirrors. The objects of transference were 
the numbers from lo up to 99, which, being written on counters 
(such as are used in the game of lotto), were taken out of a bag 
haphazard by the agent. 

In the course of these experiments it was soon noticed that 
there was a strong tendency to innervation of the vocal muscles 
when a particular number was thought of for a long time. In 
order, therefore, to convince themselves that the hearing of 
involuntarily whispered words had no part in the results, the 
agent placed his mouth and the percipient his ear, each at the 
focus of his own mirror, and the former allowed free play to the 

^ F. C. Hansen and Alfred Lehmann, " Ueber unwillkurliches 
Fliistern " (Wundi's Philosophische SitidieUy vol, xi. , part 4). 



AND ILLUSIONS. 3 19 

(hitherto restrained) vocal movements, at the same time taking 
care to keep the mouth closed so that no movements of the lips 
were visible, and a bystander could not hear any sounds. With- 
out in this place attempting to explain more in detail how, in 
spite of all this, real whispering might be produced, I pass at 
once to the results. In the 500 experiments, in the course of 
which each of the experimenters in turn acted as agent and 
percipient, the thought-transference, now that the percipient was 
cojiscioiisly listenings took place from five to ten times faster 
than before. 33.2 per cent, of the results were quite correct, 
41.2 per cent, so far correct that one of the figures was right, 
and only 25.6 per cent, quite wrong. 

An analysis of the failures reveals many points of interest. It 
seems that every number shows, so to speak, a definite pre- 
ference for certain special confusions. Thus 9 was usually 
confused with 3 and o, 3 with 5 and 6. Under the special 
arrangement followed in the experiments, these confusions 
could only arise from auditory errors, and as the (Danish) 
numerals, when arranged according to resemblance of sound, 
form quite other groups, it appeared that the whispering, that 
is to say, the difi'erence between speaking aloud and whispering, 
must be the cause of the substitution of similar sounds. A 
closer examination bears out this assumption. It appears that 
the anterior lingual vowels (Vorderzungenvocale, i, y, e, 0, ec, 
oe) tend to be transposed through a into the posterior (a, a, o, 
u), and the rounded vowels (u, o, a oe, 0, 5O ii^to the unrounded 
(a, £e, e, i). But the consonants especially are subject to changes 
of affinity, owing to the fact that, through the firm closing of the 
lips, the breathing through the nose, etc., those characteristics 
which are most salient in ordinary speech are suppressed, and 
other less prominent movements, taking place behind the 
principal seat of articulation, attain more importance. 

The Danish authors then proceed to draw a comparison be- 
tween the confusions arising from erroneous hearing in their 
whispering experiments and those of a long series of experi- 
ments in thought-transference, published in the Proceediiigs of 
the S.P.R. (vol. vi., pp. 128 et seq.), in order to show that in 
both the same laws were at work in the erroneous results. The 
counter-arguments of the English authors in their account of 
the experiments do not seem to Messrs. Hansen and Lehmann 
to meet the point. Certainly the fact that the percipients saiv 



320 HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS. 

the numbers is of no moment, because they were hypnotised, 
and the numbers were always spoken of in their presence as 
seen^ so that the suggestion was given them that the numbers 
would appear as visual images. Moreover, the percipient's 
choice of expressions in some cases indicates that the transfer- 
ence of ideas of number took place through the sense of hearing. 
Thus in the Proceedins^s'^ we find it noted that "in two or three 
cases T. said that he saw nothing, but that something seemed 
to tell him that the number was so and so, but 'something' 
never told him right." The example given happens to be 
precisely a very characteristic instance of confusion through 
whispering : the number drawn was 66. " T. said, ' Something 
says yj^ sixty being heard as thirty^ and six as seve?t" ^ 

If such sources of error are so difficult to exclude 
even in these carefully devised experiments, how 
much greater must their influence be in spontaneous 
hallucinations. To my mind the chief value of these 
experiments is to warn us against regarding the 
spontaneous cases otherwise than with distrust, and 
if they add to our caution in this respect I do not 
think we should regard all the trouble which has been 
expended upon them as lost labour, although in face 
of the evidence which they offer for telepathy, we are 
still forced to say '' A^on liquet." 

1 Vol. vi. p. 158. 

2 At the third International Congress of Psychology, Professor 
Sidgwick brought forward a series of objections to Lehmann's con- 
clusions, and though I do not agree with him on every point, he seems 
to me perfectly justified in his contention that the Danish authors have 
not succeeded in showing how " involuntary whispering " could have 
operated under the peculiar conditions present in the series of experi- 
ments recorded in the Proceedings (vol. vi. pp. 1 28- 170), However, 
whether or not in these special cases unconscious whispering was 
present is a matter of minor importance here, since I only wish to 
indicate that, generally speaking, it is a source of error to be reckoned 
with. Professor Sommer (Giessen) on the same occasion delivered his 
lecture on "A Graphic Method of Thought-Reading," dealing with 
another way of explaining telepathic phenomena. 



CHAPTER X. 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. 

Recapitulatioji of Argument — All Halhicijiations co77ditioned by 
Dissociatioi-i — Objection to Physiological Explanations 
from sta?2dpoi7it of Psychology — Criticism of Psychological 
Position — The Physiological Scheme provisio?ial — Bear- 
ings of this Study 07i Theories of Perceptiojt generally. 

It would be well now to review the course of our 
inquiry and summarise its results. It was shown 
first that hallucinations and illusions, considered as 
psychical phenomena, are just as much sensory per- 
ceptions as the so-called "objective" perceptions; 
that the nature of the experience is intrinsically the 
same, and that a distinction can be drawn only by the 
observer — that is, only on extraneous grounds. As a 
consequence of this view it was found necessary to 
include in our definition all false sensory perceptions 
from whatever cause arising. We thus escaped the 
fundamental error of separating the hallucinations of 
disease from the analogous phenomena of sleep and 
normal life — a course very generally pursued in the 
past, which has caused hallucinations and illusions to 
be regarded as something enigmatical and out of the 
ordinary course of nature. 

Still it was necessary, from another point of view, 
to inquire into the origin of sensory deceptions and 

21 



322 HALLUCINATIONS 

their connection with the states with which they are 
found most frequently associated. For the data 
furnished by observation permit of our drawing 
certain conclusions as to the underlying psychical 
state, and as to the circumstances in which false per- 
ception occurs, and point to its being a phenomenon 
dependent on disturbed association. The results of 
the "Census of Waking Hallucinations" point in 
the same direction, and in many of the narratives 
quoted in the " Report on the Census " we were able 
to observe symptoms which justified the conclusion 
that dissociation was present even in cases where the 
percipient believed himself to be fully awake. 

Further, it was shown that if hallucinations occur 
in states of apparently accelerated association, as in 
mania, the excited period of circular insanity, etc., 
this arises from a misunderstanding of these states, 
which are really states of disturbed, and thus of par- 
tially impeded association.^ Again, their occurrence 
during periods of apparently full consciousness is not 
inconsistent with this view, if we assume in such cases 
not that a general disintegration of the cortical com- 
plexes takes place, but merely that certain element- 
groups are split off. Such partial dissociation may 
indeed be observed in other morbid phenomena, 
which can only be classed as sense-deceptions by 
straining the term — for instance, in the case of voices 
heard by the patient which really depend on auto- 
matic articulation. 

^ While Krafft-Ebing and Ziehen disagree with this view of Kraepelin's 
stated above, the facts brought forward by Aschaffenburg in his paper, 
" Ueber psychologische Versuche an Geisteskranken," read before the 
third Congress of Experimental Psychology, only serve to confirm it. 
The experiments of Dr. Forel (Jena) also tend to confirm this view. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 323 

That is to say, we are dealing here with a state 
of systematic dissociation, a state in which indeed, 
generally speaking, the consciousness is normal, but 
where the association-paths of a more or less com- 
plicated system of elements are wholly or partially 
blocked. 

Oscar Vogt supports this view, since he sees in 
cases of waking with a systematic partial sleep an 
analogy to post-hypnotic hallucinations and hallu- 
cinations of memory.^ In his opinion, in which 
Professor Forel of Zurich concurs, this state may 
be confined within such narrow limits that the judg- 
ment of the persons affected remains perfectly clear, 
so clear, in fact, that we may trust them to make 
psychological self-observations and to record them 
as accurately as if they had been fully awake. (Cf , 
in the Report of the third International Congress, the 

1 Oscar Vogt, *'Zur Kenntniss d. Wesens u. der psychologischen 
Bedeut. d. Hypnotismus," Zeitschr. f. Hypnotismtis, etc., iv. i (1896). 
"The act of waking out of certain dream-states produces, under certain 
circumstances, a peculiar form of partial waking ; for certain dream - 
images are transferred to the waking consciousness. This might be 
described as an awakening with a systematic partial sleep. Each of us 
can observe faint indications of such states in his own person ; the 
dream-content often seems real at the first moment of waking, pain felt 
in a dream has been known to persist into the waking state. In general, 
however, the re-awakening critical faculty soon banishes our credulity 
with regard to the dream-image. But there are exceptions. Thus 
a lady of my acquaintance dreamed she saw her own funeral, or 
rather, she dreamed she had a vision of her own funeral as a pre- 
monition that her death was near. During the course of the dream she 
awoke, but the hallucination persisted, and she recognised the various 
individuals in the funeral procession. While so doing she was sitting 
up in bed, and she remained ^wake after the desistance of the vision, 
Spinoza . . . relates that he awoke one morning from a profound dream 
and saw its phantoms so vividly before him that he tried to grasp them 
with his hands as though they were real, tangible objects. . . . He 
endeavoured to escape from this state by reading, but found it ex- 



324 HALLUCINATIONS 

paper by Vogt on " Hypnotlsmus als psychologische 
Experimental-methode," and the discussion which 
followed.) 

The several kinds of dissociation might be dis- 
tinguished, by generalising Vogt's terminology/ into 
total ^nd partial, the latter being subdivided into — 

(a) Systematic partial dissociation, where a 

single ideational complex is involved. 
{b) Localised partial dissociation, where a single 

cortical centre is affected. 
{c) Diffused partial dissociation, where the 

partial dissociation extends over a wide 

area. 

The view which we have arrived at, that false per- 
ception is perception in the state of dissociation, 
renders it unnecessary for us to concern ourselves 
further with the vexed question whether or not 
all sensory deceptions are pathological phenomena, 
and if some are not so to be considered, how 

tremely difficult, and it was only after a considerable time had elapsed 
that the phantoms finally faded away. ... I once observed a similar 
state in myself: I was sleeping in a hotel, the window curtains were 
closely drawn, and the lights were extinguished. In the middle of the 
night I awoke, my heart beating violently, under the impression that a 
man had entered the room by the door and was approaching my bed. 
In the dream I saw none of the objects in the room, but on opening my 
eyes I saw that the room was lighted up, and I noticed the furniture, 
— it was just such furniture as one would expect in such a place. 
Then I was struck by the brightness of the room, and it occurred to me 
that it might be a hallucination. Gradually the objects in the room 
became more and more indistinct, till at length they disappeared, and 
absolute darkness returned. Next morning I saw that the shape and 
arrangement of the room were quite different, nor do I ever remember 
to have seen a room arranged in quite the same way as the room of my 
waking vision." 
^ Vogt, op. cit. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 325 

the non- morbid may be distinguished from the 
morbid.^ 

Most of the older writers, indeed, were con- 
cerned to show that sensory deceptions, though 
generally of a pathological nature, were not to be 
regarded as abnormal or morbid in the case of saints, 
prophets, philosophers, and other great men. Our 
answer to this question is simply that fallacious 
perception has nothing morbid in itself because the 
state which occasions it is not a morbid one. Never- 
theless, the underlying cause which induces this 
psychological state may be, and frequently is, 
pathological. Hence diseases are frequently accom- 
panied by numerous and varied hallucinations, which 
may therefore serve under certain conditions as 
indications of pathological disturbance, but in each 
individual case it is not the sense-deceptions them- 
selves which prove the pathological condition, but the 
accompanying circumstances. 

Of course no other answer to the question is pos- 
sible, since, as we have already shown, all false per- 
ceptions can be classed under one type — the type, 
that is, to which the name " illusion " was formerly 
given, and which in common usage is still so called. 
We found that the old distinction between hallucina- 



^ Brierre de Boismont, op. ciL^ insists with special emphasis on the 
existence of "hallucinations compatibles avec la raison." Michea 
follows suit in Du delire des sensations^ cap. 9, and Du delire perceptif 
compatible avec Vintegrite de la raison^ p. 216; see also Szafkowski, 
op. cit.^ pp. 58 et seq. ; and Falret, " Cours clinique," etc., Gaz. deshSp. 
(5th Sept., 1850); Laehr, Uber Irresein u. Irrenanstalten (1852) 
(who seems to consider the percipient's recognition of the deception 
as the best test); Griesinger, op. cit.; Hagen, Die Sinnestdusch., etc., 
pp. 271 et seq.', Krafft-Ebing, Die Sinnesdelirien, as well as nearly all 
the more recent authors. 



326 HALLUCINATIONS 

tion and illusion referred not so much to the origin 
of the particular sensory deceptions, as to the pos- 
sibility of discovering in their content the action of 
an objective sensory stimulus, or, in other words, it 
referred to the greater or less resemblance of the false 
perception to the content of an " objective " per- 
ception. By bringing into prominence the general 
similarity of the process in all sense-deception, 
whether in the case of complex visions or of mere 
lapses of perception resulting from failure of attention, 
we avoided the danger of classifying the phenomena 
according to their more or less striking character. 

Further, in dealing with " negative hallucinations," 
another class of phenomena usually distinguished 
from true hallucinations by reason of their content, it 
was shown that such a distinction was equally beside 
the mark; that though a great number of the facts 
grouped under this head must certainly be regarded 
as phenomena of deprivation {Ausfall-Ersckeinungen) 
— i.e., as illusions, — many others hitherto classed with 
them are true hallucinations in every sense of the 
term — i.e., are conditioned by forced association.^ 

Thus while the old terms "hallucination" and 
" illusion," which usage has made familiar, are still 
retained here, they have been employed in a new 

^ In the latest edition of his Hypnotism^ INIoU still maintains his 
theory of "inattentiveness." What plausible explanation can he offer 
in cases like the following: Suppose the hypnotist says to his subject, 
" Take a good look at this hat; it is becoming gradually smaller; it is 
shrinking up. See how small it appears, how microscopic ! You can 
hardly see it at all now ; it is vanishing ; it has vanished altogether ! " 
In such a case, how is it conceivable that the hypnotised subject, after 
sensibly perceiving the hat gradually becoming smaller and smaller 
while the hypnotist was speaking, should, on hearing the last words, 
instead of realising the image of a microscopic hat shrinking into 
nothing, suddenly become inattentive? 



AND iLLUSiONS. 32^ 

sense, and made to refer to the psychological 
character of the phenomena. Hitherto a difference 
of origin had invariably been implied in the distinc- 
tion; here no such difference of origin is implied, 
nor even one of quality, but merely a difference of 
systematic order. Besides this psychological defini- 
tion, I have attempted to give, in terms of physiology, 
an account of how false perceptions arise, to indicate 
their occurrence as a link in a chain of successive 
processes. 

It seems necessary here to meet an objection which 
is constantly urged against such attempts to explain 
psychological facts by means of physiological schemes. 
Neither the physical stimuli, it is urged, nor the 
processes in the nervous receiving-apparatus, whether 
in the conducting nerves or in the cortical centres 
themselves — in a word, none of the processes with 
which physiology concerns itself — are conscious, hence 
the psychic phenomena being in their nature different 
from these processes can never be explained by them. 

This criticism is best met by a counter-criticism of 
the method which our critics employ in preference to 
the physiological method which they condemn. They 
would place the constituent parts of consciousness in 
elements, described as simple sensations, ideas, feelings, 
impulses, etc., whose " fusing," or " blending," or close 
interaction they suppose to be capable of evoking all 
states of consciousness. When it is maintained that 
such a method of accounting for the facts is more 
reasonable and more guarded than an explanation 
which depends on hypothetical processes of a physio- 
logical nature, it is indeed time to protest; for these 
simple sensations, ideas, etc., are far less facts of ex- 
perience than are the " hypothetical " brain and nerve 



328 HALLUCINATIONS 

processes. Strictly speaking, the difference is not 
one of degree at all, for while the existence of such 
physiological processes can at least be indicated 
(though there are confused and opposing views as 
to their exact nature and action), experience leaves 
us absolutely in the dark as to the existence of 
these psychical elements and processes. Our con- 
sciousness is entirely unacquainted with any experi- 
ence which we could describe as " the sensation 
blue," pure and simple; a sensation "blue,"- that is 
to say, without some sort of localisation, of form 
and extension, without feelings or emotions more or 
less distinct, and divorced from the consciousness of 
its difference from the sensation which immediately 
preceded it (yellow, for instance), and so on. 

Or to cite another example, we know no emotion 
without sensational or ideational content, no desire 
which is not desire of something, no hope which is 
not hope of something, no satisfaction which is not 
satisfaction because of something. 
' What we know by experience are tilings, blue 
things, similar things, things expected, hoped for, or 
feared (of course the given "thing" may be purely 
imaginary) ; of " psychic elements " arrived at by 
reflection and abstraction, on the contrary, we find, 
among these "things" existent in the mind, no trace. 
This point being conceded, — and it seems hardly 
necessary to labour it further, since it cannot 
seriously be called in question, — our position is con- 
siderably advanced. 

It is true the objection may be urged that the 
case of the psychic " atoms " is no worse than that of 
the material ones. These, too, are known first through 
their action, and are not a part of immediate ex- 



AND ILLUSIONS. 329 

perience, and yet (for we need not here concern 
ourselves with the anti-atomistic theory) the whole 
material world is built up of them. Why, then, 
should we not be able just as well to build up the 
world of consciousness with the psychic atoms, 
though these are inaccessible to experience ? 

Nevertheless, such an objection ignores the main 
point, ignores the claim implied in the analogy, 
namely, that the elements must be of like nature with 
their effects. If a psychic fact is a mere cluster of 
elements, whence should it derive its nature if not 
from the nature of the elements themselves ? The 
atoms of which the material world is built up are 
material. Their existence does not consist in their 
being primarily objects of consciousness. It is not a 
contradiction of their nature that they should remain 
alien to immediate experience. But the case of the 
psychic atoms is very different. 

For the nature of all psychic facts, all experiences, all 
"things," consists, as I have already indicated, just in 
their "Bewusstheit," in their being immediately known, 
felt, experienced. Or, if I may use an expression which 
excludes the otherwise unavoidable question "known 
by whom ? " their nature consists in their being there} 
Thus, if there are really psychic elements from whose 
" flocking together " the things immediately perceived 
are built up, these elements must be data of the 
immediate consciousness too. Nevertheless, as we 
have just seen, it is precisely this quality of being 
mentally present which is lacking to these elements 
with which psychology occupies itself so much, with 

1 Of course, it is not possible to criticise here the other views as to 
the nature of psychic facts, and to discuss the arguments urged against 
the view adopted above. 



330 HALLUCINATIONS 

which it not only seeks to describe, but to build up 
states of consciousness. They cannot, therefore, be 
regarded as elements of known mental " things." 

If they are not that, what are they then? I will 
state my view shortly : they are the elements out of 
which not the psychic fact itself, but a symbol for it, 
its description^ is built up. 

For, while of course there is nothing to prevent 
us from giving a name to each and every state of 
consciousness, labelling it in fact, it is obviously 
impossible, through words or any other medium, 
to make any one else share our psychic experi- 
ence in all its fulness and intimacy, to make it 
the same experience for him. For if we wish to 
communicate some specific experience to another, 
how should we set about it? Take an illustration. 
Suppose I want to let a friend hear the timbre of the 
note <3: on a particular piano, but, unfortunately, just 
before he comes, the string snaps. What shall I do ? 
Perhaps I might strike the note ^ and say, ''a is not 
like that, but a little different." Then perhaps I 
might strike b and say again, '''a is not like that 
either, but different." Then I might possibly let him 
hear the intervals c-d, d-e,f-g^ and then sound ^, so that 
he might be able to construct the interval g-a in his 
mind. But all the time I should be trying to com- 
municate the incommunicable ; I should never make 
my friend share my original experience by this means, 
for the consciousness of the interval in each of the 
supposed cases is a quite specific one, different from 
the others, and none of these is identical with that 
particular fact of experience which we call the g-a 
interval, still less with that experience which we had 
when the note a was struck. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 331 

But what is the method which I actually employ 
in such a case, the method which we are always 
employing ? 

It may be roughly formulated as follows : the 
description of a state of consciousness consists in 
the production of other specific states of conscious- 
ness quite different from the first. But that is not 
a full account of the method. I do not call up 
experiences of any and every kind in order to describe 
the specific timbre of the note a. I do not pinch my 
friend's arm, show him a match-box, or give him a 
lump of sugar to suck. Nor do I sound random 
notes and intervals on the piano. I select certain 
notes, certain differences — and for a very simple 
reason. For, while the psychosis produced in my 
friend was, say, g and b, what I experienced was 
something quite different, something which was 
neither g nor b, but which might be described as 
the '' g-a similarity," or as the " b-a similarity." 

Moreover, in describing my experience to my friend, 
I evoked in him not one experience but many. If I 
tried to describe a state of consciousness merely by 
showing a plum, nothing would be gained. If I wished 
to describe a bright blue sky by producing other im- 
pressions, I should have to show my friend not only 
a plum, but a blue flower such as succory or flax, 
point out to him an Uhlan in his blue uniform, bid 
him look up at the ceiling of the room and then at 
the bright blue eyes of his child, etc. Whether all 
this would serve my purpose is a question which 
need not be answered here. But what do I experi- 
ence during this description ? I experience the sky- 
plum similarity, the sky-uniform similarity, the sky- 
eye similarity, but I experience something more, 



33^ HALLUCINATIONS 

the consciousness, to wit, of a common attribute 
in a series of similars, and this mental state is 
labelled in our speech with certain specific terms. 
For instance, the feeling of similarity which runs 
through the series of similars " sky-eye," " sky- 
plum," "sky-uniform," we call dlue, that in the 
series "sky-upward glance," "sky-ceiling of the 
room," we call /ii£-/i, or adove us. 

What is it I do then when I describe an experience 
as blue, calm, and above us ? I mention a number of 
states which succeeded each other in me, and which 
we may therefore describe as " a series of resemblance- 
experiences." But these namings correspond, to return 
to the old illustration, to my experience when the notes 
g and b were struck. In my former experience a, 
which I tried to describe by g and b, I was conscious 
of a only, and not of the g-a similarity nor of the b-a 
similarity, which are neither identical with a nor parts 
of it And just as certainly as the experience a did not 
arise from the combination of the b-a similarity and 
the g-a similarity, so does the idea " sky" not arise out 
of a combination of the ideas " blue," " above us," etc. 

This is but a crude comparison, but perhaps illus- 
trates my meaning better than a long explanation. 
A psychology which regards the elements of the de- 
scription, the symbol of the experience, as elements 
of the thing itself, proceeds as though one should 
maintain that the sound z could be built up of the 
elements of its symbol, the letter / — that is to say, out 
of a short upright line and a dot. 

From what has been said it follows that we can 
use the expressions which describe the qualities of 
the different psychic facts only while we are regard- 
ing them with reference to their likeness to or differ- 



AND ILLUSIONS. 333 

ence from others which resemble them — that is to 
say, only in so far as we are dealing with their 
morphology, or are employed in building up systems 
according to definite principles, and classifying the 
specific states as plants are classified in the Linnaean 
system. 

But these elements of qualitative description are no 
longer applicable when we cease to deal with the 
phenomena of consciousness as series of similars and 
proceed to study them with reference to causality. 

By this expression I do not mean to indicate the 
view which regards the phenomena of consciousness 
as symbols of a world existing independently of us, 
of which they are the reflections in our subjectivity. 
Such a view has nothing to do with experience, and 
is of course purely speculative. By a causal view of 
mental phenomena I mean the view which arranges 
" thoughts or feelings " {i.e., mental states) in a 
sequence, following in time; which seeks to express 
in a simple formula our experience of the successive 
character of individual "states of feeling," and our 
expectation that after a particular succession of 
"feelings" a certain other "feeling" will follow. 

Certainly no one will deny that for one class of 
psychic phenomena, for sensory perceptions, the 
formulae to which we have reduced our expectation 
of their successive occurrence are the formulae of 
mechanics which underlie the physical, chemical, and 
physiological explanation of an experience. And if 
this is granted there is nothing in the nature of the 
case which prevents us from applying the same 
method of explanation to any other groups of mental 
phenomena (ideas, feelings, etc.). The principal 
argument urged against such a proceeding rests, as 



334 HALLUCINATIONS 

we have already seen, on the fact that the physio- 
logical processes adduced in explanation are not 
" psychic facts," and that therefore we cannot explain 
by them facts which differ from them in kind; but 
this objection is based on a confusion of the 
world of matter, that is to say, of the formula by 
which we express our expectation of seeing certain 
states of feeling follow each other in time, with the 
%voi4d of " tilings in themselves!' The other objec- 
tion, that our knowledge of brain-processes is far 
too limited for us to be able to explain psychic 
facts by them, has nothing to do with the principle 
involved. It may be met by pointing out that there is 
a whole group of such facts, to wit, sense-perceptions, 
for which no psychological explanation can be found, 
and that any physiological explanation is only 
meant as a formula, to be amended by each new 
experience, as a scheme to which we reduce our past 
experiences.^ 

Nor did my explanation pretend to be any- 
thing more than such a scheme, into which all our 
former experience relating to false perceptions may 
be made to fit. But such a scheme only appeared 
practicable if we distinguished more sharply than had 
been done heretofore three aspects of the pheno- 
menon : (i) its sensory character; (2) the falsity of 
the perception; (3) the content of the hallucination. 

^ The question, so hotly discussed at the Third International Congress 
of Psychology (see pp. 68-73 of ^^^ Congress Report), as to whether 
and how far psychic facts admit of a physiological explanation may 
accordingly be answered as follows : Psychology, and psychology only, 
furnishes the facts to be explained, since it sifts, by careful analysis, the 
material from the surrounding dross; but, on the other hand, the causal 
explanation of the phenomena necessarily devolves upon physiology, or, 
to use the wider term, upon Natural Science. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 335 

It seemed simplest to refer the sensory character to 
the same cause which is assumed in all other sensory 
states of consciousness; the falsity of the perception 
we traced to the circumstance that in any percept 
the corresponding brain -process does not depend 
upon the incoming stimuli alone, but also upon the 
state of the reacting brain ; and the specific char- 
acter, the " content," of each individual false percept 
we referred to the elements to whose activity were due 
the special tension-relations in the brain state. Or, to 
express it otherwise, we found that a false perception 
occurs when for some reason or other (Chap. VI.) 
the cerebral elements are in such a state of tension 
that the incom.ing stimuli (Chap. V.) stream towards 
element-groups which normally would be discharged 
only by stimuli of another kind (Chap. VII.). 

Passing over the subject of the characteristics of 
hallucinations considered in Chapter VIII., and the 
question thereafter discussed, whether the content of 
certain sensory deceptions is " telepathically " caused,^ 
I will in conclusion briefly advert to the important 
part played by the study of hallucinations in other 
inquiries. It would lead us too far to discuss here 
its bearing on Erkenntnisstheorie and metaphysics, 
but I should like to indicate the importance of our 
present inquiry in relation to the very complex 
processes and the many factors associated in the 
production of sensory perception. 

In the following discussion we shall be dealing, it 
is true, with certain anomalies of perception which 

^ As the proofs of this chapter are being corrected I received 
Morselli's work, I Feuotiieni telepaiici e h aUiicinazioni veridiche, and 
feel bound to call the reader's attention to the arguments against tele- 
pathy on pp. 15 et seq., an excellent piece of methodical criticism. 



336 HALLUCINATIONS 

were excluded by the definition at the beginning of 
the book — that is to say, with perceptions common 
to all persons alike, though they demonstrably do 
not correspond to the objective facts. Of course such 
percepts are just as much "false" as the idiosyncratic 
ones to which, for the sake of simplicity, our inquiry 
has hitherto been confined, and it seems to me an 
important argument in favour of the theory of false 
perception here advanced that these universal fallacies 
fall quite naturally into the scheme suggested for the 
individual ones. 

For in these universal fallacies also the stimulus 
must be supposed to reach and discharge groups of 
cortical elements, whose activity is normally only 
associated with a stimulus then lacking, whilst other 
element - groups usually aroused by the incoming 
stimulus are excluded from the process, or participate 
in it but slightly, because the main stimulus-wave is 
diverted into another path. 

But whilst in sensory deceptions which occur indi- 
vidually and sporadically the factor which leads to the 
diversion of the stimulus-wave from its normal path 
— what we have called " enforced association " — is an 
occasional one, in the case of universal fallacies of 
perception the cause must, of course, be constant 
and universal. Hence we must assume that the 
enforced association does not, as in individual sense- 
deceptions, depend upon the momentary cerebro- 
static condition, but that it is brought about because 
the elements in question have been frequently and 
strongly excited simultaneously with the elements 
now stimulated, so that habit has deepened the inter- 
connecting channels and the resistance in them is 
feeble — that is, they are always wide open. For it is 



AND ILLUSIONS. 337 

only on some such assumption, only by referring the 
enforced association to the organisation of the 
nervous apparatus built up through regularly recur- 
ring physiological activity, that we can satisfactorily 
explain these universal fallacies of perception. 

But if this is the case we shall find this class of 
deceptive phenomena of special value in elucidating 
the organisation of the nervous apparatus and its 
functioning. For if certain element-groups are found 
to participate in false perceptions of this class we 
must, according to our theory, infer their co-operation 
in similar normal "objective" perception, since it is 
only to this constant and habitual co-operation that 
they can owe their participation in the stimulus-wave 
in false perception. 

As an illustration of how false perceptions may be 
used in such a way I will refer shortly to a cognate 
inquiry,^ although indeed the deceptive phenomena 
with which it deals are not, strictly speaking, hallu- 
cinations and illusions. They serve, however, to 
illustrate the fact frequently referred to In the 
course of our inquiry, that the explosion of brain- 
elements from which wide-open paths of association 
lead to other elements produce in the consciousness 
only states of feeble intensity and vice versa. 

Seashore starts from the known fact- that an object when 
supposed to be lighter than it really is, feels when lifted heavier 
than the reality, and one of which the weight has been over- 
estimated beforehand feels lighter than it actually is. He had 

1 Seashore, "Measurements of Illusions and Hallucinations in 
Normal Life," Studies Yale Psych. Lab., 1895 (iii-)> PP- i 67. 

2 He cites, loc. cit., Gilbert, " Researches on the Mental and Phys. 
Development of School Children," Studies Yale Psych. Lab., 1894, ii* 
43-45, 59-63; Dresslar, "Stud, in the Psychol, of Touch," Amer. 

22 



33^ 



HALLUCINATIONS 



two sets of cylmdrical blocks made, each set consisting of 
17 pieces. All the 34 cylinders were of the same material, the 
same height, and painted the same dull black colour. The 
cylinders of the first series, A, were also of uniform weight (80 
gramm.), but differed in bulk as their diameter increased, in 
geometrical ratio, always by i-ioth (from 20-91.9 mm.). The 
cyhnders of the second series, B, on the other hand, were all 
exactly the same size and therefore appeared all exactly the 
same to the eye. They differed in weight, however, each 
successive block being 5 gramm. heavier than the preceding one 
(diameter 42.9 mm. ; weight, 40-120 gramm.). 

The subjects of the experiment were made acquainted with 
the peculiarities of series B, but left in the dark as to the 
relative weights of series A. They were requested to select 
for each weight in set A a corresponding one in set B by taking 
one at a time from A and placing it by the side of successive 
blocks in B, lifting one of these at a time until the one was 
found which seemed to have the same weight as the block from 
A. The average of twenty-five experiments yielded the follow- 
ing figures : — 



A. 


B. 


c. 


D. 


M.V. 


20 


1 10.2 


-22.9 


+ 30-2 


7-5 


22 


103.8 


-20.9 


+ 23-8 


7.0 


24.2 


98.2 


-18.7 ■ 


4-18.2 


5-0 


26.6 


94.4 ^ - 


-16.3 - 


4-14-4 


- 6.5 


29-3 


94.0 


-13-6 - 


-H4.0 


- 6.5 


32.2 


89.2 


-10.7 


4- 9-2 


8.0 


35-4 


86.3 - 


- 7-5 


4- 6.3 


- 50 


390 


85-4 - 


- 3-9 


4- 5-4 


4.0 


42.9 


83.8 - 





+ 3-8 


6.0 


47.2 


80.4 


+ 4.3 


4- 0.4 


5-0 


51-9 


75-6 


-f 9-0 


- 4-4 


4.0 


57-1 


71.6 - 


4-14.2 


- 8.4 


■ . 5-5 


62.8 


69.0 


+ 19-9 


- II. 


- 6.5 



Psych. Jouni., 1894, vi. 313; Charpentier, "Analyse d. quelq. 
elem. de 1. sensation d. poids," Archives de Physiol.^ 1891 (5), iii. 126; 
Miillerand Schuhmann, "tJber d. psychol. Grundl. d. Vergl. gehobener 
Gewichte," Arch. d. ges. Physiol. (Pfliiger), 1889, xlv. 37; Griffing, 
"On the Sensations of Pressure and Impact," Psychol. Rev., 1895, ii-> 
Suppl. i. ; Flournoy, " De Tinfluence de la perception visuelle des 
corps sur leur poids apparent," Vaiiiiee Psychol,, 1894, i. 19S. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 339 



A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


M.V. 


69.1 


65.8 


+ 26.2 


-14.2 


■ 6.5 


76.0 


64.2 


+ 33-1 


-15.8 


6.5 


S3.6 - 


61.2 


+ 40.7 


-18.8 


6.0 


91.9 


58.6 - 


+ 49-0 


-21.4 


■ 6.5 



^ = diameter of the block in set A (having weight of 80 gr.)- 

^ = weight of the block in set B (having a diameter of 42.9 mm.), 
chosen as equal in weight to the block of set A. 

C=:number of millimet. by which the diameter in set A differed from 
that in set B. 

/) = grammes by which the estimated weight of the block in set A 
differed from its true weight. 

Af.V.= mean variation; to obtain the mean variation of the series, 
each result is to be divided by five. 

From these results may be deduced a law holding good 
within a limited range with regard to the influence of visual 
perceptions of size upon our perceptions of weight — viz., that 
objects of similar material and of the same weight which differ 
in size are when lifted felt to be of different weight, the smaller 
being over-estimated and the larger under- estimated. The 
intensity of the false perceptions varies directly with the per- 
ceived amount of difference in size between the bodies compared 
— that is to say (according to Weber's law), increases in arith- 
metical progression, while the objective difference in size rises 
in geometrical ratio. 

Further series of experiments, the discussion of which in 
detail would lead us too far, show that even in frequently 
repeated trials the deceptions remain fixed, and even persist, 
though certainly in a somewhat lesser degree, when the actual 
relations of weight and the nature of the illusion are known to 
the subjects. 

Seashore accounts for these hallucinations of weight by the 
fact that one of the factors which co-operates in perceptions 
of weight stands out in an unnatural relation. In the 
foregoing cases we have to do with the perception of size, 
which plays a part in the preliminary estimate of the weight — 
that is to say in the accommodation of the muscular lifting- 
apparatus, since the bulk decides for us the difference of weight 
between two bodies which otherwise look the same, and there- 
fore seem to be made of the same material. If our estimate of 



340 HALLUCINATIONS 

the weight of a body =w is not correct, and if to hft it we find 
a greater effort w-Vd necessary, then this addition of d to w^ 
since it occurs in an unusual relation, is over-valued. We 
perceive with abnormal intensity the force actually spent, 
w + d, and the weight of the body which had been under- 
estimated is over- valued. If, on the other hand, we have over- 
estimated the weight, and if the actual output of force is w - d, 
then d is over- valued, and the residuum w- d under-valued, 
that is to say the body which was judged to be heavier feels 
lighter than it actually is. This effect is so apparent in the 
experiments cited above that the smallest body of the series A^ 
with a diameter of 20 millimetres, was felt to weigh about 
double as much as the largest block of 91.9 mm. diameter, 
which actually weighed the same. 

The persistence of the deception in cases where the subjects 
had been told all the conditions of the experiments is due to 
the fact that a definite kind of association had become an 
organic habit, which the newly acquired knowledge was power- 
less to counteract. " Size has ever before been influential in 
determining weight, therefore relatively it cannot be suppressed. 
This is not a sign of weakness in discrimination or judgment, 
it is the working principle of those whom we consider most 
intelligent. That feeling of interest which sight commands is 
persistent . . . and in the ordinary flow of conscious activity it 
is almost impossible to muster force to dam it up." 

This example shows clearly how such deceptions 
may demonstrate the importance in certain percep- 
tions of factors whose influence is usually overlooked. 

The method is of course not new. A whole series 
of psychological experiments is founded upon it. 
For instance, to note here one other work of the 
same class, I may mention Lipps' treatise on 
AisthetiscJien Eindruck und Optische TdzLschung} Aw 
which the geometric-optical deceptions (compare, e.g.^ 
above p. 5) are referred to the co-operation of ideas 

^ Which appeared in the Schriften der CeseUschaft fi'ir Psychol. 
Forschungi vol. 9-10. 



AND ILLUSIONS. 34I 

of mechanical activity in the perceptions, the im- 
portance of these ideas in our perception of form is 
emphasised, and an aesthetic of spatial forms (especi- 
ally in architecture and keramic art) based upon it. 

I need not, however, dwell further upon the way in 
which these universal fallacies may be employed to 
elucidate the normal process of perception; the ex- 
ample which I have given above sufficiently illustrates 
the principle involved. Of course such a practical 
application is conceivable only on the view main- 
tained in the present work — the view, that is, which 
regards false perception as none the less perception 
because modified by the co-operation of unwonted 
elements, or by the non-co-operation of those which 
normally share in the process, which regards it as 
subject to the same laws which govern all other 
perception, and not as an abnormal phenomenon 
which sets all law at defiance. 



APPENDIX I. 

In the following pages, the narratives of waking hallucinations 
collected under the direction of Baron von Schrenck-Notzing 
are published for the first time. The cases are so arranged 
as to correspond exactly with Table II. c. (see p. 366). 
The Roman figure prefixed to each narrative indicates 
the page of the collection on which each narrator has 
answered in the affirmative the question whether he has 
experienced a waking hallucination. The Arabic figure 
indicates the line on that page on which his name, age, 
etc., are to be found. The narratives which deal with 
more than one case are divided, and the individual cases 
denoted by letters — A, B, C.^ 

In conclusion, a few narratives, received at the same time, 
dealing with presentiments, prophetic dreams, etc., have been 
added. 

Visual Hallucinations. 

V. 18. C. Frau. K. — "In December 1886 I was awakened 
one night by my children. ... I attended to them, and lay 
down again. Suddenly there w^as a nun standing before my 
bed — the sewing-teacher in the Deaf and Dumb Institute at 
Hohenwart, in Upper Bavaria, — just as I had known her in 
life, quite unchanged, and kindly. She did not speak. I 
saw the apparition, by the night-light, only for a moment. 
I was in good health and free from excitement. I 
remained awake for some hours longer, and reflected as 
to what this could mean, thinking that perhaps something 

^ The original narratives are preserved in the reports of the (Munich) 
Psychological Society, where they can be examined on application, if 
desired. 



344 ArPENDix. 

had happened to her. But these thoughts were occasioned 
only by the vision. Two days after I heard that the 
sewing-teacher had died of blood-poisoning (in conse- 
quence of an injury to her foot) -at the precise hour when 
I saw the vision. I made special inquiries on this point. 
I had no knowledge whatever of her illness, but believed 
her to be quite well. I told this occurrence to several 
people, my husband among them, before the news reached 
us." (Herr K. gives verbal confirmation of his wife having 
spoken to him about the vision, but cannot remember the 
exact time.) 

X. 13. B. El. Pa. — See above, p. 247. 

X. 14. B. Martha Bl. — -"When mymotherwas dangerously 
ill, in July 1887, at Munich (M . . . strasse, 5), I saw her 
figure at the bedside, undressed, when I was lying awake in 
bed, looking just as she did in life. A week later the death 
we were expecting took place. I had previously related this 
occurrence to my father." 

XXIII. A. V. M.— See p. 99. 

XXVIII. Louise H., Meiningen. — " In the early days of 
November 1881 I had gone to bed as usual, one evening, 
about ten o'clock. My mother, eighty-four years of age, was 
already asleep in my bedroom ; a night-light was burning. 
I lay down in bed fully awake, and had scarcely been in 
that position a few seconds, wide awake, and with my eyes 
open, when I heard a peculiar crackling sound in the sitting- 
room, and suddenly saw it brightly lit up, although I had 
myself extinguished the petroleum lamp on going to bed. 
In the doorway between the two rooms stood my sister 

Christel, married to the insurance-agent, Br , at Erfurt, 

and at that time very ill with cancer in the breast. She had 
on an indoor dress of printed calico, and came towards my 
bed, stretching out her hands. In my consternation I called 
my mother, as loud as I could, but was unable to awaken 
her, and then the image of my sister disappeared. She 
died a few days after, or it may have been on the same day. 
I may mention that, in order to get into the sitting-room, 
any one would have to pass through the bedroom first. I 
had known for years that my sister was suffering from 
"cancer, but had not on that day been specially worried or 
excited." 

XXXI. A. Sophie T. — " In December 1867 I saw my 



APPENDIX. 345 

husband (then on his death-bed) come in his dressing- 
gown out of the bedroom into the room where I was just 
preparing him some lemonade and milk. He nodded to 
me, pointed to a certain spot, and disappeared. I hastened 
to his bedside with the drink, and found him quietly sleep- 
ing. He had not been up at all." 

XXXI. B. Sophie T.—" It was at the end of October 186 7. 
Our house adjoined a garden about one and a half acres in 
extent. Dinner was ready at i p.m., when I saw my husband 
strolHngdown the garden in the opposite direction to the house 
I went to the window and took hold of the bolt to open it. 
I was just going to call to him, when I looked sideways into 
the room, and saw my husband sitting comfortably in the 
same room, between the second window and the stove, 
holding a newspaper in his hand. I called out, ' Oh ! you 
are here ? ' ' Did you think I was outside ? I have not 
been in the garden,' was his reply. I must also add that 
our little dog, whom I had seen in the garden trotting along 
behind my husband, was lying stretched out under his chair, 
and while we were speaking, slowly got up, stretched him- 
self, and yawned. It would have been impossible for my 
husband, in the short time that had elapsed between my 
seeing him in the garden and finding him seated in the 
room with the newspaper, to have traversed a long piece of 
the garden path and two large rooms." 

XXXI. D. Sophie T. — "At the beginning of August I was 
visiting some relatives at Berlin. Having to go some 
distance by tram-car, I saw, for the space of some seconds, 
my son, who lives at Diisseldorf, sitting beside me. This 
happened to me twice during the short time I was at 
Berlin." 

XXXVII. Anna Schm. — "Early in the morning, while still 
in bed, I suddenly saw (I believe I was fully awake) the 
figure of my mother, who had died two years before. (She 
often appears to me in dreams and when half asleep, but 
never so distinctly as on this occasion.) She was holding 
my child, then still living and in good health, by the hand. 
On my addressing it, the figure vanished as quickly as it 
had appeared. I had this hallucination between half-past 
four and five on the morning of December 2nd, 1889." 

XXXIX. A. Josephine Schm. — See p. loi, Note i. 

III. 22. B. Louise Eder. — "Five months after my mother's 



346 APPENDIX. 

death, in 1887, I was lying awake in bed and thinking 
of our removal from the house, which was to take place 
shortly. Suddenly I saw my mother standing before the 
bed, looking exactly as she had done in life, but dressed in 
a chemise only. She said nothing, and soon disappeared. 
At first she stood near the head of the bed, then near the 
foot. I felt my breath oppressed, as in nightmare. I closed 
my eyes, and only saw her more distinctly. When I opened 
them she was standing beside me. The room at the same 
time looked like a large hall." 

IV. 18. V. G.— See p. 100. 

X. 13. A. Elizabeth Pa. — See p. 247. 

XXXI. C. Sophie T.— "My nephew, who died at Berlin 
in January 1881, appeared to me, here in Diisseldorf, in the 
Hofgarten. He walked beside me for a few seconds. 
When I called him by name — -'Otto' — the phantom 
vanished. (One forenoon in the autumn of 1888)." 

XXXV. B. Frau M. Cla.— " After the death of a beloved 
sister, I used to take long walks alone. As I walked along, 
lost in thought, mostly in broad daylight, it often seemed to 
me as if she were gliding along beside me, at a distance of 
about two metres. She looked quite calm, cheerful, and 
beautiful, but the image was a very unsubstantial one. 
The only definite thing about it was the expression of the 
face, and if I ventured to look straight at the apparition the 
whole thing disappeared." 

XXIV. D. Louise Han. — " Seven years ago, in the spring 
of 1882, I saw a poor man who vanished when I was just 
about to give him an alms." 

XXXV. C. Frau M. Cia. — " When a girl of seventeen, I 
was on a visit to a friend in a Danish town. There had been 
a family gathering, and the house was full of visitors, so 
that for the first few nights I had to share my friend's room. 
After the guests had left, one of the spare rooms in the side 
wing of the house was assigned to me. At night I went to 
bed as usual, but omitted to lock the door. Soon after I 
had put out the light the door opened, a woman came in 
with a lighted candle, and kept on looking at me; she 
came up to the table which stood facing the bed, and over 
which hung a large mirror. I could see in the mirror the 
face of the woman, who continued to look fixedly at me; 
then she turned round and went out of the room without 



APPENDIX. 347 

vSaying a word. I sat upright in bed. I iiave seen all the 
servants in the house, and know that the woman was not 
one of them. The incident had no after-significance for 
me." 

XXVII. G. W. saw "in a hotel at Wiesbaden an elderly 
woman dressed like a servant, who gazed fixedly at me, 
standing at the door just in front of the lock. Though the 
whole figure, its dress and features, were plainly visible, yet 
it was completely transparent, so that I could also see 
the door-handle and the door itself behind it. It was 
broad daylight, I was sitting up in bed, and am firmly 
convinced that I was wide awake and in possession of all 
my faculties. The apparition lasted about half a minute, 
and then disappeared." 

XXXIX. B. Josephine Schm. — See p. loi. 

XXIV. C. Louise Han. — "When a child of seven or 
-eight, I once saw a face which looked at me sadly, and at 
which I gazed full of curiosity. But when I told my mother 
of it, she tried to convince me that I had been mistaken. 
Nevertheless, I have been unable to forget it to this day." 

XXXV. A. Frau M. Cla. (abridged).— While being 
escorted home by a friend of her husband's, she saw, by 
the moonlight, a man's face in the window of her house, 
which was thickly overgrown. with vines. On coming into 
the room and striking a light, she saw nothing more, but 
later, coming out of her bedroom into the dark room, 
the face ("it was more a face than a figure") was 
seated in the arm-chair in the moonlight. She overcame 
her fear and seated herself in the arm-chair, and then the 
shape vanished without reappearing. 

XXVI. Ivan Plesnicar, of the Servian army medical service 
(refers to Lichf, mehr Lichf, vol. ii. 42, 51, vol. iii. 37). — 
"The figure of a tall old man, with a flowing beard and 
venerable countenance, in a grey toga with wide sleeves, 
seemed to lift out the window-frame and appear floating in 
its place, and gave me to understand, by gesture and 
motions (the right hand holding up a cross before me at a 
distance of about two metres), that I was to change the course 
of my life, which so far had been entirely given up to self- 
indulgence. I received an impression which up to the 
present time has proved indelible. Up to that time I was 
a materialist, and social enjoyments were my heaven." 



348 APPENDIX. 

(The narrator continues, in reference to a series of other 
hallucinations of which no details are given, " Sometimes 
other gentlemen were present, but they had not the slightest 
perception of what I saw.") 

XXXI. C. Sophie T. — Detailed account of the vision of 
an angel seen by her when standing by the bedside of her 
dying child. The two elder children were playing in the 
next room. She was just repeating a Paternoster (it being 
the hour for service in church) when, after three taps with a 
willow wand, the angel (a wingless figure) appeared, bent 
over the child, and vanished. Her husband, entering the 
room immediately afterwards, remarked on her ecstatic 
expression. The child died in twenty-four hours. 

XVI. 2. B. Captain Ko. (retired from the army). — " On 
October 25th or 26th, 1887, about 7 p.m., I was driving to 
tea with a friend after my usual dinner. I got out of the 
carriage, and remained standing in front of the little church 
of Schw., while my companion entered a house in the neigh- 
bourhood. I knew that my mother was ill, and feared that 
her condition might become more serious, but did not 
expect the worst. (In another place the narrator speaks of 
' expecting an improvement.') Then I suddenly saw a black 
ball (of the size of a small balloon) rising up into the clear 
sky above the roof of the church. As it rose higher it lessened 
in size, and vanished in the direction of the moon, then, I 
think, in the first quarter, with one star above it (Venus). My 
feelings at the same time were extremely unpleasant; my con- 
sciousness was quite clear, but filled with the idea, ' Some 
misfortune is happening.' While I had not previously felt 
anxious, and my state of mind was, on other grounds, even 
a cheerful one, my first thought, of course, on seeing 
this appearance was of my mother, and this gave rise 
to uneasy, anxious feelings, so that later on, in company 
with my friends, it required an effort to control myself. 
Next day I found that my mother's condition had changed 
for the worse, and that she was unconscious; and on 
October 9th she died." 

Hallucinations affecting more than one Sense. 

XXIV. A. Louise Han. — See p. 238, Note i. 
XXIX.— See p. 280. 



APPENDIX. 349 

IX. 17. Frau Bo. — On Monday, September 23rd, 1889, 
between i and 2 a.m., Frau B. heard a moaning and 
lamenting outside her bedroom, immediately under the 
window looking on the Ka. .strasse, in which the Realschule 
is situated. She was going to call her husband, but he was 
fast asleep. She was then about to pull the bed-clothes to 
waken him, when, at the same moment, she saw a white 
figure ("something white, which she took for a figure") 
float through the room, whereupon she hid herself under 
the bed-clothes. In the morning she related the occurrence 
to her husband, who laughed at her. She, however, thought 
some one must have died, probably her niece, whom she 
knew to be ill. About 9.30 a.m. there arrived a telegram 
from Munich announcing the serious illness of Chr. Schm., 
a master at the Realschule. Frau B. immediately said, 
" He will die." Soon there arrived a second telegram with 
news of the death of the gentleman in question. 

P.S. — Herr Schm., before his departure in June, had 
handed over to Herr B. and his wife the sum of several 
hundred marks to take care of for him during his absence. 

XV. 10. Dr. H. Gr.— See p. 96. 

XXX. B. G. Wit. (schoolmaster). — " I was again in bed, 
three months later than the above occurrence (see XXX. 
A.), when suddenly I felt a violent blast of air on the 
right side. Then I felt a magnetic current pass from my 
head to my feet ; I turned over on my other side and said, 
' Now magnetise me on the left side too.' This was done. 
Then I laid myself on my back, and felt a strong current 
passing from head to foot. In a few minutes there was 
an appearance of luminosity, a patch of light, the length 
and breadth of my bed, reaching up to the ceiling of the 
room.' A man's figure, which looked copper- coloured, 
appeared on the right side of the bed. He looked at me 
and I at him. No conversation took place. I was not 
afraid, but ordered the figure to withdraw, which he imme- 
diately did. The light also vanished w^ith the figure. My 
wife was with me in the room, but she noticed nothing." 

I. 13. Magd. Sp. — "I saw my mother after her death 
four weeks after the funeral (she died about Shrovetide, 
i860). I was then living at Gundelfingen with my family. 
At first I saw a white dove every night for a week. It 
flew about in front of the window, appearing at twelve 



350 APPENDIX. 

precisely, and staying till five a.m. I could hear the 
fluttering ; my sister saw the dove as well. After this 
appearance had ceased we heard footsteps ; once, at mid- 
night, the door opened of itself. We were sitting up, because 
we had been excited by the various noises. My mother 
entered, fully visible, in the clothes in which she had been 
buried. She lay down beside my sister and myself. (We 
were sleeping in the same bed, in the room she had died 
in.) She remained there till five; we had the feeUng as if 
a corpse were lying beside us, and were so much frightened 
that we could not get out of the bed. This was repeated 
every night for a week. [When she went away ?] we saw 
her go round the house. Whenever the church bell rang 
she slammed the door violently. In the last night we 
questioned her ; she asked us to have a mass said. This 
was done and she appeared no more. My brother (then 
between twenty and thirty years of age and in the army) 
arrived one morning early and saw [and heard] my 
mother bustling about in the yard." (The two witnesses 
mentioned are no longer living.) 

Auditory Hallucinations (Voices). 

V. 17. Josepha Wa. — "When my husband died, on 
January i6th, 1873, and his corpse was still lying un- 
buried in the mortuary, I heard in the night of the 17th, 
about 10 P.M., a voice call three times, 'Pepi.'^ I awoke 
at the first call, and hearing it twice loudly repeated, I rose, 
thinking my father was calling me, and went to him. He 
had heard nothing. . . . He came, as I was afraid, and 
watched beside me. I was suffering at the time from 
headache and toothache, but otherwise quite healthy; I 
was also overwhelmed with grief at the death of my 
husband." 

IX. 18. A. U. (schoolmaster.) — "My wife died on April 
3rd, 1887, at 12.45 ^-^i- ^^^ awakening early — perhaps at 
6 or 7 A.M. — I quite distinctly heard her dear voice 
calling me by name, ' August,' as if she wished to comfort 
me." 

XVI. 2. A. Captain Ko. (retired). — See p. 98. 

^ Familiar abbreviation of Josepha. 



APPENDIX. 351 

XXX. C. G. Wit. (schoolmaster), — "In my young days I 
was called quite loudly one afternoon. On immediate 
inquiry I found that no one had called me. The voice 
was extremely loud and vigorous. It was not the voice of 
a human being. This took place at 2 p.m. I had lain 
down for a siesta, on a day when there was no afternoon 
school." 

V. 19. A. Therese Fo. — " In November 1878 I heard, 
from my bed in our house at Munich, at 5 a.m., the 
singing of birds, as though it were spring. I was wide 
awake, quite healthy, free from excitement, and wondered 
at this unaccountable occurrence. Several hours later we 
received a telegram informing us that a cousin with whom 
we were very intimate , . . had died unexpectedly that 
morning at five precisely. We had not been thinking of 
him at the time." 

IX. 14. B. Schm. Fr. (Government schoolmaster.) — In 
the year 1869 he was frequently in X. on business connected 
with the erection of a church in that place. X. was 
a village some nine miles distant, in a north-westerly 
direction, from B. Near this village is a quarry, and just 
above it stands a tree, past which the footpath leads. As 
he was passing this tree one day at noon, no one else being 
in the neighbourhood, he heard a loud sneezing. The 
sound appeared to proceed from the depths below the tree. 
He thought that there might be some one in the quarry and 
passed on. When he, some time after, again took the same 
road he again heard the same loud sound of sneezing. 
This excited his attention. At midnight of the same day 
he passed the same spot with the clergyman who then 
officiated in X. ; again the mysterious sneezing. Schm. Fr. 
called the clergyman's attention to it, who then told him 
that he had often heard it both by day and by night, and 
not he alone, but all, from the oldest man to the youngest 
child in his congregation; that it was well known in the 
neighbourhood. The saying ran that here a poor soul was 
imprisoned and was waiting for deliverance. A little later 
on Coll. Schm. Fr. again passed the tree. This time, as 
before, no one was near. He was deep in thought about the 
plans of the church and did not remember the haunted 
spot Suddenly he again heard loud, vigorous sneezing. 
He said fearlessly, " God help thee and me." Quite 



352 APPENDIX. 

distinctly he heard, as from the depths, "Thank God." 
And since then the sneezing has not been heard. 

Auditory Hallucinations (Noises, etc.). 

II. 3. Math. G. — "I heard in my house, about three 
weeks ago, at half-past nine in the evening, three raps, five 
times repeated, upon the table. I was lying in bed half- 
asleep, but at the first sound became wide awake, and then 
heard the raps in succession. , . . I thought it was a mani- 
festation, because the raps were at regular intervals. On 
the following day I learnt that a relative of mine, living in 
service at Donauwbrth, had died at the same hour. In life 
I had known her intimately (had been in love with her). 
My uncle at once communicated with me. , . . When I 
heard the taps I did not think of the young girl, for though 
she had been in ill-health for six months, her death was 
not expected. She was twenty-one years of age. Two girls 
were sleeping in the room next mine ; one of them, her 
niece (a seamstress), heard the same sounds." 

III. 22. A. Louise Ed. — "Towards two o'clock one 
morning in May 1888, Herbststrasse, No. 7, 11., my 
husband and I heard a glass door being broken into, and 
could distinguish the sound of the fragments of glass falling 
and breaking. We simultaneously awoke and got up. He 
exclaimed, ' What is the meaning of this ? ' We found 
nothing broken; indeed, there was no glass door in the 
house. Three weeks after this occurrence my father unex- 
pectedly died of inflammation of the lungs, after keeping 
his bed for six days. At the time when we heard the noise 
my father was quite well, and lived in the country at Sim- 
bach, but always had a great longing to see us and the 
children. Since my father's death I have often seen him 
in dreams . . . but without any special significance. I am 
a great dreamer. Once I dreamt that my son had died 
at sea. I wrote to him and found it untrue." 

III. 23. Simon Ed. — Compare p. 276 (the same case 
as III. 22. A.). 

V. I. Maria G. — "In the summer of 1880 I was lying 
awake in bed, alone in my room, in my parents' house in 

L . About midnight, without any apparent cause, the 

door flew wide open, so that I could see into the passage. 



APPENDIX. 353 

Awakened by the sound of the door, I did not go to sleep 
again. Thereupon I heard heavy footsteps, going first along 
the passage, then up the stairs. I struck a light and hastened 
out, but found no one. At the same hour my favourite 
aunt, who was seventy years old, died in a house not ten 
minutes' walk from our own, without any possibility of our 
having been able to foresee or expect her death. I only 
learnt the news on the following day, and had not been 
thinking of her during the night." 

V. i8. A. Frau K. — "On the 27th of December 1876, 
at half-past two in the afternoon, I was in my kitchen at the 

Deaf and Dumb Asylum in B . I was unmarried at the 

time. Suddenly I heard beside me the splashing of water, 
for which I could discover no cause. The sound continued, 
at intervals, for an hour (from 1.30 to 2.30). On the same 
day I learnt that my sister (twenty-four years old) had died, 
at the time already mentioned, in a hospital in Munich, of 
heart disease, without my having any idea of her danger, 
for the last reports had been favourable. When I heard 
the sound it did not trouble me, and I did not think of my 
sister." 

"One afternoon in the November of 1886 I was alone in 
my room (I was then married), when, between four and five 
o'clock, I heard a sound as of a heavy body falling beside 
me, like a rap, only sounding once. In the evening I 
learnt that my friend, the Rev. Dr. Wagner, had died at 
exactly the time mentioned, at the age of seventy-four 
years. They had been fearing a repetition of a stroke. 
[Still] I did not know that on that same afternoon he had 
had a seizure, and had succumbed to it." 

V. 19. B. Theresa Fo. — "My husband died on the 15th 
November 1881. On the preceding night I heard a loud 
cracking sound in my house (at Neuhausen, near Munich), 
which I could not account for in any imaginable way, for 
it was much louder than the creaking of furniture. My 
husband was lying ill in bed, and heard it too. I was 
well, not at all excited [? !], and wide awake. I was much 
frightened. The day after my husband died." 

IX. 14. A. — A Government schoolmaster (Schm. Fr.), 

while studying at the former Polytechnic School at N , 

sat up to study one night — January 1846 — and did not go 
to bed until i A.m, He could not sleep until nearly two, 

23 



354 APPENDIX. 

when a terrible crash came against his bedroom door. Two 
days afterwards he received a letter containing the news 
that exactly at the same time his godfather had died at 
B . 

IX. 19. A. C. Kii. — '' It was about midnight when we, my 
father, mother, and two brothers, who slept in two adjoining 
rooms, were awakened by a violent tapping at the window 
three times repeated. My father got up, opened the window, 
and looked for the cause. At the same moment there were 
three taps at the other window; but my father, hastening to 
it at once, could not discover anything there either. Then 
my mother exclaimed, weeping, 'Your grandfather is worse; 
he is certainly dead; this is an omen.' And so it proved. 
The next morning a messenger arrived with the news that 
grandfather had died at midnight." 

X. 14. A. Martha Br. — "When I was a girl of fourteen I 
heard a loud knocking. My uncle, who was living in Paris, 
died at the same hour as the knocking had been heard at 
the door. My mother and I looked out, without being 
able to discover the cause for it. At the same time the 
clock stopped." 

X. 19. Charlotte La. — "In the June of 1879, one^day at 
eight o'clock in the evening, I was in the kitchen at Orebro 
(in Sweden). My father was busy packing in the drawing- 
room. I thought that I heard the sound of a guitar in this 
room, and expressed my surprise to my mother (who did 
not hear it) that my father should be so merry and should 
be playing just before his departure. The music was cheer- 
ful, some well-known melodies which my father was in the 
habit of singing and playing. At eleven o'clock the same 
evening my father started for Germany, in order to visit my 
grandmother at Nuremberg. On the following morning, while 
my father was still on the road, we received a telegram, 
saying that my grandmother had unexpectedly died at the 
age of seventy-five. I had heard the playing one month 
before as I lay in bed. It woke me up and frightened me. 
The tendency to second-sight and presentiments is hereditary 
in our family. My father, mother, and paternal grandfather 
were all alike in this respect. I am in good health." 

XII. 13. A. Ferd. Schm. — "After an absence of many 
years I had returned to the house I was born in. This 
house was built in the sixteenth century, formerly belonged 



APPENDIX. 355 

to the monastery of St. Michael, and was first Hved in by a 
bishop. On the first fioor were some bedrooms, divided 
by lath partitions, and having old-fashioned stuff hangings. 
Since my childhood only one death had taken place here; 
when I was eight years old my father died, about Christmas 
1876. A suicide (by hanging) had taken place here some- 
where between the years 1850 and i860. According to my 
diary, I heard the sound of furtive or careful footsteps on 
February i6th, just after I had gone to bed at 11.30 p.m. 
I called several times, but received no answer. Something 
was creeping up to my chamber door. I had seized some 
object with which to defend myself, and waited, in the 
greatest tension of excitement, for what was coming. I 
distinctly heard the opening of the door, and asked — almost 
in a shriek — who was there, but received no answer, and 
could think of no explanation, as the sounds were not so 
distinct as the noises made by rats and mice. Judging by 
the cautious steps, I thought at first it might be my grand- 
mother, who was then ill, and must certainly have been in 
bed at that hour. She may have had her thoughts strongly 
directed to me. The doctor had pronounced it impossible 
for her to live long. Her death took place on the loth of 
March following." 

XII. 13. B. Ferd. Schm. — " Herr Li and my mother 

were in the sitting-room, late one evening, when both 
suddenly heard the front door open, there was a clink [of 
the latch ?], and some one came up the steps, crossed the 
passage, passed the three steps leading to the kitchen, and 
then went through the kitchen to the door of the sitting- 
room. My mother stood in the middle of the room, await- 
ing the nightly visitor, but there was no knock, neither was 
any one in the kitchen when both went out," (This is said 
to have happened in the autumn of 1888.) 

XV. 5. Von T, — "At Wiirzburg, between 6 and 8 p.m. 
(I cannot remember the exact date — I think it was in the 
spring of 1888), I heard a noise as if a stone had been 
thrown at the window, or a heavy blow struck on it. I was 

just talking to my landlady, Frau B -, and in a completely 

normal and healthy condition. My landlady heard the 
blow, started violently, and expressed her belief that her 
sister-in-law (then living at Wiirzburg, and seriously ill) had 
died, and was announcing herself. At the hour when we 



35^ APPENDIX. 

heard the blow, Frau B 's sister-in-law died. The 

window-panes, when we examined them, were quite intact." 

XVI. I. Meta v. O. — See p. 240. 

XVII. 2. Frl. Mei.— See p. 239. 

XVII. 1 7. A. Antoinette and Ella Dr. — " My mother, my 
two sisters, and myself were one afternoon in our sitting- 
room at M . We were talking together. All members 

of the family who were present were, like myself, fully 
awake and free from all excitement. The door opening 
on the passage was shut. Suddenly it flew open without 
apparent cause, and all of us at once heard a heavy blow in 
the room for which we could assign no reason. We were 
greatly startled, and my mother said it was a warning. On 

the following day we heard that my uncle, living at E , 

had suddenly and unexpectedly died of heart-disease at the 
exact time when we heard the blow." 

XVII. 17. B. — "At the time of my father's death I sud- 
denly heard a loud knock while I was busy in the kitchen. 
The plates rattled on a fixed rack, without assignable cause. 
My [ ? ] was present, and thought that this was a warning. 
During the night which followed, my father (who was in the 
house, and already ill) died." 

XXV. . . . Frau Dro. — "I heard one deep sigh. It was 
on November 20th, 1883. I was alone on the second floor, 
standing at a linen-cupboard, and heard the deep sighing in 
the direction of the door which led to the corridor. There 
was no possibility of delusion. My state of mind was quite 
calm, and I thought no more of the matter. On November 
23rd, in the same year, my sister died in the same house, in 
a room on the third floor; but I was not thinking of her 
the moment before hearing the sigh. It is true that I 
thought of her immediately after hearing it." 

XXXVI. I. Marie K. — "To the best of my recollection, 
it was in the winter of last year that I was in the sitting-room 

at 3 P.M. with my cousin M . I was reading a book, my 

cousin was sewing, when we heard a heavy blow and were 
frightened. It sounded as though a tile had fallen down in 
the chimney. When my cousin examined the fireplace she 
could find nothing. My uncle died at exactly the same 
time, as I heard some days later. He was very old and 
infirm, living at Passau. I had never personally known 
him. Both of us had heard, for a fortnight, a sound like 



APPENDIX. 357 

the ticking of a clock, wliich went on day and night and 
stopped at the moment when we heard the blow\" 

XXXVI. 2. A. (Abbreviated.) — Frau Z heard con- 
tinual knocking for some days previous to three deaths — 
those of her father, brother, and father-in-law. It was heard 
only- before deaths, and ceased each time with the death. 
In two out of the three cases the death occurred at a 
distance from the place where Frau Z lived. 



Tactile Hallucinations. 

II. 9. — See p. 279. 

IX. 18. B. U. (schoolmaster).—" On April 5th, 1887, at 
3 P.M. I felt — it is true I was only half awake — my right hand 
pressed, just as though my wife had done it. Probably she 
wished to comfort me, as this took place about an hour 
before her funeral." 

XV. 2. Wally R.— See p. 241, Note i. 



Dreams, Presentiments, Warnings, — Cases Where the 
Hallucination is Described too vaguely. 

XXXVIII. Re.— See above, p. 75. 

XXIV. B. Louise Han — (Dream?). — "This summer I 
saw my owai face, covered wath an eruption, beside my bed. 
I sat up, to try to seize the vision, when it vanished. I felt 
vexed at this, and went to sleep. Next morning I found 
myself so weak that I could scarcely stand upright. I did 
not eat or drink all day, but sat in the open air. In the 
evening I went to bed early; next day I was well, but felt 
a strange burning in my face. When I felt the eruption 
coming on, I bathed my face with arnica, and so got rid of 
it. I should never have thought of this, had I not seen the 
vision two days before." 

XXX. D. G. Wit. (schoolmaster) gives a brief report of 
dreams, and writes, " I have often had w^arnings of the deaths 
of my relations." 

IX. 19. B. C. Kii. — "The death of my grandmother 
was announced by remarkable circumstances. An excellent 
Schwarzwald clock suddenly stopped, though it had been 



358 APPENDIX. 

wound up at the proper time, and the weights (which took 
a week to run down) were still a good way up. My grand- 
mother died at the very hour to which the hands were 
pointing when they stopped, as my mother soon after heard 
from a messenger, arriving from the place where my grand- 
mother lived — a four hours' walk from us." 

XXXVI. 2. B. Frau St. — " When my mother's sister 
unexpectedly died (at a distance) the clock on our wall 
suddenly ran down. My mother (now dead) and I both 
heard it, and could not explain it. It was quite a good 
clock, and went again after the weights had been drawn up. 
This never happened on any other occasion. The hand 
stopped at the time of her death — which we only heard of 
later." 

I. A. Hieb. — "In June, 1846, when I was living in my 
father's house at Dillingen, we found, one morning, a board 
— the lower part of a step, which had been quite firmly 
nailed in — lying loose on the stairs. The nails (long board- 
nails) were sticking in it. In the same night in which the 
stairs had so unaccountably been made impassable, my half- 
brother died. He was man-of-all-work (Hausknecht) at the 
monastery of Medingen — two hours distant. He had been 
ill with a stomach complaint. None of us has any inclina- 
tion to somnambulism. No one heard the wood being 
wrenched out — we were all asleep when it happened. It 
had previously been so firmly fastened in that it could not 
have been loosened, even with an axe." 

V. Franz J. Schu. and Barbara Schu. — In the summer 
of 1875, between midnight and 2 a.m., in the house of 

Sch , a large window-jamb, which had been placed in the 

attic and was leaning against the roof, between i and 2 
metres distant from the top of the stairs, fell down the stairs 
with a loud noise. At Ebbisburg, a sound was heard, as 
if tiles from the roof were falling down into the attic. 
Awakened by this noise, the family heard next day that a 
near relative had died at the same time. He had been ill 
for some time, but his death was not expected. 

XXX. A. G. A. Wit. (schoolmaster). — "One evening, 
eight years ago, I was in bed. My wife's bed was next to 
mine; we were conversing. In a pause of the conversation, 
I was raised a quarter of an ell into the air. I said, ' Do 
stop that nonsense.' Then I was gently lowered again. I 



APPENDIX. 359 

did not think of spiritism. I was wide awake and in no 
way excited; I was also quite well and free from anxiety. 
My wife noticed nothing. Soon after this, my uncle, the 
Rev. X., died, after the apparition of a spirit in broad day- 
light, at 12 noon." 

XXL — C. T. went, in the autumn of 1868, to escort 
an acquaintance of his to her home, after a visit to her 
grandmother, who was ill. He suddenly had a well-defined 
presentiment that the grandmother would die next morning 
at 7 A.M. Next morning, at that hour, she appeared to 

him in a dream, and said, " Good morning, Herr T ." 

He sent over at once to inquire, and heard that she had 
just died. (He had, on the previous evening, told the 
grand-daughter of his presentiment.) 

In the year 1870, again, after the death of his wife, T, 
had a presentiment that two more deaths would occur in the 
house. The presentiment came true. 



APPENDIX II. 

Tabular Conspectus of the Statistics of Waking 
Hallucinations. 

In the following conspectus there are published, in the first 
place, the figures of the English census as given in the 
Report. But these are supplemented, as far as I found 
it possible to do so, by the addition of the American, 
French, and Munich results. 

The final figures of the English Collection here cited 
differ slightly from the ad interim tables which were quoted 
in Chapters III. and IX. The differences, which are mainly 
due to the adoption in the Report of different methods in 
dealing with the results, are, however, trifling, and do not in 
any wise affect the conclusions arrived at in the text. 

For kind permission to publish the Tables I must here 
express my best thanks to the English Society for Psychical 
Research, and the Munich Psychologische Gesellschaft, — 
especially to Professor Sidgwdck and Baron von Schrenck- 
Notzing. 



360 



APPENDIX. 



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u 




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i 












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> 




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CO 


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1 1 


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CO vO 




c> 



On 


1 1 


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1 1 


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c3 






33 

> 


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1-1 


CJ 


l-l 


CO 


1 1 


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^ ^ 








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cr b 


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hH 


















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, 




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fa iv; 










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, 




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APPENDIX. 



361 



< 













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00 


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cj 


co 


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s 


MD^ 


vO 


CO 




CJ^ 


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56 
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fO 


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On 







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1— 1 


M 


CJ 




0^ 


CO 


CO 


NO 


CO 




















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rC 


CO 


NO 








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• SB 

=? 




n 


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t^ 




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d 


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d 


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h^ 


CO 


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2 


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rv. 


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362 APPENDIX. 



TABLE IL 

Waking Hallucinations classified according to the 
Sense affected, and according to the kind of 
Percept. 

Prelimijiary Observations. — While in Table I. the number 
of persons experiencing hallucinations is in question, the 
following table concerns the number of hallucinations 
reported, the two sets of numbers differing from one 
another, as not a few persons have more than one such 
experience to report. Each separately described hallucina- 
tion is reckoned by itself; cases occurring repeatedly, 
not separately described, are counted as one {e.g., in the 
English census in the case of iii narratives of visual 
hallucinations given at first-hand and 29 of the same at 
second-hand, and in a still greater number of auditory 
and tactile cases. Cf. Tables V., VI., VII.) 

In the calculation of column 15 the number of persons 

answering is reduced in the same proportion as the number 

of affirmative answers is reduced by the omission of 

those answers in which no further particulars were given 

(Cf. Table L). In the English census, e.g., we find 1295 

cases of visual hallucinations (first and second-hand cases 

added together) — i.e., about 8.4 per cent, of 17,000 

1684- IQO T , ^ ,.,,,. 

X -rzz • In the German census a detailed explanation 

1084 

is added to almost every affirmative answer; here all cases 

have been taken into consideration. As for the American 

census, I have not had access to the necessary statistics, 

which is also the case with the French. Of the latter, 

however, I was able to use the provisional results up to 

April I St, 1 89 1. (See Proceed. S.P.R., Part xix., pp. 264- 

267.) At that time 2822 answers had been received, of 



APPENDIX. 363 

which 472 were affirmative. As only 231 of these had 
explanations appended, column 15 is here reckoned from 
2 "? I 

2822 X = 1363. In Table II. d, therefore, 15130+1363 

472 

+ 625 = 171 18 answers are taken into account. 

Columns i, 2, 3, 8, and 9 contain the cases which, ac- 
cording to the report, belong to the most distinctly 
externalised, those, i.e.^ which looked exactly like human 
beings, animals, or objects. Under i, besides phantasms 
of the living, those apparitions whose prototype was 
already dead have been reckoned, if the percipient did 
not know of the death, and if it had taken place not 
more than twelve hours before the hallucination. Column 
4 contains visual images incompletely developed, such as 
transparent, colourless, or shadowy and indistinct figures, 
apparitions oi parts of the human body, and figures which, 
though apparently having a bodily form, are veiled. By 
"Visions," 5, are to be understood scenes which do not 
appear to take place in the real surroundings of the 
percipient. Sometimes they are distinctly externalised, 
sometimes only visible to the mental eye. Column 1 1 
contains appearances not clearly seen by the percipient, 
not identified by him, or to which he was unable to give 
a name; also such appearances as smoke, cases of dark 
shadows between the observer and the lamp, a black ball 
rising into the sky like a balloon, and (in the German 
report) sighs, or sounds like tapping at the windows, chairs 
falling over, etc. 



m 
D 

CO 

Z 

U 



o 






•.oULieAvsue 
^ suos.iac{ JO ■!}U9o aad 
suoi:)iJUi.onn^^H JO .X3qum>j 


CO to 




14 

Totals. 


•pu^JH 

puoosg 




•puiiH 


O CO tH 
OJ cc .-( 
1-1 CO i-H 
1-1 




y ^/ N' \ 


13 
Totals 


•puiJH 
pno.^Ss! 

•puxiH 


T-H o CO in iH ® o 1 

CO 1 l-H 1 M 1 
I-H 1 t-l 1 


o 

:o 


(M 1^ i^T-H oi -"tit^ T-Hoo ca 

■-lOOCDIOi-H J^rHO 
O 00 r-l 


C] 
(M 

CO 
r-l 


•uopuogtss-ct^ 

<^ .lo/paquosap 

Ai:}uapiy;nsui 


•puvH 
puooas! 


?:^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 


r-l 


•pUTJH 


'^ 1 II 1 11 II 1 


00 


•soqonox JO 
m spafqo 
e+iugapui 


•pu^H 
puooes! 

•puiJH 


1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 13 1 


r-l. 


rH 1 1 1 1 1 CO 


CO 

in 


10 
Lights. 


•puBH 

puooa^ 


^ 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 


r-\ 


•pu^'H 


3 <^ ^ 1 1 II II 1 


r-i 


•spefqo 

O 9)TiUlIUBUJ 

eiiu'gsa 


•pui^H 
puooas 


^ 1 II 1 II 1 1 1 


(M 


•pu^H 


O 1 CO 1 rH II 1 (M 1 


CO 
r-i 


(M •si'Biniuv 


•put'H 

puoDas; 


r^ 1 11 1 M 1^ 1 


l-H 


•pu-BH 


<M I CO 1 1 II 1 (N 1 




•suoni-ii^ddy 
sao.xisuoi\: J.0 
^- 'aiqi.uon 
'enbsa:jo.io 


•pu-BH 

puooas 


=° I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CO 


•puT!H 


CO 1-1 t- CN 1 1 1 II 1 
<>] 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CO 

CO 


6 

An^cIs 
and Re- 
ligious 
Phan- 
tasms. 


•put'H 
puooacj 


CO 1 II 1 1 CO 1 1 1 


CO 


•pu^H 


O iH 11 r-^ 1 -* II 1 


'J3 

I-H 


5 
Visions. 


•puBH 
puooacj 


^-^11 1 II 11 1 


o 
1-< 


•pu^H 


S 1 ^ ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 


<M 


•suonr.reddy 
.# padopAap 
X[e}8idui03ui 


•pui3H 
puooag 

•puT^H 


CM 1 1 CO 1 11 II 1 




O i-l CO lO C-l C-4 1 1 1 1 
r>i 1-1 1 1 1 1 

I-H 


CO 

l-H 


12 3 

Realistic Phantasms, 
Voices, etc. 


C c « 


•pUBH 

puooag 


^ 1 <^ 1 I IS IS 1 


r-i 


•pui3H 


C-] O ^ tH '^ T-l -f r-i O O 
1- r-l l>4 ^ li.'l 
Ol r-l 




xn 

'C 3 

<*-< a o 

Oh 


•pu^H 
puooasj 


fM CO 1 C-) rH 1 CO 1 (N | 
C^l I 1 r-l 1 1 


CO 

TJI 




CO 


Of 

Living 
Persons. 


•puTJH 
puoaag 


g -^ II 1 15! II 1 


CO 
CO 


•pu-BH 


CO O t^ 00 la r-l Ol - CD O 

O CO r-( 1^ 1 

(>J rH 1 




Visual 

Visual & Auditory 

(vocal) . . 
Visual & Auditory 

(n on -vocal) 
Visual & Tactile . . 
Visual & Auditory 
(vocal) & Tactile 
Visual & Auditory 
(non-voc.)& Tactile 
Auditory (vocal) . . 
Auditory (vocal) & 

Tactile .. 
Tactile 

Tactile & Auditory 
(non-vocal) 


t/3 

o 
H 



APPENDIX. 



36S 





•SUT.TGAVSU'B 

suosiajjo -(^ueo J9cl 


CN M CO 
CO !>. d 


1 




1—1 . 




CI CO *-i 


>— 1 

CO 




00 
I— 1 


h3 


H 


0>-oi-ii-ni-i\0 ^ 
On Cl C^ >-« 


1— 1 
CO 
CI 




l-H 


•S9s;o>i 's:)D3_fqo a^iugapui 


1 1 1 1 1 UN 


p— 1 




ffl 


•spafqo a^'KUuut'ui 


CO l-H 1 1 1 1 1 1 l-H 


l-H 




CO 


■siT3tniiiy 


^MINIMI 


CI 







•spSuy 


^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 


- 




■* 


•iCpofi u'Biunii JO s^.l^'(J 


^^1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CO 


B 


CO 


d 

3 


•pasiuSoD8.xUj^\ 


t^CO fO 1 CO i-H « 1 1 


CO 

CO 




M 


•pracr 


ci 1 




< 


I-H 


•SlITATI 


^^1 1 - j 1 ^ 







- 


Visual 

Visual and Auditory ... 
Visual and Tactile 
Visual and Olfactory ... 
Visual, Aud., Olfactory 
Vis., Aud., Olf., Tactile 

Auditory 

Auditory and Tactile ... 
Tactile ... 


1 

to 



366 



APPENDIX. 



Table II. c. — Munich Census. 





1 


2 


3 


8 


9 


11 


13 


14 j 15 


Phantasms, 
Voices, etc. of 


S 

"S 


Definitely KecoR- 

nised Non-vocal 

Sounds. 


6 


h4 

H 
O 

H 




Number of 

Hallucinations 

per cent. 


.5 


i 


fcC 


Visual 

Visual and Auditory 
Visual and Tactile 
Visual, Aud., Tactile 
Auditory (Vocal) . . 
Auditory(Non- Vocal) 
Tactile ..... 


8 
I 

I 

I 


7 

2 
2 


7 
I 
I 

2 


I 


I 

I 
2 
I 


I 

I 

i8 


24 

3 

2 

I 

6 

20 

3 


30 

h 

}3 


4.64 

4-32 
0.48 


Totals , , . 1 II 


II 


II 


I 


5 


20 


59 


59 


— 



APPENDIX. 



367 



H 

-1 

PA 

w 
O 









•Sinaa.vvsu'B suosjajj 

JO '-^iiao aad suoi^ 

--Bupun^^H JO .leqiiin^Nj; 


CO 

CpO rh 6 


1 


■* 








^ N r ^ 


CO 
I-l 

IH 


•iviox 






•UOI^'BOgiSS-BJO JOJ 


° 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




M 


l-l 


•seqonox JO 

spaCqo e^iugapuj 


1 1 1 vo ^ 


ON 
M 





■s^qgil 


^ "^ 1 1 1 M 1 


00 


C5 


•spafqo 


M III 1 




00 


•st-Guiiuy 


CJ II 1 




1> 


•snoi^u-Bddv snoj-jsuoivj 
JO 'Biqu-iOH '8nbs8io.io 


^=^^11111 


CO 





•sias'B:)u-Bq<j snoiSip^ 
jaq-jo pui3 spSuy 


rf w 1 1 1 r^ 1 1 




m 


•SUOIST^\ 


^^11-111 


ro 


-* 


padopAap i?p;8idatooui IP '"' ' III 


1-1 


CO 
r-l 


P5I 


•pasiuSooeJUfi 


ro iJ-» CO 1 C^ vn vO f-^ 




•p'Baa eqi JO 


U-5 LO l-l t^ N 




•SuTAiT aq-} jq 


^ ro '^J- ,00 "* ^ t^ 
ro ' M 






Visual ...'.. 
Visual and Auditory 
Visual and Tactile . 
Visual and Olfactory 
Vis., Aud., Tactile 
Auditory .... 
Aud. and Taciile . 
Taciile .... 


in 
ci 




368 



APPENDIX. 



Tahle hi, — Hallucinations Classified according 
TO THE Age of the Percipient. 



English Census. 





o 

I-l 

c 


1 





1 




CO 

1 



CO 


1 




C5 

1 



LQ 




CO 

1 



CO 


> 





a> 

-(-3 

CI 


"3 



Visual Hallucinations 

Auditory Hallucina- 
tions . 

Tactile Hallucina- 
tions . 

Total . 


72 

3 

I 


42 
II 


32 


143 

38 

17 


81 

21 

14 


40 
14 

3 


22 

5 

I 


5 


415 
290 

64 


1295 
504 
143 


1^ 


270 


423 198 


116 


57 


28 


5 


769 


1942 



Note. — Of the 17,000 answers received in the English census, 6,521 
indicated the percipient's age. The average age of these 6,521 was 
about 40. I have not seen the statistics of age given in the French 
or the American census. 



APrENDIX. 



369 



o 

H 
1^ 

o 

H 

W 
H 

O 
H 

o -^ 
ou 

^g 

cn ^ 
en O 

<; cj 



UC/2 






o 



> 







S.19AVSUV 


in r-< 


•Sai.i9AVsnv 


•^ C7 . 






^Ai^^ni.i^V JO 


CO iH 


SU0S.I9(J 


^ C-i 1 






9^^1090.19(1 


JO '^uao .19(1 






c 


1 










_o 


m f^ 


t-C2 


03 






+3 


S vV 


p 


'jC (M 1-1 


s 






ce 


~i: 











S 


02 c 


^ 


1 


mbei 
of 

inati 








33 

0^ 


-* 


r-l 









6<i 


>H 






=3 " 


03 I 

rH 01 1 


















d 


M ca 


■M 


cS 


CtCl 1 rH 1 1 <^M 1 ! " 






^ 


^ 


O) l-H 



rH 


K 


1 1 1 1 1 1 






•s.i9A\say 


1- 


Ci 


•Juu9Avsnv 


CO tZ5 




tA 


aAi^'Binaggy jo 




CO 


SU0SI9<I 

JO -ijuaa aaj 


d -^' rH 
rH rH 







H 


^-^^ 








.5 


2 c 


1-1 ■* 
1?) 




Number 

of 
lucinations 






'5 




y5 

0) 


CO 
ir; rH 


CO 








M 


g 


>H 






cr> 

lO CO -X 














o<! 


d 


CO CO 


7-\ 


"cS 


rH lO CI CI rH r- CI -* 1 1 






^ 


^ 


iH 1 <M 1 


w 


CO CO 1 I 






■saOAvsuv 


(M Tif 


'05 


•SUU9Ai.SUV 


CO 






9AT^'Bra.T^V JO 


Or-! 
T-l (M 


vri 


snosj9(i 


00 ^ rH 


c/3 


tc 


^g■B<^^^0I^<^ 




CO 


JO •;}U90 .I9<I 


CO 


be 


le 


'Iff :o 

00 ^ 


t/2 


• 


^ 


s 


1 


CO C<-3 


3 







W 


'rf) 


Xtl j; 






nnber 
of 
cinati 




u 








CO t^ 


00 




-+l 

CI o> 


w 












o3 


rH CI t- 


d 


(M 
r^ 


t/) 


Ot^ 1 03 1 


13 




^ 


^ 


CO c-i 


10 


a 


OOrH OCO Ci IcllO rHCl 



















^ 
H 




•SJ9A\SUV 


so -* 


-* 


SUUBAVSUy 


OD C3 




aAT^'cra.T^y jo 


t-^ rH 


oi 


SU0S.T9<I 


r-^ CO c5 




fee 

.5 


a. 


9*gB:)U90J9(f 


r-l 




JO 'lueo J9(i 






xn 




CO 
t~ 00 






;- .2 












^ 


nj -7- 


• 


t^ 5<I 


a 


^^ g 


C3 




a3 


Pi QJ 


1^ 


CO 


03 

rH 


s 0.5 


>* CI 

>-H S CO 
rH ^ ,-1 




















H 


kS-< 




!>. r^ 


1-1 
rH 


t^ 00 C-1 Oi CO lO 05 t- >n CI 






^ 





1^ 


S 


^ --o u'; CO ci <M S: 








^ 


r-l •M 


03 -* rH r- 








. . 


. 


















al) 
(noi 

oca 
(1101 

tile 
(noi 














j; ■ • ^ • • • V • ■ 




























??.-t^ HJ ffl pi- 


























ce: nj.t^ "^r^ ^ 'w 














+30 ^hJ Sl"^ S 










■3 




"P 'll .^Iff "* • ■ 










-U 

















see c3^rt=«>,>> =^ £ 


























o5 --^ce"lH -^i.;? ,~.« 








. a, 






Visual 
Visual 
Visual 

vocal 
Visual ; 
Visual 

and 
Visual 

vocal 
Audito 
Audito 
Tactile 
Tactile 

vocal 
Undesc 








c i 
















i 



24 



370 



APPENDIX. 



Table V. — Visual Hallucinations in the English 

Census. 1 



A. 
Visual Hallucinations divided according to Dates. 





Hallucina- 










tions 


More than 


Un- 
dated. 






within the 


10 years 


Totals. 




last 10 


ago. 








years. 








Realistic human apparitions of 










living persons .... 


157 


166 


29 


352 


Of dead persons .... 


62 


85 


16 


163 


Unrecognised .... 


126 


140 


49 


315 


Incompletely developed apparitions 


60 


74 


9 


143 


Visions 


8 


10 




21 


Angels and religious apparitions, 










etc. ..... 


4 


5 





12 


Grotesque, horrible apparitions, 










etc. ..... 


6 


24 




33 


Animals ..... 


12 


7 


6 


25 


Definite inanimate objects . 


5 


6 




14 


Lights ..... 


12 


4 


I 


17 


Indefinite objects 


8 


8 


I 


17 


Totals 


460 


529 


123 


1112 



^ Tables v., VI., VII. contain only first-hand cases; narratives 
where the details were insufficient for classification have also been 
excludedi 



APPENDIX. 



371 



Table V. b. 



Visual Hallucinations divided according to Conditions 
OF Perception. 





Immedi- 
ately after 
Waking. 


Per- 
cipient 
Awake 
in Bed. 


Indoors 


Out- 

of- 

Doors 




DO 


Realistic human appari- 














tions of living persons . 


43 


11 


149 


70 


13 


352 


Of dead persons 


8 


46 


74 


19 


16 


163 


Unrecognised . 


36 


90 


III 


(>1 


II 


315 


Incompletely developed 














apparitions . 


24 


50 


47 


19 


3 


143 


Visions .... 


2 


4 


II 


4 


— 


21 


Angelsand religious appari- 














tions, etc. 


— 


5 


1 



2 


2 


12 


Grotesque, horrible appari- 














tions, etc. 


6 


13 


2 


10 


2 


33 


Animals .... 


2 


4 


13 


^ 
J 



J 


25 


Definite inanimate objects 


I 


2 


II 


— 


— 


14 


Lights .... 


6 


2 


6 



J 


— 


17 


Indefinite objects 


I 


I 


II 


4 


— 


17 


Totals 


129 

42. 


294 

5 


438 


201 


50 


1112 


639 



3/^ 



APPENDIX. 
Table V. c. — Tables A and B combined. 



»• 


in >> 

IS "=> 

3 r-( 


r^ O 

3 i-D 

^-- 

r-l 







w 

C 

.2 

Ph 

< 

c 
a 

a 

s 

.2 
.^ 

o; 
P4 


C 
O 
w 

)-i 
U 

to ' 

.2 
'> 

O 


r Immediately after waking , 
Awake in bed .... 

Up 

Out-of-doors . . 
Unstated ..... 


i6 
31 

31 
I 


24 

43 
64 

31 
4 


3 

7 
S 
8 


43 

77 

149 

70 

13 


Totals .... 


157 


166 


29 


352 


o5 

c 
o 

<u 

Oh 

ZJ 

Q 
O 


'Immediately after waking . 
Awake in bed .... 

Up 

Out-of-doors .... 
Unstated ..... 


5 

26 

9 
3 




25 
42 
10 

5 


2 
6 

8 


8 
46 
74 
19 
16 


, Totals .... 


62 


85 


16 


163 


in 

'S 

o 

(U 

C 


/- Immediately after waking . 
Awake in bed .... 

Up 

Out-of-doors .... 
Unstated 


i8 
31 
47 
30 


10 

54 
42 

33 

I 


8 

5 
22 

4 
10 


36 

90 

III 

67 
II 


Totals .... 


126 


140 


49 


315 


Incompletely 

Developed 

Apparitions. 


'Immediately after waking . 
Awake in bed .... 

Up 

Out-of-doors .... 
Unstated ..... 


12 

19 

23 

5 

I 


12 

29 
20 
12 

I 


2 

4 
2 

I 


24 
50 
47 
19 

■-» 


Totals .... 


6o 


74 


9 


143 


other Visual 
llucinations. 


^Immediately after waking . 
Awake in bed .... 

Up 

Out-of-doors .... 
Unstated 


9 

27 

14 

2 

55 


5 
24 
22 
12 

I 


4 
4 
8 

4 


18 
31 

57 
26 

7 


<fi 


E 


V Totals .... 


64 


20 


139 



APPENDIX. 



3>- '> 
/ J 





•siT3;ox 


>0 ^O -I C\ ro LO '^'O -+ 


On 


•pg^^pun 


00 ^oo vo r^ ro M CO O 


O 

CO 


•OS'S s.x'BaiJ 01 


NOVO MCJM vor^M 


CO 


•sa-B9.S 01 ^s-Gi 
9iu niq^jAV 


coo 1^ CO M 


CO 


w. 

o 
o 

Si 


• -si^^ox 


vO fO O coo m iJ^ C3^ ro 
i-c CO CN ro 0) c^ 


o 


•pgi-Bpuxi 


MOt^ '^■^ro MMM 
1-. CI 


O 


•oS-B sa-B9jS OT 
u•Bq;^ 9J0H 

■SJB9iJ 01 ^jsiit 


COVO fN Tf N M 1 i-( 1-c 


o 


M w 1-1 W) O »-• fOO "^ 

HH C) 1-1-. 


ON 

o 


Recognised as the 

voice of a dead 

person. 


•si^^oi 


CO (JnO CO O I i-O O CO 
1-1 M CO N 1 1-1 


ON 

o 


•pg^'Bpuxi 


H-i CO to III 1 fO f o 


vn 


•oSb sa'BgX 01 

U'Bq'J 9J0J\[ 


cooo 1 w o 1 fo Tt 1 


On 
fO 


•si^eg.? 01 ^s'Bi 
gq; uiqjiAi 


O^^0 1-H N O 1 M ro 1 

M M 1 1 




Recognised as the 

voice of a living 

person. 


•si^:jox 


r^ '^ lo CO J^ 1 •^ 1^00 

oj o CO CO M 1 1-1 




•pa^^puxi 


U-) u-iO N CO I 1 coo 

1- N 1 1 


O 
O 


•OS'B SJ'Baif 01 MD^O^ VDOI WNI 

u^q^ 9J0i\[ >-• 1-1 )-i 1 1 


O 
u-1 


•SJ-B3^ OT 'IS'BI MDmu-) lO^I NNN 

9q; uiq'^iAi 1 1-1 fo H ,-< 1 *^ 


On 
On 




Percipient's name only — 

Percipient in bed 

,, up . . 

Unstated 

Words other than the Percipient's 
name — 

Percipient in bed 

,, up . . 
Unstated 

Voices (no definite words heard) or ex- 
periences described as "Voices " — 
Percipient in bed 
up 

Unstated 


O 



f^ 


^ 


H 


o 






[t^ 


H 




U- 


<, 


a 


< 


C) 


(/J 


a: 


a 




W 




H 


^ 


H 


o 


< 


en 




^ 


« 


O 


W 




H 


H 


O 


P 


fe 


O 


< 


u 


V) 


o 


'"' 


H 






W 


Pi 


Pi 

W 


o 
o 
o 


H 




O 


Q 


tJ 


< 


rf 




o 


H 


C/J 


H 




< 




O 








C": 


^ 


1r. 


HH 


K-l 




P 


W 


r^ 


O 


o 
u 


H 


<: 


O 




^ 




h— 1 




C 




12 




H-' 




u 




^ 





374 



APPENDIX. 



in 

u 

o 



o 
P 

H 
O 

< 



pa 

< 



Q 

Q 
> 

o 

H O 

a H 

^ "A 
H fa 

o 



^ o 

H 



^ Q 
5 < 







•siv^fox 




ON 


o 


•pa^Bpufl 


M VO fD III 

1-1 M M III 


^ 


•Oo'B SI'B9j£ ox 

u'Bq^ ajow 


1-1 t^ i-i CD 1 1 

^^ M II 




•^5a•B^Ji 01 ^s"*?! 


O O fO (■'ill 


ON 


Indefinite. 


•si^:joX 


h- ^ o III 




■pa^Bpuxi 


"^ ii-)CO 'III 


00 


•OS'B SIB8;? 01 

u'Bq^ aaoK 


M fO M III 


vo 


•sj'BaX 01 ^siJi 


■*CO M III 
1 1 1 


fD 


Touch of an 

Animal or 

Inanimate 

Object. 


•SIBCJOX 


a CO 1 III i "^ 


•pa^^pun 


1^1 III 


- 


•o§i3 sj'BaiC 01 

U'Bq'; 8J0I\[ 

•S.I'B8j£ 01 %'&'^\ 

^m niqcHAV 


""1 III 


-- 1 III 


M 


CO 

'OS) 

'S 

S 
s 

a 

'o 
o 

!/3 

W 

a 
m 
<o 
A 

o 
H 


'a 

bX) 

o 
u 
<u 
;.! 

fl 


•si^;ox 




CO 


•pa^Bpufi 


^00 lo III 


1-^ 

t— 1 


•oi^'B sa'Ba^S oi 
u'Bq; ajoi\r 


t^ ON ! '-'II 
1 1 1 


r-» 


■s.i'Ba.C 01 ^stif 
eq^ uiqilAV 


00 1-1 M f^ 1 1 
MM 11 






•SI-B^OX 


vo i-i 1 Mil 


(N 


•pa^jijpuxi 


W N 1 III 


Tf 


u^q:; 9I0H 


1J-) M 1 '-' 1 I 


X^ 


•Suiiia^ 01 ^s^[ 
eqc^ uiq^iAi 


(X) oo 1 111 


VO 




•si^^ox 


\0 m 1 Mil M 

i-i -, 1 II 1 ro 


•pa^'Bpuxi 


- i 1 III 


t— 1 


•oSb %iV9S. 01 
u^q;} 8J0IM 


vo ro 1 *" 1 ' ° 


•Sa'B9i£ 01 ^S'BI 

eq:^ uiq-^iAV 


ch ^< 1 III 


>-4 




'^ . '^ "^3 , "ti 


o 
H 



Appendix. 



375 






<: 



m 
O 

w 

Q 

u 



o 



c 






r- '^ 



p c 

|a3 






r?^B 









CO J- 



f^B 



o c 



5| 



■^ I 



o a 



(—1 ! -^ cS i 

t— I j C '^ ! 



Lo n CO 



r\ i_o vo 






CO 
CO 



n I Ov 



CI 






"^ O On 

LO ON 



vO 






On 



M i-i ro 



vO 



CO 



Q -M +-. 

u 

o . - ^ 1^ 

• x •>: o <u 

^ -So 

H o ;2i 



en 

u 
G 

.5 '^ 

8 '^ 



o 



c 



o 



C3 

H 

'3 
a 
o 






c 
o 



J3 






J3 



J/ 



76 



AiPiPENDIX. 



Table VIII. b.— Munich Census. 













ce 


o 






""^ 


c o 






OJ m 


ce tx) 






- i 




Totals. 




B >- 


£ !? 






^ in 


O «> 






-b:> 


g ^ 






'^ 






The apparition coincided with 








the death of the person 








seen 


O 


n 

J 


r 

3 


No coincidence 




o 1 




6 


Totals 


5 


6 


II 



^ These three cases (cf. Appendix I.: cases xxxi. a. b. d.) were 
narrated by one and the same person ; these figures, therefore, also 
point in the direction indicated on pp. 275 sqq. 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



Abercrombie, 5t, 5S, 59 
Acker, 25, 26 
Ackermann, 32 
Albers, 56 
Alt, 22 
Anjel, 281 
Aristotle, 3, 51 
Arndt, 230 
Arnold, 18 

Aschaffenburg, 48, 322 
Asmus, 34 
Athenodorus, 78 
Atkins, 168 
Aubanel, 13, 26, 30 
Audin, 79 
Auzouy, 2S 

Baginsky, 179 

Bahnsen, J., 189 

Baillarger, 16, 21, 23. 38, 118, 119, 

238, 244 
Bakewell, 171 
Ball, 16, 25, 174, 262, 266 
Baren, Cohen v., 34 
Barrett, F. W., 205 
Barten?, 44 
Bartisch, 161 
Baruk, 25, 26 
Beattie, 58 
Beclard, 175 
Becquet, 72 
Behr, 4 
Benedict, 3 
Beneke, 189 
Bennet, 33 
Bergmann, 165 
Berkhan, 85 
Bernhardt, 4, 269 



Bernheim, 61, 62, 104, 130, 200, 

215-216, 232, 240, 278, 285 
Bert, 131 
Bessus, 80 
Bidder, 131 
Bielski, 157, 160 
Billot, 33 
Binet, 119, 130, 137, 149, 175, 198, 

200, 219, 222, 230 (?/ se^. 
Binz, 50, 56 
Blau, 8 
Bleuler, 229 
Blumroder, 3, 30, 33 
Bodinus, 65, 77 
Boens, 40 
Boerhaave, 44 
Boerner, 56, 57 
Bois-Reymond, Dn, 131 
Bones, 45 
Bottentuit, 44 
Bottex, 14, i^, III, 159 
Bound, 19 
Boureau, 44 
Bourneville, 40 
Brach, 201, 246 
Braid, 309 

Braumiiller, Pater, 312 
Brenner, 177 
Brewster, 200 
Brierre de Boismont, 14, 26, 29, 33, 

34, 38, 42 ^/ se^., 74, 77, 97, 114, 

120, 202, 325 
Bright, 174 
Briquet, 46, 166 
Broca, 269 
Buccola, 177 
Buch, 174 



Buchholz. ^o 



24- 



378 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



Burckhardt-Prefargier, 253, 268 
Burdach, 16, 189 
Burke, 64 
Burnett, 8 
Buscb, 162 

Calmeil, 13, 37, I IT, 165 

Campbell, W. W., 46 

Carbonieri, 180 

Cardan, 78 

Carnocban, 130 

Carus, C. G., 63 

Cellini, Benvenuto, Si 

Chabalier, 229 

Chaddock, 42 

Chapotot, 4 

Charbonnier-Debatty, 40 

Charcot, 35, 3S 

Charpentier, 33S 

Chassinat, 230 

Cherbury, Lord Herbert of, 7S 

Christian, 23, 25 

Chvosteck, 162, 222 

Claus, 25 

Cloquet, 29 

Clouston, 165 

Cohen, 4 

Colowitsch, 24 

ConoUy, 33 

Cramer, A., 10, 31, 180 et seq., 257, 

261, 270 
Crichton, 12 
Crocq, 40 
Curtis, 168 
Czerny, 178 

Dagonet, 2, 25 
Darwin, Erasmus, 19, ri3 
Daudet, 250 
Dee, 66 
Dehennes, 4 
Delabarre, 175 
Delasiauve, 44 
Delbceuf, 50 
Dendy, 13 
Denneux, 40 
Despine, 125, 168, 175 
Dessoir, 66, 177, 227 
Devay, 16S 
Dewey, 251 
Dieffenbach. 45 
Dietl, 46 



Diez, 26 

Dixey, 232 

Donatus, 165 

Dorvault, 46 

Dresslar, 337 

Du Bois-Reymond (see Bois-Rey- 

mond) 
Dufour, 137 
Dumontpalier, 195 
Duret, 140 

Ebers, 225 

Edinger, 167 

Edgeworth, 274 

Ehrhard, 178 

Eichel, 169 

Elliot, 169 

Elschnig, 161 

Emminghaus, 33, 44, I20 

Engel, 4 

Engelhardt, 39 

Eppstein, 228 

Erlenmeyer, 30^ 161 

Erk, van, 50 

Esquirol, 13, 16, 18, 19, 27, 33, 120. 

124, 132, 144, 149, 150, 252 
Eulenburg, 153 
Ewald, 45 

Fabian, 161 

Falk, 9 

Falret, 14, 23-27, 32, 115, 325 

Farquharson, 9 

Fechner, 121, 139, 229, 308 

Fere, 129, 149, 200, 219, 222, 229, 

231 
Ferrier, 19, 113, 150, 165, 16S, 170 
Feuchtersleben, 34 
Ficinus, 97 
Fick, 176 
Filehne, 169 
Fischer, 161 
Flechsig, 136, 165 
Flemming, 161 
Flourens, 134 
Flournoy, 228, 33S 
Forel (Jena), 165, 245, 249, 322 
Forel (Zurich), 323 
Foster, 130 
Fournier, 25, 113 
Foville, 25, 112, 165 
Franck. Frangois, 12 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



!79 



■ Franceschi, 9 
Frankl-Hochwart, v., 161 
Freusberg, 46 
Friedlander, 269 
Friedmann, 120, 196, 336 
Friedreich, 4, 262, 268 
Friedrich, J. E., iii 
Frohlich, 179 
Fromman, 65 
Fuchs, 176 
Funke, 183 
Fiirer, 32, 175, 267 

Galezowsky, 4 

Gall, 32 

Galton, 225 

Gauthier, 46 

Gelhorn, 25, 26 

Giessler, 50 

Gilbert, 3^,7 

Girma, 25 

Gluge, 40, 131 

Goethe, 2, 1 14 

Goltz, 157, 181 

Gorham, 175 

Gowers, 33, 168 

Graefe, 3, 160, 161, 170, 174 

Grashey, 24, 138, 150, 252, 257 

Gratioletj 246 

Gregory, 33, 54 

Griesinger, 15, 18, 21, 29-33, 7h m, 
114, 115, 125, 128, 160, 163, i8g, 
194, 202, 23S, 246-247, 252, 325 

Gritting, 338 

Grohmann, 124 

Gruber (Jassy), 224 

Gruber, 260 

Gruithuisen, 128 

Gudden, 12 

Gueniot, 10, 1 1 

Guensburg, 42 

Guepin, 3 

Gurney, i, 14, 62,82, 113, 116, 154, 
155, 168, 232, 270, 287-2S8 

Gutsch, 157 

Hagen, 16, 23, 25, 33, 118, 122-125, 

144, 161, 189, 325 
Flail, Stanley, 208 
Hammond, 203 
Hansen, 318 et seq. 
Harlmann, 189 



Haslam, 24 

Hauptmann, G., 253 

11 acker, 2 

Hedinger, 161 

Heimbeck, 9 

Heis, 30S 

Helmholtz, 176, 183, 234 

Herbert of Cherbury, Lord, 78 

Hering, 130, 183 

Herrmann, 56, 131, 183 

Herth, 175 

Heubner, 140 

Heyfelder, 160 

Heymans, 5 

Hibbert, 13, 311 

Higier, 32, 174, 204, 222 

Hilbert, 9, 44 

Hildebrandt, 50 

Himly, 8 

Flitzig, 25, 113, iSi 

Hjertstrom, 33 

Hoche, 201 

Hodgson, 104 

Hoffmann, 116 

Holland, Sir II., 114, 256, 265 

Hoppe, 7, 17, 27, 42, 170, 177, 179, 

230, 239, 25S, 263 
Horst, 309 
Huck, 3 
Hufeland, 9 

Hughlings-Jackson, 33, 143 
Humboldt, W. v., 189 
Hume, Da\i'l, 121 
Huppert, 24 
Hutchinson, 222 

FrAiiD, 178 

Jackson (see Hughlings-Jackson) 

Jacobs, 176 

Jahn, 308 

James, Wm., 10, 15, 83, 'ii , 127, 130, 
I35> "^1)1^ 141 et seq., 173, 219. 220, 
232, 251, 262, 275, 288, 304 

Jan, 50 

Janet, 117, 224 

Jendrassik, 231 

Jensen, 50, 281 

Jessen, 50, 281 

Johnson, 165 

Jolly, 133, 157, 160, 177, 222 

Joseph, 65 



380 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



Joseplius, 308 
Judee, Ch., 46 
Jung, 26 
"Jup'p. 256 

Kaan, 32 

Kahlbaum, 1 15-1 17, 183 

Kandinsky, V., 16, 30, 113, 121, 137, 

250-251, 253, 261, 264, 268 
Kelp, 85 
Kieselbach, 177 
Kieser. 20 
Kiesewelter, 6^ 
Kirn, 23 
Klein, 25 

Klinke, 31, 259-260 
Knapp, 8 
Kohler, 85 
Kolle, 24 

Koppe, 123, 157, 159, 161 
Kohlschlitter, 17 

Kolk, Schroeder vander, 113, 120, 281 
Kraepelin, 22, 30, 31, 44, 48, 7 1, 72, 

117, 1475.278, 280-281, 322 
Krafft-Ebing, 21, 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 
32. 33. 39. 42, ii4> 116, 125, 175, 
^204, 247, 249, 278, 322, 325 
Krause, 78 
Krauss, A., 17, 52 
Krauss, Th., 9 
Krieger, 169 
Krohn, 230 
Kiihne, 131 
Kuykendael, 46 
Kussmaul, 44, 182 

Ladajme, 269 

Laehr, 325 

Lamoine, 50 

Lane, 64 

Lang (Gross-IIesselohe), 312 

Lange, N., 46 

Lange, 72 

Langendorff, 157 

Languieser, 264 

Lanne, 162 

Lazarus, 133, 197 

Leber, 4 

Lefebvre, 40 

Le;5ue, 37 

Lehert, 166 

Lehmann, 229, 317 et seq. 



Leland, 70 

Lelut, 14, 28, ']'], 111 

Lemoine, 50 

Lepsius, 225 

Leubuscher, ill, I20, 163, 203 

Leuret, 2, 14, in, 252 

Levinstein, 4 

Lewin, 8 

Linstow, 25 

Lipps, 5, 340 

Lissauer, K. , 4 

Lissauer, 135 

Locher-Zwingli, 161 

Lochus, 3 

Lockemann, 180 

Lombroso, 77, 126, 199 

Londe, 21 

Longet, 134 

Lotze, 189 

Lowell, T- K.-J '^'^2 

Lucae, 178, 179 

Lussana, 202 

Luys, 27, 113, 165, 16S 

IMabille, 174 
ISIacario, 112 
Maccabees, 308 
Mach, 8 
Macnish, 50 
Magnan, 43, 175, 194 
Magne, 160 
Manonry, So 

Marandon de Montyel, 23 
Marc, 28 
Mari, 9 

Marillier, L., %i, 2,J, 276, 359 
Martin, A., 9 
Martini, De, 9 

Maury, 17, 50, 51, 53, 57, 143 
Mauthner, v., 9 
' Mayer, A., 17, 46 
INIenardiere, Pilet de la, 37 
Mendel, 21, 2t„ 25, 26, 48, 150, 161, 

166 
Mendoza, F. Suarez de, 230 
INIercurialii, 178 
Meschede, 165, 180 
Meyer, 3 

Meyer, G. H., 129 
Meyer, L., 2, 26, 33, 120 
Meynert, 23, 113, 121, 13S, 140 ei: 
seq., ITJ, 181 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



381 



Michea, 2, 13, 17, 20, 27, 30, 32-34, 

38, 165, 202, 323 
Michel, 28, 265 
Mickle, 25, 26, 165 
Mitchell, Weir, 10, 12, 239 
Moller, 114 
Moll, 19, 59, 92, 205 et seq., 209, 

218, 231, 245, 2S5, 326 
Monakow, 12, 126^ 132 
Moos, 178 

Morel, 17, 25, 159, 180 
Moreau (de Tours), 13, 20, 38, 45, 

46, 143, 263 
Morselli, 335 
Mourly-Vold, 50, 55, 247 
Moxon, 9 
Miiller, 338 
Muller, C. F., 56 
Muller, F. C. , 48 
Muller, Fr., 130 
Miiller, J., 16, no, 114, 159, 165, 

169, 192 
Miinsterberg, 142, 145, 198 
Munk, 113, 134, 135, 181 
Myers, 63, 66, 70, ^'], 116, 227, 

262 

Nancy School, 196 

Naunyn, 269 

Neiglick, 229 

Nelson, 300 

Neumann, in, 120, 150, 281 

Newton, 169 

Nicolai, 256 

Nothnagel, 26S, 269 

Nussbaumer, 229 

Obermeyer, 26 
Obersteiner, 26 
Ochorowicz, 61 
Ottolenghi, 126 
Ottway, 309 

Paget, 33 
Paracelsus, 70 
Parant, 265 
Pare, 10 
Parinaud, 199 
Paterson, 128, 166 
Pelman, 137 
Perrond, 229 



Perty, 41, 75, ^-j.^ 310, 311 

Pfaff, 1 88 

Pflliger, 153 

Philippe, 249 

Pick, 136, 200, 202, 265, 269 

Pico della Mirandola, 65 

Pierson, 269 

Pieraccini, 203 

Pierce, 287 

Piesse, 38 

Pilet de la Menardiere, V] 

Plater, 19, 178 

Plato, "]"], 190 

Plutarch, 80 

Podmore, 274, 315 

Poe, E, A., 303 

Pohl, 120 

Politzer, 164, 1S6 

Pollnow, 179 

Polli, 45 

Pooley, 16S 

Popp, 44 

Pratt, 306 

Prel, Du, II, 67 

Preyer, 46, 153, 176, 182 

Procopius, 80 

Prosper-Alpin, 41 

Pupke, 4 

Purkinje, 50, 55, 169 

QUADE.1, 179 

Quincey, De, 46 

PvADESTOCK, 15, 41, 50, 56, 188, 1S9, 
211, 246 

Rause, F. de, 230 
Rawlinson, 242 
Rech, 46 

Regis, 25, 44, 17s 
Reil, 120, 202 
Reinhard, 165 
Rells, 63, 210 
Reubold, 52 
Richer, 35-38, 45 
Richet, 272 
Richter, 164 
Rieger, 181 
Ringer, Sidney, 85 
Ringier, 61 
Rist, 66 
Rilti, 25, 113 
Rizet, 10 



382 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



Robertson, Alex., 32 
Roger, 269 
Romberg, 123, 165 
Rose, 9, 32 
Rosenbach, 254 
Rosenbaum, 153 
Royce, 277 
Rudolphi, 124 
Ruf, 159 

Sander, 3, 23, 25, 33, 166, 180, 

246, 281 
Sandras, 114 
Saury, 26 
Sauvage, 19, 169 
Savage, 29, 54, 174, 211 
Schaller, 120 
Schech, 56 
Schemer, 50, 52 
SchifF, 134 
Schiller, 193 
Schirmer, 167 
Schlager, 29, 132 
Schleiermacher, 48 
Schmiedekam, 179 
Schmidt-Rimpler, 160 
Scholz, 164, 173 
Schonthal, 30 
Schrader, 134 
Schrenck-Nolzing, 29, 35,41, 45, S3, 

187, 196, 246, 344 {App. I.), 359 
Schroder, 4 

Schroeder van der Kolk (see Kolk) 
Schroff, 46 
Schiile, 16, 25, no, 121, 124, 125, 

165, 203 
Schunk, 33 
Schwabach, 179 
Schwarze, 177, 178 
Schwann, 131 
Searle, 244 

Seashore, 191, 377 et scq. 
Seemann, 41 
Seglas, 21, 32, 264 
Semal, 40 
Sepilli, 203 
Sequin, 12S 
Sergi, 126 
vSerieux, 269 
Sichel, 160 
Sidgwick, 82, 359 
Sidgwick, Mrs., 232, 293, 320 



Siebeck, 50 
Siebert, 50 
Siemens, F., 157 
i Simon, 25 
Simon, M., 159 
Simonowitsch, 203 
Sims, 287 

Sinogovitz, T58, 174 
Snell, 22 
Sommer, 320 
Souchon, 32, 175 
Sous, G., 161 
Spencer, 44 
Spitta, 38, 44, 50, 51, 52, 57-59, 70, 

189 
Stauffer, 12 
Steinbriigge, 229-230 
Stellwag, von Carion, 4 
Stenger, 165 
Stinde, Jul., 230 
Strahl, M., 56 
Strieker, 121, 133, 137, 182 
Strong, 191 
Striimpell, 50 
Stucki^ Peter, 75 
Studer, 310 
Suarez de Mendoza (see INIendoza), 

230 
Sully, 4, 54 
Swieten, Van, 9 
Syzianko, 177 
Szafkovvski, 14, n, 325 

Tacitus, 79 

Taine, 16, 118, 143 

Talma, 81 

Tamburini, 125, 167- 16S 

Tasso, 81 
I Tavignot, 160 

Thomas Aquinas, 65 
i Thomeuf, 24 
, Thomsen, 41 
i rhore, 26, 30, 49, 85 
I Tigges, 127, 166, 168, 2or, 203 

Tomaschevsky, 203 

Toulouse, 32 

Truchsess, 42 

Uhthoff, 174 
Ulrici, 1S9 
Unterharnscheid, 4 
Urbantschiisch, 178, 203, 229 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



383 



Valentin, 10, 179 

Vay, A. v., 246 

Verga, Andr. , i, 32 

Virchow, 139 

Vogt, 323-4 

Vould, J. Mourly-, 50, 55, 247 

Voisin, 25, 175 

Volkelt, 50 

Volkmann v. Volkmar, 234 

Volta, 170 

Vulpian, 131 

\Yagner, 50 

Walker, 309 

Warloraont, 40 

Weber, 43 

Weiss, 21, 23 

Weisse, 29 

Wernicke, 269 

Westphal, 2, 3, 25 

Weigandt, 50, 53, 54, 55, 57 



Wigan, 281 

Wijsmann, 120 

Willbrandt, 135 

Wille, 268 

Winslow, 167 

Wittich, 8 

Wolf, 8 

Wolff, 42 

Wundt, 128, 140, 154, 183, 206 et 

seg., 212, 216, 236, 237, 318 
Wyss, 203, 210 

X. (Miss), 297 
Xenophon, 'jj 

Zander, 163 

Zehender, 160 

Ziehen, 31, 179, 1S4, 227, 262, 266, 

322 
Ziemssen, 25 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS, 



Abdomen, voices heard from, 2, 

260, 265 
Absinth, 43 

Accelerated association, 322 
After-images, 8, 96, 128-130, 173, 

175, 197, 243, 248; auditory, 176, 

259 

Age, influence of, on hallucinations, 
"84, 189 

Alcohol, 34, 41, 43, 71 

Ambiguous stimuli, 5 

Amentia, 21 

Amnesia, 92 (see Forgetfulness) 

Anaemia, 153 

Anaesthesia, 6, 211 

Analgesia, 211, 216 

Anxiety, 96, 191, 302, 316 

Aphasia, 127, 265 

Apparitions at death, 272, 286; in 
sky, 308-309 

Association, disturbed, 138, 141, 
322 (see Dissociation) ; enforced, 
219, 336; obstructed, 65, 71-73, 
158, 322; of ideas, 68, 72, 257, 
290-291, 300, 302, 305 ; of ideas, 
dreams from, 50, 51 

Atropin, 7, 44, 70, 202 

Attention, 154, 192, 216, 217; in 
rapport, 205, 206, 208, 209, 213, 
214, 218 

Attila, 79 

"Audible thinking," 24, 182, 184, 
252, 256, 258, 259, 262, 265, 
266 

Auditoryhalluclnations, see Hallucina- 
tions, auditory 

Audition coloree (sound-seeing), 223, 
227 



Aura, epileptic, 33, 100 ; hysterical, 
T^^; preceding "sensory shock," 239 

Automatic articulation, 155, 259, 261- 
263, 270, 322 

Automatic writing, 154, 156, 261-263 

Belladonna, 44 

Blind, so-called "visual" hallucina- 
tions in the, 186, 222, 246 
Borderland hallucinations, 91, 299 
Bright's disease, 173 
Brocken spectre, 3 
Byron, 81 

Cataract, 160 

Catoptromancy (divination by mirror), 

65 

Census of hallucinations, American, 
8z, 275; English, %2, 87, 237, 275 ; 
Munich, 83, 275 ; French, 83, %-] , 
276 

Centres of sensation and imagination 
identical, 133-136 

Centrifugal theories, 113, 125 

Centripetal theories, 132 

Charles IX., 80 

Chattering, spasmodic, 262, 268 

Chorea, see Epidemic of dancing 

Chloroform intoxication, 44 

Chromatisms, 223, 224 ; phonetic, 
measurement of, 224-227 

Cinchona, 46 

Clairvoyance, 273 

Closing the eyes, action of, on hal- 
lucinations, 202-203 

Coca, 34, 40 

Coincidental hallucinations, see Hallu- 
cinations, coincidental 



386 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Collective hallucinations, see Hallu- 
cinations, collective 

Colour, associated with sound, see 
Audition coloree 

Colour-blindness, 163 

Colouring of hallucinations, degrees 
of realism in, 246 

Consciousness, dissociation of, see 
Dissociation 

Consciousness of lost limbs, 10-12 

Continued dreams, 60, 61 

Continued movements, 268 

Complementary colours, 130, 199 (see 
After-images) 

Cramp (Kahlbaum), 183 ; co-ordin- 
ated (Romberg), 123 ; of the sen- 
sory nerves (Hagen), 123; of recog- 
nition (Royce), 277 ; of attention 
(Stanley Hall), 208 

Crime caused by hallucinations, 34 

Cromwell, 79 

Crystal- visions, 63-70, 72, 193, 274, 
297 ; indications of dream-state 
in, 297, 298 ; latent memories re- 
vived in, 66-69; "telepathic," 66, 
297 

Curtius Rufus, 79 

Datura Stramonium, 44, 178 
Deaf-mutes, "auditory" hallucinations 

in, 185 
Defects of human organism a cause 

of hallucination, 6 
Delusions mental, distinguished from 

sense-deceptions, i 
Delusional insanity, 23 
Delirium tremens, 42, 174 
Dementia, 23; acute, 21; advanced, 

25 ; progressive, 27 
Demoniacal possession, 37 
Dtemonology, 56 
Dentists, unfounded charges brought 

against, 46; hallucinations of pain 

noted by, 240 
Descartes, ']'i 

Devil, see Hallucinations of 
Diplopia, 3 
Divination by crystals, mirrors, etc., 

63. 65 
Doubling of hallucination by pressure 
on eye, 200-202; by prism, see 
I'rism 



Disappearance of hallucinations on 
closing eyes, 202, 203 

Dissociation of consciousness, 71, 75, 
92, 93> 99, 103, 106, 138, 141, 
147, 148, 152, 153, 211; induced 
by automatic movements, fixed 
gazing, etc., 96, 99 ; degrees of, 
73, 156, 158, 324; partial, 322, 
324 ; sense of time lost in, 100, 

105 

Dreams, 30, 50 etc., 59, 109, 157, 
192; artificially induced, 57; 
caused by association of ideas 
(Spilta), 50, 51; caused by nerve- 
stimulation (Spitta), 50, 51, 52, 
53, 102; hypnotic, 59; hypnotic, 
guidance of, (iO\ sense of unreality 
in, 254 

Dream-state, 50, 292, 298 (see 
Dissociation) 

Drusus, 79 

Ear disease, 161, 263, 267-268 

Early theories of hallucination, 1 10 

Eccentric projection, 9, 115, 125, 
127, 248 

Ecstasy, 38, 39, 40, 211 

Elementary sensations, see Noises in 
ear, ocular spectra, etc. 

Entoptic phenomena, see Ocular 
spectra 

Entotic sounds, see Noises in ear 

Epidemic of dancing, 36, 37 

Epidemic hallucinations, see Hallu- 
cinations, epidemic 

Epilepsy, 33, 34, 74, 143, 167, 180, 

Epileptic aura, see Aura, epileptic 

Ether, 44, 187, 267 

Euphoria, 38, 50 

Exhaustion, 35 (see Fatigue) ; of 

brain-elemenls, 153, 192 
Expectancy, 94, 95 

Fainting from terror, 99 

Fallacious perception, physiological 
process in, 144 ; psychological con- 
ception of, 12, 17 ; sensory character 
of, 112, 322 (see Hallucination) 

Faradisation, 12 

Fa(a morgana, 3 

Fatigue, 6, 7, 239 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



^^7 



Fever-delirium, 49, 74, 237 
Fixed attention, 154, 213, 216, 217 
Fixed gaze, 95, 99 
Fixed ideas, 27, 38 
Fly agaric, 40, 44 
Folie cirailaire, 22, 267 
Forgetfulness, 108, 289, 299 
Fox, G. , 79 

Galvanism, effect on auditory sense, 

162, 176, 177, 222 
Gastromancy, 65 
General paralysis, 24, 26, 28, 73 
Giddiness, 7 (see Vertigo) 
Gigantic apparitions, 44, 79, 93, 202 
Greek idea of soul, 246 
Grief, 96 

Hallucinations — 

auditory, 23, 24, 30, 35, 44, 46, 

49, 107, 108, IM, 157, 161, 178, 

188, 195, 222, 238, 263 
auditory, in brain lesions, 268-269 
auditory, in disease of ear, 267-268 
auditory, in deaf mutes, 185 
auditory, in electrical stimulation, 

222 
auditory, experimental, 70, 71, 
auditory, in paranoia hallucinatoria, 

23 
auditory, rhythmic, 266, 267 
auditory, see "Audible Thinking," 

Voices, etc. 
of artists, 38, 80, 81 
"borderland," 90, 299 
coincidental, 103, 272, 286-288, 

293-298, 315 
collective, 94, 307, 313, 316 
a cause of crime, 34 
of childhood, 30, 85 
of the cutaneous sensibility, 29, 54 
definition of, 15 
differences of character in, ']i 
degrees of externalisation in, 236, 

237, 238-248 
distorted, 202 

of devil, 33, 36, 37, 39, 80, 190 
early accounts of, 77-80 
enlarged, see Magnifying-glass 
preceding epilepsy, 100 
epidemic, 190, 308, 310-313 
erotic, 35, 44, 46, 48 



Hallucinations — Continued. 

induced by exposure and fatigue, 6, 

7, 74, 75 
in hemianopsy, 128, 134, 136, 202 
heredity in, 72, 88, 89 
in hemiansesthesia, 35 
hypnagogic, 74, 93, 94, 117, 119, 

157, 295, 297 
in hypnosis, 58, 60, 61, 195, 19S, 

248, 249, 285, 300 
in hysteria, 34-36, ^2, 164 
and illusion, author's definition, 

148, 149 
and illusion, Esquirol's distinction, 

18, 19, 20 
of insanity, 16, 20, 27, 29, 183, 322 
international census of, see Census 
of intoxication, 41 (see Alcohol) 
of more than one sense, 31, 107, 

no, 237 
of the muscular sense, 29, 180, 183, 

184 
of moving objects, 35, 128, 129, 233 
of memory, 117, 230, 277, 323 
negative, 20, 203-207, 212, 214, 

215, 217-219, 326 
olfactory, 27, 28, 46, 49, 53, 54, 

62, 179, 180, 229, 239, 241 
of the organic sense, 29 
of pain, 240 

post-hypnotic, 61, 62, 72, 323 
in psychoneurosis, 32, 33 
reflected, see Crystal-visions, Mirror 
religious, 38, 39, 77-80, 312 
rudimentary, 108, no, iii, 123 
retroactive, 285 
in somatic disease, 48, 49 
sporadic, in the sane, 20, 278 
of taste, 27, 28, 49, 241 
tactile, 28, 35, 62, 105, 107, 108 
unilateral, 32, 123, 128, 164, 174, 

195 
visual, 30, 35, 107, 108, 197, 222- 
230, 241; visual, voluntarily in- 
duced, 194 (see Crystal-visions, 
Visions, etc.) 

Hallucinatory colours, 200; conversa- 
tions, 265-266 

Haschisch, 40, 45, 48, 187 

Health, 88 

Hemiopia, 166 

Heredity, 72, 88; in synesthesia, 229 



388 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Hobbes, yS 

Hydroraancy (divination by water), 65 
Ilypersesthesia, 27, 133, 141, 167, 
208; of retina, 8, 177, 239, 260, 
267 
Hypnotism, see Hallucinations in 
hypnosis; also Rapport; its ser- 
vices to psychology; and Nancy 
School 
Hypochondriasis, 2, 25 
Hysteria, see Hallucinations in 

Icterus, 8 

" Identifying '' fallacy (Kraepelin), 

280 
Identity, mistakes of, 83, 193, 291 ; 

of sensory and ideational centres, 

133-136 

Idiopathic and symptomatic hallucina- 
tions, 20 

Illusions, 257 

Illusions (in Esquirol's sense), 18, 
20, 234, 237, 291, 326; (author's 
definition), 148, 149 

Inanition, 72, 160 

Individual or idiosyncratic fallacies 
of perception, 12, 336 

Inhibition, 141, 152 

Insanity, hallucinations of, see Hallu- 
cinations of insanity 

Integritatsgefiihl (feeling of spiritual 
unity, Du Prel), ii 

Intra-aural sounds, see Noises in the 
ear 

Involuntary speaking, 182, 183 (see 
" Audible thinking") 

Involuntary whispering in telepathic 
experiments, 318 

Joan of Arc, 39 

Julian the Apostate, 65, 79 

Lead-foisoning, 44 

Lecanomancy, 65 

Light-chaos or light-dust, 16S, 169 

Localisation theories, 137 

Loyola, 79 

Luther, 79 

Macroptic vision, 202 
Magnifying-glass, hallucinations en- 
larged by, 69, 150, 231, 232 



Mania, 22, 71, 73 

Marie de jNIoerl, 39 

Melancholia atlonita, 21, 211 

Memory, delusions or fallacies of, 104, 
105, 106, 283, 316; hallucinations 
of, see Hallucinations of memory ; 
loss of, see Amnesia ; memory- 
spasms (Friedreich), 262, 268 ; 
memories revived in dreams and 
crystal-visions, 51, 66 

Meningitis, 163, 167 

Mental and sensory delusions distin- 
guished, I, 2 

Mercury-poisoning, 44 

Microscope, 118 

Mirage, 308 

Mirror reflecting hallucination, 95, 
150, 200, 231, 232, 296, 298 

Mirror-writing, 67, 262 

Misreading of words (MUnsterberg's 
experiments), 198 

Montana, 80 

Mutism, 184 

Myopia, 163 

Nancy School of Hypnotism, 196 
Nationality in hallucination, 85 
Negative hallucinations, 20, 203, 204, 

205, 206, 207, 212, 214, 215, 217, 

218, 219, 326 
Neurasthenia, 32 
Neuritis optica, 164, 174 
Nicotine poisoning, 169, 239 
Nightmare, 56 
Nitrous oxide, 46 
Noises in the ear, 177-17&, 258, 

267 
Number habit, 318 
Nystagmus, 202 

Ohjectivation des types, (io 
Ocular spectra, 159, 170 
Olfactory hallucinations, see Hallu- 
cinations, olfactory 
Onychomancy, 65 
Opium, 34, 40, 46, 48, 187 
Optic nerve, degeneration of, 165 
Optical paradoxes, 5, 340 
Organic or common sensation, 6, 29, 

55.. 157,. 158, 1S7 
Ovarian disease, 29 
Over-work, 95 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



389 



Paralysis, 26, 28, 73, 166 

Paranoia, 23, 62 . 

Parcesthesia, 6, 25, 29 

Pascal, 78 

Pathological states, hallucinations in, 

6, 8, etc. 
Peritonitis, 2 
Perceptions, objective and subjective, 

distinguished, i 
" Phantasticon " (Joh. Mliller), 114 
Poijit de repere (Binet), 149, 213, 220, 

231, 232, 233; new conception of, 

235, 314 
Poisons as a cause of dissociation, 153; 
narcotics, etc., specific action of, 

46, 47 
Post - hypnotic hallucinations, see 

Hallucinations, post-hypnotic 
Pressure on the eye-ball, 170, 200, 

201 
Prism, experiments with, 130, 150, 

200, 231, 232 
Pseudo-hallucinations, 249 
Pseudo-recognition, 277 
Psychic blindness, 215, 216 
" Psychic elements," 326, 329 
Psychical Research, Society for, 82, 

273, 292 

Raphael, 80 

Rapport, 204-212 

Reading, prolonged, 98 

Reflex hallucinations (Kahlbaum), 117 

Reflex sensations, see Synaesthesia 

" Refluent " nerve-currents, 125, 126, 

131 

Reproduction, organs of, 29 

** Retinal action " in hallucination, 

125, 128, 130, 199-202 
Retroactive hallucinations, 285 
Reverberation of impression, 7 
Rudimentary hallucinations, see Hal- 
lucinations, rudimentary 

Saints, hallucinations of, 32, 39, 325 

Salpetriere School of hypnotism, 196 

Santonin, 8, 46 

Savonarola, 78 

Scheme of physiological process in 

false perception, 144 
Schumann, Si, 338 
Scott, W., 81 



Selection, involuntary, in Census In- 
quiry, 288 
Self-suggestion in hypnosis, 208 
Sensory and mental delusions dis- 
tinguished, I, 2 
Septimius Severus, 65 
Severn, Mrs., 240 
Sex in hallucination, '^t^, 1S4 
Shell-hearing, 70 
Sigiies reducteurs (Taine), 118 
Smell, hallucinations of, see Hallu- 
cinations, olfactory 
Socrates, ']'] 
Solitude, 96-157 
Somnambulism, 34 
Sound-seeing, see Audition coloree 
Spasm of apperception (Royce), 277 
Spasmodic chattering, 262, 268 
" Speaking with tongues," 262 
Starting factor in hallucination, 231 
Subliminal consciousness, 66, 70 
Subconscious ideas, 51, 194 
Suggesting factor in hallucination, 231 
Suggestion, 26, 94 (see Rapport)-, 
"retinal action" accounted for by, 
199 
Swedenborg, 39 
Synsesthesia, 221. 228, 229 

Tabes, 2 

Telepathic hallucinations, 272 - 292, 
316; experimental, 241, 317 

Telepathic crystal-visions, 66; impres- 
sion, definition of, 274 

Telepathy, 76, 190, 201, 241, 272, 

274» 301, 3i3> 317, 320, 335 

Temperament, 188 

Terror, 34, 45, 250, 251 

Theodoric, 80 

Thought-transference, 317 (see Tele- 
pathy) 

Tobacco, 169, 239 

" Training " in hypnotic subject, 220 

" Transferred" sensations, 241 

Tumours in the brain, 167, 174, iSo 

Typhoid fever, 8 

Typhus-delirium, 34, 49 

Unilateral hallucinations, see Hal- 
lucinations, unilateral 

Universal fallacies of perceptions, 3, 
336, 337, 341 



390 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Vermin, reptiles, etc., hallucinations 
of, 35, 41, 42, 43 

Veridical hallucinations, 230, 272, 
etc. 

Vertigo, 44, 261 

Visions, 38, 39, 79, 80, 188, 189 

Visual hallucinations, see Hallucina- 
tions, visual, Visions, Crystal 
visions, etc. 

Voices, heard by insane, 2, 24, 32, 
182, 238, 260, 265; in delirium 
tremens, 43; in fever delirium, 49 

Waking hallucinations, 76, 77, 82, 



S;^, 287, 300; international census 

ot, 82 et seq., 109, 242, 275, 287 
Weight, hallucinations of, 337-340 
Whispering, dreams produced by, 58; 

whispering, unconscious, in tele- 
. pathic experiments, 318 
Witches and witchcraft, 36, 37, 56, 

80, 190 
Witches' salves and philtres, 41 

Xanthopsia (yellow vision), 8 

ZoETROPE, 7 

Zigzag figure in migraine, 173 



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Life of Thackeray. By Herman Merivale and Frank T. Marzials. 

"The book, with its excellent bibliography, is one which neither the 
student nor the general reader can well attbrd to miss." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

"The last book published by Messrs. Merivale and Marzials is full of 
very real and true things." — Mrs. Anne Thackeray Ritchie on " Thackeray 
and his Biographers," va.. Illustrated London Neivs. 

Life of Cervantes. By H. E. Watts. 

Life of Voltaire. By Francis Espinasse. 

Life of Leigh Hunt. By Cosmo Monkhouse. 

Life of Whittier. By W. J. Linton. 

Life of Renan. By Francis Espinasse. 

Life of Thoreau. By H. S. Salt. 

Complete BibHography to each volume, by J. V. Anderson, British 
Museumj London. 



Cloth Elegant, Large i2mo, 
Price $1.25 per vol. 




LIBRARY OF 
HUMOUR. 

EDITED BY W. H. DIRCKS. 

Each Volume will contain from ^o to 70 Illustrations and 
from 3^0 to ^00 pages. 

In each of these volumes the object will be to 
give an anthology of the humorous literature 
of the particular nation dealt with. France, 
Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, and Holland 
will each have their respective volumes; England, 
Ireland, and Scotland will each be represented, 
as will also America and Japan. ' From China 
to Peru' the globe will be traversed in search of its jokes, in 
so far as they have recorded themselves in literature. The 
word Humour admits of many interpretations; for the pur- 
poses of this Series it has been interpreted in its broadest 
generic sense, to cover humour in all its phases as it has 
manifested itself among the various nationalities. Necessarily 
founded on a certain degree of scholarly knowledge, these 



volumes, while appealing to the literary reader, will never- 
theless, it is hoped, in the inherent attractiveness and variety 
of their contents, appeal successfully and at once to the in- 
terest of readers of all classes. Starting from the early periods 
of each literature — in Italy, for instance, from the fourteenth 
century, with Boccaccio, Sacchetti, and Parabosco ; in France 
with the amusing Fabliaux of the thirteenth century ; in Germany 
from Hans Sachs; characteristic sketches, stories, and extracts 
from contemporary European and other writers whose genius is 
especially that of humour or esprit will be given. Indicating 
and suggesting a view and treatment of national life from a 
particular standpoint, each volume will contain matter suggestive 
of the development of a special and important phase of national 
spirit and character, — namely, the humorous. Proverbs and 
maxims, folk-wit, and folk -tales notable for their pith and humour, 
will have their place; the eccentricities of modern newspaper 
humour will not be overlooked. Each volume will be well and 
copiously illustrated ; in many cases artists of the nationalities of 
the literatures represented will illustrate the volumes. To each 
volume will be prefixed an Introduction critically disengaging and 
marking the qualities and phases of the national humour dealt 
with ; and to each will be appended Notes, biographical and 
explanatory. 





LIBRARY OF HUMOUR 



Cloth Elegant^ Large \27no^ Price %\.2^ per vol. 



VOLUMES ALREADY ISSUED. 

THE HUMOUR OF FRANCE. Translated, with an 
Introduction and Notes, by Elizabeth Lee. With numerous 
Illustrations by Paul Frenzeny. 

"From Villon to Paul Verlaine, from dateless ya^/Zoi^j; to news- 
papers fresh from the kiosk, we have a tremendous range of 
selections." — Birmingham Daily Gazette. 

''French wit is excellently represented. We have here examples 
of Villon, Rabelais, and Moliere, but we have specimens also of 
La Rochefoucauld, Regnard, Voltaire, Beaumarchais, Chamfort, 
Dumas, Gautier, Labiche, De Banville, Pailleron, and many others. 
. . , The book sparkles from beginning to end. " — G^/(3<5^ (London). 

THE HUMOUR OF GERMANY. Translated, with 

an Introduction and Notes, by Hans Miiller-Casenov. With 
numerous Illustrations by C. E. Brock. 

An excellently representative volume. — Daily Telegraph (London). 

"Whether it is Saxon kinship or the fine qualities of the collec- 
tion, we have found this volume the most entertaining of the three. 
Its riotous absurdities well overbalance its examples of the oppres- 
sively heavy. . . . The national impulse to make fun of the 
war correspondent has a capital example in the skit from Julius 
Stettenheim." — New York Independent. 

New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 



THE HUMOUR OF ITALY. Translated, with an In- 
troduction and Notes, by A. Werner. With 50 Illustrations and a 
Frontispiece by Arturo Faldi. 

"Will reveal to English readers a whole new world of literature." 
— Athenceum (London). 

"Apart from selections of writers of classical reputation, the book 
contains some delightful modern short stories and sketches. We 
may particularly mention those by Verga, Capuana, De Amicis. . . . 
Excellent also are one or two of the jokes and 'bulls' which figure 
under the heading of newspaper humour." — Literary World {^oxv^oxv). 

THE HUMOUR OF AMERICA. Selected, with a 
copious Biographical Index of American Humorists, by James Barr. 

" There is not a dull page in the volume ; it fairly sparkles and 
ripples with good things." — Manchester Examiner. 

THE HUMOUR OF HOLLAND. Translated, with 
an Introduction and Notes, by A. Werner. With numerous 
Illustrations by Dudley Hardy. 

"There are some quite irresistible pieces in the volume. The 
illustrations are excellent, and the whole style in which the book 
is produced reflects credit on the publishers." — B7'itish Weekly. 

" There are really good things in the book — things of quaint or 
pretty fancy, things of strong or subtle satire. . . . Even Mark Twain, 
in * Tom Sawyer ' and * Huck Finn,' does not show a finer knowledge 
of the humours of imaginative boyhood than is displayed by Conrad 
van der Liede in * My Hero.' " — Daily Chronicle. 

THE HUMOUR OF IRELAND. Selected by D. J. 

O'Donoghue. With numerous Illustrations by Oliver Paque. 

**A most conscientiously, exhaustively, excellently compiled book; 
the editor could not have done his work better. . . . Every genre of 
Irish Humour as it is, or has been, written, from the twelfth century 
down to the evening-newspaper age." — The Speaker (London). 

THE HUMOUR OF SPAIN. Translated, with an Intro- 
duction and Notes, by S. Taylor. With numerous Illustrations. 

THE HUMOUR OF RUSSIA. Translated, with Notes, 
by E. L. Boole, and an Introduction by Stepniak. With 50 
Illustrations by Paul Frenzeny. 

THE HUMOUR OF JAPAN. Translated, with an 
Introduction, by A. M. With Illustrations by George Bigot 
(from Drawings made in Japan). 



The Contemporary Science Series. 

Edited by Havelock Ellis. 

Crown Zvo^ Cloth. Price %\.2^ per Volume. 

I. THE EVOLUTION OF SEX. By Prof. Patrick Geddes 

and J. A. Thomson. With go Illustrations, Second Edition. 
*' The authors have brought to the task — as indeed their names guarantee 
— a wealth of knowledge, a lucid and attractive method of treatment, and a 
rich vein of picturesque language." — Nature. 

II. ELECTRICITY IN MODERN LIFE. By G. W. de 

TUNZELMANN. With 88 Illustrations. 
" A clearly-written and connected sketch of what is known about elec- 
tricity and magnetism, the more prominent modern applications, and the 
principles on which they are based." — Saturday Revieiv. 

IIL THE ORIGIN OF THE ARYANS. By Dr. Isaac 

Taylor. Illustrated. Second Edition. 

*' Canon Taylor is probably the most encyclopaedic all-round scholar now 

living. His new volume on the Origin of the Aryans is a first-rate example 

of the excellent account to which he can turn his exceptionally wide and 

varied information. . . . Masterly and exhaustive." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

IV. PHYSIOGNOMY AND EXPRESSION. By P. Mante- 

GAZZA. Illustrated. 
"Brings this highly interesting subject even with the latest researches. 
. . , Professor Mantegazza is a writer full of life and spirit, and the natural 
attractiveness of his subject is not destroyed by his scientific handling of it." 
Literary World (Boston). 

V. EVOLUTION AND DISEASE. By J. B. Sutton, F.R.C.S. 

With 135 Illustrations. 
"The book is as interesting as a novel, without sacrifice of accuracy or 
system, and is calculated to give an appreciation of the fundamentals of 
pathology to the lay reader, while forming a useful collection of illustrations 
of disease for medical reference." — ■Jour7tal of Mental Science. 

VI. THE VILLAGE COMMUNITY. By G. L. Gomme. 

Illustrated, 
" His book will probably remain for some time the best work of reference 
for facts bearing on those traces of the village community which have not 
been effaced by conquest, encroachment, and the heavy hand of Roman 
law." — Scottish Leader. 

VII. THE CRIMINAL. By Havelock Ellis. Illustrated. 
"An ably written, an instructive, and a most entertaining book." — Law 

Quarterly Review. 

"The sociologist, the philosopher, the philanthropist, the novelist — 
all, indeed, for whom the study of human nature has any attraction — will 
find Mr. Ellis full of interest and suggestiveness." — Academy. 



VIII. SANITY AND INSANITY. By Dr. Charles Mercier. 
Illustrated. 

'•' He has laid down the institutes of insanity." — Mind. 
"Taken as a whole, it is the brightest book on the physical side of 
mental science published in our time." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

IX. HYPNOTISM. By Dr. Albert Moll. Fourth Edition. 
" Marks a step of some importance in the study of some difficult physio- 
logical and psychological problems which have not yet received much 
attention in the scientific world of England." — Nature. 

X. MANUAL TRAINING. By Dr C. M. Woodward, Director 

of the Manual Training School, St. Louis. Illustrated. 
*' There is no greater authority on the subject than Professor Woodward." 
— Manchester Guardian. 

XL THE SCIENCE OF FAIRY TALES. By E. Sidney 
Hartland. 

" Mr. Hartland's book will win the sympathy of all earnest students, 
both by the knowledge it displays, and by a thorough love and appreciation 
of his subject, which is evident throughout." — Spectator. 

XII. PRIMITIVE FOLK. By Elie Reclus. 

"An attractive and useful introduction to the study of some aspects of 
ethnograpy. " — Natuix. 

" For an introduction to the study of the questions of property, marriage, 
government, religion, — in a word, to the evolution of society, — this little 
volume will be found most convenient." — Scottish Leader. 

XIII. THE EVOLUTION OF MARRIAGE. By Professor 
Letourneau. 

"Among the distinguished French students of sociology. Professor Letour- 
neau has long stood in the first rank. He approaches the great study of 
man free from bias and shy of generalisations. To collect, scrutinise, and 
appraise facts is his chief business. In the volume before us he shows these 
qualities in an admirable degree. ... At the close of his attractive pages 
he ventures to forecast the future of the institution of marriage." — Science. 

XIV. BACTERIA AND THEIR PRODUCTS. By Dr. G. 

Sims Woodhead. Illustrated. 
" An excellent summary of the present state of knowledge of the subject." 
— Lancet 

XV. EDUCATION AND HEREDITY. By J. M. Guyau. 
"It is at once a treatise on sociology, ethics, and psedagogics. It is 

doubtful whether among all the ardent evolutionists who have had their say 
on the moral and the educational question any one has carried forward the 
new doctrine so boldly to its extreme logical consequence." — Professor 
Sully in Mind. 

XVI. THE MAN OF GENIUS. By Prof. Lombro.so. Illus- 
trated. 

"By far the most comprehensive and fascinating collection of facts and 
generalizations concerning genius which has yet been brought together." 
^-Journal of Mental ScicJice. 



New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 



XVII. THE GRAMMAR OF SCIENCE. By Prof. Karl 

Pearson. Illustrated. 
" The problems discussed with great ability and lucidity, and often in a 
most suggestive manner, by Prof. Pearson, are such as should interest all 
students of natural science." — NaHtral Science. 

XVIII. PROPERTY: ITS ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT. 

By Ch, Letourneau, General Secretary to the Anthropo- 
logical Society, Paris, and Professor in the School of Anthropo- 
logy, Paris. 
*'M. Letourneau has read a great deal, and he seems to us to have 

selected and interpreted his facts with considerable judgment and learning." 

— Westmijister Revievj. 

XIX. VOLCANOES, PAST AND PRESENT. By Prof. 
Edward Hull, LL.D., F.R.S. 

" A very readable account of the phenomena of volcanoes and earth- 
quakes. " — Na'.nre. 

XX. PUBLIC HEALTH. By Dr. J. F. J. Sykes. With 

numerous Illustrations, 
"Not by any means a mere compilation or a dry record of details and 
statistics, but it takes up essential points in evolution, environment, prophy- 
laxis, and sanitation bearing upon the preservation of public health." — 
Lancet. 

XXL MODERN METEOROLOGY. An Account of the 
Growth and Present Condition of some Branches 
OF Meteorological Science. By Frank Waldo, Ph.D., 
Member of the German and Austrian Meteorological Societies, 
etc.; late Junior Professor, Signal Service, U.S.A. With 112 
Illustrations. 

"The present volume is the best on the subject for general use that we 
have seen." — Daily Telegraph (London). 

IMPORTANT ADDITION TO THE SERIES. 

Price $2.50. 
XXII. THE GERM-PLASM: A THEORY OF HERE- 
DITY. By August Weisma?in, Professor in the University 
of Freiburg-i7i-Breisgau. With 24 Illustrations. 

"There has been no work published since Darwin's own books which 
has so thoroughly handled the matter treated by him, or has done so much to 
place in order and clearness the immense complexity of the factors of heredity, 
or, lastly, has brought to light so many new facts and considerations bearing 
on the subject." — British Aledical fournal. 

XXIIL INDUSTRIES OF ANIMALS. By F. Houssay. 

With numerous Illustrations. 
** His accuracy is undoubted, yet his facts out-marvel all romance. Thes^i 
facts are here made use of as materials wherewith to form the mighty fabric of 
evolution. " — Manchester Guardian. 



New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 



XXIV. MAN AND WOMAN. By Havelock Ellis. Illus- 
trated. New Edition. 

"Altogether we must congratulate Mr. Ellis upon having produced a 
book which, apart from its high scientific claims, will, by its straightforward 
simplicity upon points of delicacy, appeal strongly to all those readers outside 
purely scientific circles who may be curious in these matters." — Pall Mall 
Gazette. 

XXV. THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN CAPITALISM. 
By John A. Hobson, M.A. 

" Every page affords evidence of wide and minute study, a weighing of 
facts as conscientious as it is acute, a keen sense of the importance of certain 
points as to which economists of all schools have hitherto been confused and 
careless, and an impartiality generally so great as to give no indication of his 
[Mr. Hobson's] personal sympathies." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

XXVL APPARITIONS AND THOUGHT-TRANSFER- 
ENCE. By Frank Podmore, M.A. 

" A very sober and interesting little book. . . . That thought-transference 
is a real thing, though not perhaps a very common thing, he certainly 
shows. " — Spectator. 

XXVIL AN INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE 
PSYCHOLOGY. By Professor C. Lloyd Morgan. With 
Diagrams. 
"A strong and complete exposition of Psychology, as it takes shape in a 
mind previously informed with biological science. ... Well written, ex- 
tremely entertaining, and intrinsically valuable." — Saturday Review. 

XXVIII. THE ORIGINS OF INVENTION : A Study of 
Industry among Primitive Peoples. By Otis T. Mason, 
Curator of the Department of Ethnology in the United States 
National Museum. 

"A valuable history of the development of the inventive faculty." — 
Nalicre. 

XXIX. THE GROWTH OF THE BRAIN: A Study of 
the Nervous System in relation to Education. By 
Henry Herbert Donaldson, Professor of Neurology in 
the University of Chicago. 

"We can say with confidence that Professor Donaldson has executed his 
work with much care, judgment, and discrimination." — The Lancet. 

XXX. EVOLUTION IN ART: As Illustrated by the 
Life-Histories of Designs. By Professor Alfred C. 
Haddon. 

"It is impossible to speak too highly of this most unassuming and 
invaluable hoc^." —Journal Anthropological Institute. 

XXXI. HALLUCINATIONS AND ILLUSIONS : A Study 
OF THE Fallacies of Perception. By Edmund 
Parish. 



IBSEN'S DRAMAS. 

Edited by William Archer. 



i2mo, CLOTH, PRICE $1.25 PER VOLUME. 



** We seem at last to be sJioxvn ??ien and women as they are ; aitd at Jirst it 
is more than we can endure. . . . A// Ibsen^ s characters speak and act as if 
they were hypnotised^ and under their creator's iDiterious demand to reveal 
themselves. There never was such a mirror held up to nature before : it is 
too terrible. . . . Yet we must return to Ibsen, with his remorseless surgery^ 
his remorseless electric -light, U7itil we, too, have grozun strong and learned to 
face the rtaked — if necessary, the flayed and bleeding — reality.^'' — SPEAKER 
(London). 

Vol. L "A DOLL'S HOUSE," "THE LEAGUE OF 
YOUTH," and "THE PILLARS OF SOCIETY." With 
Portrait of the Author, and Biographical Introduction by 
WilliamArcher. 

Vol. II. "GHOSTS," "AN ENEMY OF THE PEOPLE," 
and "THE WILD DUCK." With an Introductory Note. 

Vol. IIL " LADY INGER OF OSTRAT," "THE VIKINGS 
AT HELGELAND," "THE PRETENDERS." With an 
Introductory Note and Portrait of Ibsen. 

Vol. IV. "EMPEROR AND GALILEAN." With an 
Introductory Note by William Archer. 

Vol. V. "ROSMERSHOLM," "THE LADY FROM THE 
SEA," "HEDDA GABLER." Translated by William 
Archer. With an Introductory Note. 

Vol. VL "PEER GYNT: A DRAMATIC POEM." 

Authorised Tnmslation by WiLLiAM and CHARLES Archer. 

The sequence of the plays in each vohune is chronological ; the complete 
set of volumes comprising the dramas thus presents them in chronological 
order. 

" The art of prose translation does not perhaps enjoy a very high literary 
status in England, but we have no hesitation in numbering the present 
version of Ibsen, so far as it has gone (Vols. I. and II.), among the very 
best achievements, in that kind, of our generation." — Acade?ny. 

"We have seldom, if ever, met with a translation so absolutely 
idiomatic." — Glasgow He7-ald. 

New York -. Charles Scribner's Sons. 



























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